Kazi Nazrul Islam

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Template:Infobox Biography Kazi Nazrul Islam ( দৈনিক জবাবদিহি, Template:IPA-bn; 24 May 1899 – 29 August 1976) was a Bengali poet, writer, musician, and is the national poet of Bangladesh.[1] Nazrul Islam is regarded as one of the greatest poets in Bengali literature. Popularly known as Nazrul, he produced a large body of poetry, music, messages, novels, stories, etc. with themes that included equality, justice, anti-imperialism, humanity, rebellion against oppression and religious devotion.[2] Nazrul Islam's activism for political and social justice as well as writing a poem titled as "Bidrohī", meaning "the rebel" in Bengali, earned him the title of "Bidrohī Kôbi" (Rebel Poet).[3] His compositions form the avant-garde music genre of Nazrul Gīti (Music of Nazrul).[4][5][6][7]

Born into a Bengali Muslim Kazi family hailing from Burdwan district in Bengal Presidency (now in West Bengal, India),[8] Nazrul Islam received religious education and as a young man worked as a muezzin at a local mosque. He learned about poetry, drama, and literature while working with the rural theatrical group Leṭor Dôl, Leṭo being a folk song genre of West Bengal[9] usually performed by the people from Muslim community of the region. He joined the British Indian Army in 1917 and was posted in Karachi. Nazrul Islam established himself as a journalist in Calcutta after the war ended. He criticized the British Raj and called for revolution through his famous poetic works, such as "Bidrohī" ("বিদ্রোহী", 'The Rebel') and "Bhangar Gan" ("ভাঙ্গার গান", 'The Song of Destruction'),[10] as well as in his publication Dhūmketu ('The Comet'). His nationalist activism in Indian independence movement led to his frequent imprisonment by the colonial British authorities. While in prison, Nazrul Islam wrote the "Rajbôndīr Jôbanbôndī" ("রাজবন্দীর জবানবন্দী", 'Deposition of a Political Prisoner').[11] His writings greatly inspired Bengalis of East Pakistan during the Bangladesh Liberation War.

Nazrul Islam's writings explored themes such as freedom, humanity, love, and revolution. He opposed all forms of bigotry and fundamentalism, including religious, caste-based and gender-based.[12] Nazrul wrote short stories, novels, and essays but is best known for his songs and poems. He introduced the ghazal songs in Bengali language[13][14][15][16] and is also known for his extensive use of Arabic, Persian and Urdu words in his works.[17][18][19]

Nazrul Islam wrote and composed music for nearly 4,000 songs (many recorded on HMV and gramophone records),[20] collectively known as Nazrul Gīti. In 1942 at the age of 43, he began to be affected by an unknown disease, losing his voice and memory. A medical team in Vienna diagnosed the disease as Pick's disease,[21] a rare incurable neurodegenerative disease. It caused Nazrul Islam's health to decline steadily and forced him to live in isolation. He was also admitted in Ranchi (Jharkhand) psychiatric hospital for many years. At the invitation of the Government of Bangladesh, Nazrul Islam's family took him to Bangladesh and moved to Dhaka in 1972. He died four years later on 29 August 1976.[15]

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  1. Langley, Winston (2007). Kazi Nazrul Islam: The Voice of Poetry and the Struggle for Human Wholeness. University of Minnesota. p. 5. 
  2. Mitra, Priti K. (1993-05-01). "The Rebel Poet and the Mahatma: Kazi Nazrul Islam's Critique of Gandhi's Politics in the 1920s" (in en). South Asia Research 13 (1): 46–55. doi:10.1177/026272809301300103. ISSN 0262-7280. 
  3. Sheik Hasina. "India-Bangladesh Joint Celebration, 113th birth anniversary of Poet Kazi Nazrul Islam and 90th year of his poem 'Rebel'". Prime Minister's Office, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. http://pmo.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/pmo.portal.gov.bd/pm_speech/800b9859_57b3_46b8_8bfd_e34f45c8e249/India.pdf. 
  4. Chakraborti, Suman (26 May 2015). "West Bengal government celebrates Kazi Nazrul Islam's birth anniversary". The Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/kolkata/West-Bengal-government-celebrates-Kazi-Nazrul-Islams-birth-anniversary/articleshow/47431715.cms. 
  5. "Nazrul Jayanti celebrated across Silchar". The Sentinel. 27 May 2018. https://www.sentinelassam.com/news/nazrul-jayanti-celebrated-across-silchar/. 
  6. Menon, Anoop (26 April 2017). "List of public holidays in May 2017 to plan out your vacations". Travel India. http://www.india.com/travel/articles/list-of-public-holidays-in-may-2017-to-plan-out-your-vacations/. "Tripura will be celebrating Nazrul Jayanti on 26 May" 
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named nazrul1
  8. Bhattacharya, Ashutosh (1977) (in bn). Bangiya Lok-Sangeet Ratnakar, Vol. 4 (An Encyclopaedia of Bengali Folk-song). Calcutta: A. Mukherjee & Co. Pvt. Ltd.. p. 1802. "পশ্চিম বাংলার এক শ্রেণীর জনপ্রিয় লোক-সঙ্গীত লেটো গান, ইহাকে লাটু গান, লোট্যার গানও বলে৷" 
  9. Alam, Abu Yusuf (2005) (in en). Muslims and Bengal Politics (1912–24). Raktakarabee. pp. 256. https://books.google.com/books?id=EYRuAAAAMAAJ&q=kazi+nazrul+islam+Bhangar+Gaan. 
  10. Hāldār, Gopāl (1973) (in en). Kazi Nazrul Islam. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 41. https://books.google.com/books?id=ngWdRBPXjkAC&q=kazi+nazrul+islam+Rajbandir+Jabanbandi. 
  11. Kazi, Ankan (14 June 2017). "Diminishing A Poet". The Indian Express. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/diminishing-a-poet-kazi-nazrul-islam-4702739/. 
  12. Hussain, Azfar. "Rereading Kazi Nazrul Islam" (Video lecture). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bf9nvzmIVvY. 
  13. Ali, Sarwat (21 September 2014). "A taste of Bengal". The News International (The News on Sunday). http://tns.thenews.com.pk/firoza-begum-a-taste-of-bengal/. "Firoza Begum too sang these Bengali ghazals of Nazrul Islam" 
  14. 15.0 15.1 Shafiqul Islam, Mohammad (25 May 2007). "Nazrul: An ardent lover of humanity". The Daily Star. http://archive.thedailystar.net/2007/05/25/d70525140299.htm. "He is best known for his songs, in which he pioneered new forms such as Bengali ghazals" 
  15. Feature article (15 September 2016). "Remembering the rebel poet" (in en-IN). The Hindu. https://www.thehindu.com/features/friday-review/Remembering-the-rebel-poet/article14639464.ece. 
  16. Shams, Ahmed Tahsin (24 May 2018). "The rebel icon of Bengal: Kazi Nazrul Islam". The Bangladesh Post. http://www.thebangladeshpost.com/national/29149. 
  17. Rashid, Md Mumit Al; Nur, Tanjina Binte (24 November 2017). "Persian Words Used in Kazi Nazrul Islam's Poetry". Language Art 2 (4): 117–128. doi:10.22046/LA.2017.23. ISSN 2538-2713. 
  18. Ahmed, Dr. Forqan Uddin (27 August 2018). "Kazi Nazrul Islam : Classic and romantic". The New Nation. http://www.thedailynewnation.com/news/186431/kazi-nazrul-islam--classic-and-romantic. 
  19. Hossain, Quazi Motahar (2000). "Nazrul Islam, the Singer and Writer of Songs". In Mohammad Nurul Huda. Nazrul: An Evaluation. Dhaka: Nazrul Institute. p. 55. ISBN 978-984-555-167-0. https://books.google.com/books?id=MtpVAAAACAAJ. 
  20. Farooq, Mohammad Omar. "Kazi Nazrul Islam: Illness and Treatment". http://www.nazrul.org/nazrul_life/illness.htm.