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- 1 Transformers: Generation 1
- 2 Beast Wars
- 3 Transformers: Robots in Disguise (2001)
- 4 Transformers: Cybertron
- 5 Shattered Glass
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Transformers: Generation 1
Tech Specs - Scourge is fearsome, merciless and implacable hunter. Created from Decepticon wreckage, he leads "The Sweeps", a wolf pack of tracker-terminator's designed to hunt down and eradicate Autobots. Scourge possesses powerful high-tech scanning equipment and a disintergater ray that can cut through solid rock. In robot Mode, he carries a laser blaster that shoots short bursts of intense heat. Scourge's only weakness is his arrogance.
Transformers Universe - Profile: Scourge is the most fearsome and implacable hunter-destroyer created by Unicron from the wreckage of dead Decepticons. Scourge is leader of "The Sweeps," a specially created wolf pack of tracker-terminators designed by Unicron to hunt down and eradicate Autobots and their human allies.
Abilities: Scourge is possessed of scanning and locating equipment, which can detect machine or human presence even if it is as small as an amoeba in the ocean or a wind-up toy in the Sahara desert. And he is merciless and capable of using such weapons as acid rays, which dissolve his targets, laser blasters, disintegrator beams, and assorted demolition and fusion devices in eliminating his prey. He can transform to a scouring vehicle, a marauding automotive mode which handles any terrain and scans for "survivors."Weaknesses: Scourge's only weakness is his arrogance.
Scourge was a regular character in season three and four of The Transformers. In the aftermath of the Decepticons' attack on Autobot City in 2005, several injured and dying Decepticons were cast into the void of space in order to lighten the load for the return trip, and were soon drawn in by the world-eater, Unicron. After making a deal with Unicron, the deposed Decepticon leader, Megatron, was reborn as Galvatron. Unicron then used the bodies of the other injured Decepticons to create new troops who would serve Galvatron in his quest to destroy the Autobot Matrix of Leadership. Created from the battered form of Thundercracker, Scourge was the leader of a group of robots (identical in appearance to Scourge himself) known as the Sweeps.
Scourge did not immediately display any overt personality traits after his creation, beyond his unswerving loyalty to Unicron and Galvatron. Scourge began to come into his own after the apparent destruction of both. Less willing to take orders from Cyclonus, but doing so all the same, Scourge used his scanners to locate Galvatron's body, seeing across the galaxy into the Hydran system, where Galvatron lay in a pool of plasma lava on the planet Thrull. Upon arrival on the planet, Scourge was the one to pull Galvatron from the lava, but he and the Sweeps were then attacked by the deranged Galvatron, who only stopped his assault when Scourge professed his loyalty.
Scourge became one of Galvatron's most prominent minions, despite his lack of any real hierarchical weight, and would regularly lead the Sweeps on missions, often with Cyclonus, with whom he discovered the paradise planet of Paradron, which they quickly overthrew for Galvatron.
A short time later, Scourge was possessed by Starscream's ghost and brought to the decapitated head of Unicron. Thought a traitor by the Decepticons, Scourge had no option but to accompany Starscream on the tasks Unicron appointed him, stealing the eyes of Metroplex and the transformation cog of Trypticon. Before Unicron's head could be connected to Cybertron to form a new body for him, however, Scourge set aside his pride and contacted the Autobots, warning them of Unicron's scheme and enabling them to stop it. Returning to the ranks of the Decepticons, Scourge opposed the institutionalization of Galvatron on the therapeutic planet of Torkulon, and was among those affected by Quintesson mind control and turned into an energy vampire by the Trans-Organic "Dweller."
When the Decepticons finally succeeded in obtaining the Autobot Matrix of Leadership, Galvatron could not make the talisman function for him, and, threatened by the spirits of the ancient Autobots within it, told Scourge to destroy it, but Scourge thought Galvatron a fool, knowing that the Matrix was no mere energy source, and saw it as a source of greater power. Somehow, Scourge was able to temporarily absorb the Matrix's energies, his body mutating into a monstrous, deformed state in the process, and he used his enhanced powers to depose Galvatron as Decepticon commander and lead an attack on Earth, where he was defeated by Hot Rod, who reclaimed the Matrix. Scourge's power play was not without repercussions for him, but after a beating from Galvatron in traditional Decepticon style, he was allowed to remain in their ranks unlike Blitzwing and Octane who were both exiled from the Decepticons.
In the year 2007, Scourge was among the Decepticons who attacked Autobot City and stole the key to the Plasma Energy Chamber, which Scourge himself then used to open the legendary forge. The released energy overloaded his system, and blasted the group of Autobots who had recovered the key across the galaxy to the planet of Nebulos. Recharged by Cyclonus, a furious Scourge co-led a team of Decepticons in pursuit of the Autobots, but after an initial victory in battle, they were soon overcome and defeated by the newly-formed Autobot Headmasters, a merging of the Autobots and a group of Nebulon rebels. The Decepticons were then approached by the Hive - the evil ruling council of Nebulos - to reproduce the Headmasters process with them, but Cyclonus bargained them down to using half of the Decepticons' heads, and the other half, their weapons. Consequently, Scourge became a Targetmaster when his gun was transformed into an exo-suit for the Nebulon Hive member Fracas, who transformed into a high-frequency incendiary cannon. In the battle that ensued, the Decepticons reclaimed the key, which was held by Scourge until Arcee stole it back from him, but was then herself captured by Scorponok, who returned all the Decepticons to Cybertron. Galvatron's plan to use the Plasma Energy Chamber to drive the Sun supernova, destroying Earth and Cybertron, was then stopped by Fortress Maximus and Spike Witwicky, and Scourge and the Decepticons were last seen being blasted across the universe by a stray tendril of plasma energy.
Scourge appeared in the 1986 story and coloring book The Lost Treasure of Cybertron by Marvel Books.
Devil's Due Publishing
In the second G.I. Joe vs. the Transformers crossover from Devil's Due Publishing Cyclonus and Scourge would appear as Shockwave's bodyguards, along with Dirge, Thrust and Ramjet. They were eventually destroyed after Cobra Commander activated a booby-trap within Starscream, destroying him and all others within reach. Unlike most Generation One incarnations of the character these versions do not appear to be linked in any way to Unicron. Also, when a team of G.I. Joes trying to fix a space-time tear arrived in a nightmare future where Shockwave had conquered Earth, they encountered an armada of Sweeps acting as patrol craft and Hunter-Killers.
Although Scourge would not appear in the third crossover several Sweeps are seen amongst the Decepticon troops trying to hold back the Autobot/G.I. Joe force trying to rescue Optimus Prime.
Although Scourge remained a creation of Unicron in Dreamwave Productions' 21st century reimagining of the G1 universe, he was not a recreated Thundercracker, or any other recognisable Decepticon - he, and his massive legion of Sweeps, were instead created by Unicron through processed raw material consumed from other worlds. At some point prior to the massive planet-wide deactivation of Cybertron known as the "Great Shutdown," Unicron unleashed Scourge and his Sweeps all throughout the universe, in order to track down the location of Cybertron. Scourge himself found the planet in its slumbering state, and reactivated Shockwave, planning to observe him from a distance. When Shockwave was attacked by a pack of Sharkticons, however, Scourge intervened and saved him, only to be shot in the back by the Decepticon, and subsequently dissected and rebuilt over and over for study in his lab.
Three thousand years later, Scourge was apparently able to escape (or perhaps, was allowed to escape), and headed toward Earth, attacking the spacecraft of the Autobots Jetfire and Omega Supreme as it entered the planet's atmosphere. The ship crashed in the Arctic Circle, but Jetfire was able to trick Scourge and entrap him within a stasis pod, but both he and the pod were then buried in an avalanche. Not long thereafter, the Earth-based Autobots and Decepticons found themselves drawn to the site of the pod, which opened during the battle; upon emerging, Scourge informed all parties that the war on Cybertron had been ended, and the factions unified by Shockwave, who himself then appeared and felled Scourge before he could reveal any more information. In the confusion that followed, Scourge's body was spirited away by the Earth Defense Command and taken to their secret base for further study.
As it very apparent from this summary of events, many mysteries surround Scourge in the Dreamwave comics, and the plans that Shockwave was using him as a part of. Unfortunately, the company's bankruptcy and subsequent closure mean that, for now, they will go unresolved.
Scourge would not only appear in the Generation One Dreamwave comic but also in its sister comic Transformers: Armada (see below).In this world, the incarnation of Scourge was still one of the heralds of Unicron, from a different dimension, sent to cause destruction prior to Unicron's arrival alongside his fellow heralds, Dirge, Thunderwing, Bludgeon and their leader Galvatron (all characters from the G1 universe, though their names are not mentioned and are not the versions from the Generation One Dreamwave comics).
While Galvatron attacked Megatron on Earth the other Heralds attacked the Decepticon base on Cybertron. Activating the Spacebridge links and leaving Bludgeon behind to guard them, Scourge, Dirge and Thunderwing journeyed to the Decepticon base on Earth, unaware they were being watched by the Mini-Cons. Finding and beating the luckless Thrust to a pulp, they then detected anomalies within the Spacebridge network and returned to Cybertron - only to be destroyed on their arrival by a cache of explosives set by Jetfire.
Scourge would also make an appearance in the Dreamwave Energon comics, albeit in cameo. In issue #25 when Optimus Prime arrives inside Unicron, we briefly see an immobile robot. Although not named, it is clearly modeled on the original Scourge.
Scourge was one of the characters featured in the Transformers: Timelines story "Wings of Honor" by Fun Publications. In this story Cyclonus, Scourge and the Sweeps attack an Autobot ship containing Kup, Rodimus and the Dinobots.
Scourge would make his first appearance in the main IDW Generation One mini-series Infiltration. Optimus Prime leads Bumblebee, Drift, Kup, Prowl, Ratchet and Wheeljack in Las Vegas when a Cybertronian ship crashes containing Galvatron, Cyclonus, Scourge and an infestation of zombies from another universe. Galvatron attempts to take command of the Autobots, and after fighting them explains his mission to stop an undead infestation. Wheeljack sets up an energy shield around the city to keep the infestation contained, but it will only last for 24 hours. Kup recognizes a Decepticon named Bayonet in Galvatron's command as not being right, and she is revealed to be the extradimensional vampire Britt.
In Evolutions: Hearts of Steel, an out of continuity tale set in the 19th century. Under the command of Starscream, and not appearing to be linked to Unicron, Scourge (not named here) would appear with a reimagined alternate mode of the Cupola of an airship. He was sent to stop an Autobot train convoy led by John Henry and Bumblebee, attempting to bomb them out of existence. Unfortunately the balloon proved more vulnerable than Scourge, and he was shot down by Ironhide.
Scourge appears in the Generations 2011 issue #2 "The Fierce Fighting on Planet Nebulos" where he is among the Decepticon forces who ambush the Autobots on Nebulos.
Scourge's appearances in the US Marvel Comics Transformers series were minimal - in their first appearance during the Headmasters mini-series, he and Cyclonus were presented as being ordinary, present-day Transformers under Scorponok's command, who then became Targetmasters along with the others on Nebulos. One of his most prominent actions during this period was to ambush the Autobot Headmasters in the 'Fortress of Despair' alongside the other Decepticon Targetmasters. The Decepticons captured Highbrow, planning to use him to perfect their own Headmaster process. The plan failed when Highbrow forced Scorponok to flee.
Later, Scourge appeared again win an alternate future world of 2009. Here he was a creation of Unicron, and where Cybertron had been destroyed, and Galvatron ruled Earth. He was killed in a duel with Getaway.
Across the Atlantic, however, in the United Kingdom's exclusive Transformers series, writer Simon Furman wrote about characters further in the timeline, often intersecting them with the present day through the use of time travel. In the first of such stories, Galvatron, Scourge and Cyclonus traveled back in time to 1986, from a point in the middle of the Transformers movie, as part of a plan to free themselves from Unicron's control by constructing a massive cannon that will destroy him in their home time of 2006 (the setting for the movie in the comics, based on early production material for the movie itself, before the date was amended to 2005). Scourge was shot down and captured by Megatron, who had made a deal with the Autobots to ally against the threat. Traded back to Galvatron for Jazz, Scourge and the others were finally defeated when Galvatron was duped into believing he was trapped in a temporal paradox, and returned to his own time to live out the remaining events of the movie.
Events diverged sharply from the cartoon's telling of events, however, when Galvatron returned to the past after the destruction of Unicron, leaving Cyclonus and Scourge in the service of the new Decepticon leader, Shockwave. The latter hired the bounty hunter Death's Head to slay Rodimus Prime. Seeking to remind their comrades of their power and to return to a higher standing among the Decepticons, Scourge and Cyclonus set out to do the job first, earning the ire of Death's Head when they interfered with his job - ire he was then able to relieve when Rodimus Prime in turn placed a bounty on Scourge and Cyclonus, who Death's Head then spent the better part of a year tracking down. Eventually, he cornered them on the Planet of Junk, but before he could finish the job, all three of them fell under the mental control of Unicron, whose intact head had crashed on the planet, where he was having the Junkions construct a new body for him. Under Unicron's control, Death's Head killed Shockwave and Cyclonus and Scourge became Decepticon leaders, reigniting the stalemated Cybertronian war to a furious degree to cover Unicron's actions. Death's Head, however, was able to fight the mind control and work with the Autobots' long enough to stop the chaos-bringer's plan. As explosions destroyed Unicron, Death's Head tackled Cyclonus and Scourge, pushing them through a time portal Unicron had built, promising to kill them another time.
This particular event helped to bring in line the UK comics' portrayal of the characters as Unicron-created future Decepticons with the US series use of them as modern-day characters, as Cyclonus and Scourge were hurled much further back in time by the portal to Cybertron, where they came under the command of Scorponok, and went on to go to Nebulos and become Targetmasters, then traveling to present day Earth. Once there, they sought out Galvatron, no longer willing to serve him, instead demanding that he hand over his time travel device so that they could return to the future and their position as Decepticon leaders. The confrontation was disrupted by the sudden appearance of the Autobot commando squad, the Wreckers, who drew the ensuing battle away from the human settlement it was taking place in by professing to have stolen Galvatron's time jump mechanism, when in reality, the Decepticon no longer had it for them to take.
Having met with failure again, Scourge and Cyclonus decided to cut their losses and team up with Shockwave's present-day Earth-based Decepticon forces. At this point in time, the comic book personalities of Scourge and Cyclonus had been well-established, and distinctly different from the cartoon - here, Scourge was the intelligent, scheming brains of the duo, while Cyclonus was the dull-witted muscle, and that personality trait remained as strong as ever when Cyclonus accidentally let slip that they would kill Shockwave in the future. Naturally wanting to ensure his continued existence, Shockwave unleashed a brainwashed Megatron clone upon the two, and while Scourge fled for his life, Cyclonus was killed.
Cyclonus's death was the final straw on the already-unbalanced space-time continuum, and caused a rift in the fabric of reality to appear, threatening to consume Earth and Cybertron. Made aware of this by Springer, Scourge attempted to find his own solution to the threat by returning himself, Galvatron and Cyclonus to their original time. Invading Shockwave's base in order to recover Cyclonus's body, he discovered that the illogical nature of the time paradox he was trapped in had driven Shockwave insane, and he was gunned down as he attempted to take Cyclonus. Leaving the job up to Ravage, Scourge returned to the site of the rift's arrival - it had already consumed Galvatron, and in his final act, Scourge flung himself into the rift, followed soon by the remains of Cyclonus, deposited by a now healthy Shockwave, who sealed the rift with an x-ray blast.
- Hasbro Transformers Scourge (1986)
- The toy was based on the design created for the Transformers movie.
- Hasbro Transformers Targetmaster Scourge with Fracas (1987)
- A slight remold of the original Scourge toy, with larger fists and a hole to mount Fracas in vehicle mode.
- Hasbro Transfomers Titanium 6-inch Scourge (2006)
- The original Scourge returned to toys in 2006 as a member of the Transformers: Titanium line. He is a 6 inch tall transforming toy based on his original appearance. The entire torso and the lower legs are made of metal.
- Hasbro Transformers Timelines Deluxe Scourge (2009)
- A BotCon 2009 exclusive remold of Cybertron Sideways. This toy appeared on the cover of the Transformers Collectors Club magazine issue #26.
- Hasbro Transformers Generations Deluxe Scourge (2011)
- An all-new mold announced at BotCon 2010. The figure transforms into a blended wing aircraft resembling a Boeing X-48.
- Takara Transformers United UN-21 Deluxe Decepticon Scourge (Takara Tomy) (2011)
- Takara Transformers United Decepticon Set Deluxe Clear Scourge (2011)
- An eHobby Japan exclusive clear blue remold of United Deluxe Scourge, as part of a Decepticon 3-pack with Galvatron and Cyclonus.
- Hasbro Transformers Generations Titans Return Deluxe Fracas & Scourge (2016)
- A new mold. Scourge turns from hovercraft to robot, while Fracas turns from pilot to Scourge's head.
Scourge was featured as a minor character in Beast Wars: The Gathering and Beast Wars: The Ascending, in which he was one of the Axalon Protoforms converted into a Predacon as part of a scheme by Magmatron.
- Transmetal 2 Scourge ()
- A new mold that has not yet been reused.
Transformers: Robots in Disguise (2001)
The Transformers: Robots in Disguise version of Scourge, known simply as Black Convoy in Japan, is a black recolor of the Generation 2 Laser Optimus Prime toy, without the electronics it originally possessed.
The popularity of his now-famous black, grey and teal color scheme spawned a series of other "evil Prime" figures that were repaints of other Optimus Prime toys, beginning with a new incarnation of Scourge himself, a redecoed version of the 1994 "Hero Optimus Prime" figure. Other similar repaints have since been given the name Nemesis Prime, although the first, from Transformers: Armada was named Scourge in Japan.
An unidentified Autobot was one of a crew of six Autobots sent to Earth to reactivate the legendary Autobot battle fortress, Fortress Maximus. As leader, this Autobot was equipped with the ability to detect the unique energy signatures of the O-Parts, the Cybertronian components that held the key to Maximus's awakening - but he was never given the opportunity to use that ability in the service of the Autobots. With all six members of the crew held in stasis pods in protoform state through the long journey, their craft malfunctioned and crashed on Earth in the mid-20th century, and the Autobots joined Maximus in slumber.
In the present time, archaeologist and energy expert Doctor Kenneth Onishi's research eventually led him to the various links in the chain of Fortress Maximus - he located the fortress itself beneath Earth's surface, mapped the location of the O-Parts, and discovered the location of the crashed Autobot spaceship. However, when the evil Megatron came to Earth with the intent of harnessing Maximus's power, he captured Onishi, and through mental scans, discerned the location of the Autobots' ship. Stealing the six protoforms, Megatron took them to a nearby military base to scan vehicle modes for them, infusing them with a part of his own spark energy to turn them to the side of evil. The first five became the Commandos, but when Megatron targeted a tanker truck to scan as the alternate mode of the final protoform, Optimus Prime leapt into action in order to save the truck's human driver, Kelly, and as a result, the tanker, Prime and Kelly were all scanned. With an infusion of Megatron's spark energy to complete the concoction, Scourge was born, emerging from his pod as a dark twin of Optimus Prime, who proved that Megatron's programming had over-ridden any Autobot goodness within him. Appointing himself leader of the new "Decepticons," (Combatrons) he quickly established himself as a force to be reckoned with.
As per the alternate mode scanned for him, Scourge transforms into a tanker truck - the cab portion transforms into Scourge himself, armed with his deadly Sword of Fury, while the tanker portion unfolds into a heavily armed battle station with numerous projectile launchers. After leading a series of missions that were brutal but unsuccessful, and constantly but vainly urged by Optimus Prime to search for the true Autobot nature within himself, Scourge developed a fierce independent streak, steadily growing more and more revolted and frustrated at being in the service of Megatron mostly due to the assignment of him pretending to be an Autobot (which was the last straw for him) as he hated doing things like community service and things that did "befit a warrior". When Fortress Maximus was discovered buried beneath Metro City, exposure to his energies began to reawaken memories the original mission Scourge had been programmed with, and as the race began to locate the O-Parts, Scourge rediscovered his ability to sense them. Holding one in his hand, his mission was now clear to Scourge - but unfortunately, Megatron's reprogamming added a distinctly Decepticon bent to it, as Scourge now sought to activate Fortress Maximus and use it himself to conquer the galaxy.
Successfully capturing Cerebros, the power key to Fortress Maximus, Scourge used the part of his programming that was Optimus Prime's to dupe the robot into activating Maximus, but the giant robot ran amok until the Autobots' human ally, Koji was able to stop it. Realising that humans could control Maximus, Scourge then amplified the human part of his bio-signature and succeeded in taking control of him, until he was overridden by a large group of human children. Seeking to use Koji himself for the process, a case of mistaken identity resulted in the Decepticons capturing his best friend, Karl, instead, but when Karl proved able to activate Fortress Maximus, Scourge dropped his façade of loyalty and ordered Maximus to destroy Galvatron (Megatron's new form). The failure of this plan brought about a punishment most severe - Scourge and the Decepticons had their autonomy stripped by Galvatron, turned once again into loyal servants so dedicated to Galvatron that they continued to do his will even after he attempted to kill them as a belated punishment. With Galvatron's defeat, Scourge was captured and taken back to Cybertron for imprisonment with the other villains.
The Robots in Disguise Destructicon Scourge is unofficially considered part of the Transformers: Universe line. He was planned to be made part of the fiction for the Transformers: Universe, like most non-show repaints from the RiD line, by the Transformers: Collectors Club, but they only produced concept art for a biography page before they went out under.
The character of RiD Scourge made one appearance in Dreamwave comics Summer Special issue before the company went under. There was a contest in the issue as to whether RiD or Beast Wars would be the next Dreamwave comic series. Beast Wars won.
A version of Scourge also appeared briefly in fiction from Fun Publications.
"Ask Vector Prime" revealed that the Spy Changer version of Scourge was a female Decepticon from a reality where Optimus Prime was also a female Transformer. She was left the last Decepticon after Sky-Byte poisoned much of their universe's Energon and the Autobots became Spy Changers and stole what remained of the Predacons' supply; she became a Spy Changer but was no match for the far superior Autobot force.
- Car Robots Black Convoy (2000)
- A black redeco of Generation 2 Laser Optimus Prime. While he lacks Laser Prime's electronics, his oil tanker trailer and some parts of his cab mode are painted in chrome silver.
- Robots in Disguise Scourge (2001)
- The U.S. release version is virtually identical to the Japanese version, but with Decepticon emblems decorating the cab. This version is missing chrome applications on the front end of his truck mode.
- Robots in Disguise Spy Changer Scourge
- The first version of Scourge to be released in the U.S. was not his original form, but rather a weaponless Spy Changer replica of the tractor-tanker's cab portion. Domestic versions of Black Convoy took almost a year to be sold to the general public, causing the value of Japanese Black Convoy toys to skyrocket, then revert somewhat.
- Robots in Disguise Destructicon Scourge
- Timelines Scourge (2013)
- A new Scourge figure, a black repaint of the Reveal the Shield Optimus Prime, Transformers: United Optimus Prime, Combat Hero Optimus Prime, and Shattered Glass Optimus Prime; the mold was also modified for Shattered Glass Ultra Magnus, and later repainted for Legends Black Convoy. It was released as part of the Transformers Collector's Club Figure Subscription Service.
Mentored by Backstop, Scourge ruled over Animatros with a brutal philosophy in which the strongest-namely him-took what they wanted and all others were left to suffer.
- Cybertron Ultra Scourge (2005)
- Sky Lynx Scourge (2005)
- A Japanese exclusive redeco of Ultra Scourge in the colors of Sky Lynx.
- Cybertron Legends Scourge (2006)
- Cybertron Ultra Cryo Scourge (2006)
- A redeco of Ultra Scourge in a homage to Cryotek; the figure's bio depicted it as Scourge being mutated to have ice instead of flame powers after being exposed to the cold vaccuum of space.
One of the oldest Decepticons but also one of the most respected for Scourge has always been the voice of reason & knowledge.
Scourge appeared in Another Light during the battle of Decepticon City, where he and Cyclonus were aboard the shuttle that brought Galvatron, the Predacons, and Grimlock to help. He was seen again where he was among Galvatron's shuttle crew when Gaia teleported the humans and human shaped Pretenders from Classicverse Earth. The shuttles were attacked by Shattered Glass Primus, but survived.
- Hasbro Transformers: Timelines Deluxe Sweeps (2009)
- A remold of Cybertron Sideways was released in a 3-pack at BotCon 2009. Turns from robot to space fighter.
- This toy was repurposed into Shattered Glass Scourge.
- Grant, John (1986). Galvatron's Air Attack. Ladybird Books. ISBN 0-7214-0988-1.
- John Grant (1988). Autobots Strike Oil. Ladybird Books. ISBN 0-7214-1069-3.
- Grant, John (1988). Decepticons at the Pole. Ladybird Books. ISBN 0721410685.
- Brigandi, Pat (1986). The Invasion of the Decepticon Camp. Marvel Books. ISBN 0-87135-102-1.
- Dan Abnett and Andy Lanning (w), Nick Roche (p), Joana Lafuente (i). Transformers: Infestation 1 (February 2011), IDW Publishing
- Simon Furman (w), Guido Guidi (p). "Generations 2011" The Fierce Fighting on Planet Nebulos 2 (2011), Japan: Takara Tomy
- "Transformers UK" #130-131
- Alvarez, J.E. (2001). The Unofficial Guide to Japanese and International Transformers. Schiffer Publishing Ltd.. p. 23. ISBN 0-7643-1282-0.
- TRANSFORMERS TITANIUM SERIES Die-Cast SCOURGE Figure- Product Detail
- "Cover". Transformers Collectors Club (Fun Publications): p. 1. April/May, 2009.
- TFW2005.com - BotCon 2010 Hasbro Designers Panel
- "Q&A with Hasbro!". Transformers Collectors Club Magazine 1 (35): 4–5, 8. October/November 2010.
- TFW2005.com - Wheeljack, Rumble, Frenzy, Scourge, Generation 2 Optimus Prime Images
- Figure King magazine, issue #155
- Figure King Magazine, March 2011, page 129
- Office Transformation, The Pantagraph Bloomington; December 29, 2003; by Karen Blatter
- Figure King magazine, issue #62
- Jesse Wittenrich & Pete Sinclair (w), Eryck Webb (p), Eryck Webb (i), Evan Gauntt (col), Jesse Wittenrich (let), Pete Sinclair (ed). "Another Light Part 6 - The Future Buried" The Transformers Collectors Club 66 (December/January 2016), Fun Publications