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Nepal, officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country located in South Asia. It is situated mainly in the Himalayas, but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Nepal shares borders with China to the north and India to the south, east, and west.[1][2]


The name Nepal is believed to be derived from the Newar word Nepa, which refers to the Kathmandu Valley, the nucleus of the country's ancient civilizations. The term has been used historically to describe the region.


Ancient History Nepal has a rich and diverse history dating back thousands of years. The Kathmandu Valley, located in present-day Nepal, was a significant center of trade, culture, and religion in ancient times. The region was ruled by various dynasties, including the Licchavis and the Mallas.[3]

Unification and Monarchy In the 18th century, King Prithvi Narayan Shah of the Gorkha Kingdom embarked on a campaign to unify the small kingdoms of Nepal into a single nation. In 1768, he succeeded in establishing the Kingdom of Nepal, with its capital in Kathmandu. The Shah dynasty ruled Nepal for over two centuries until the establishment of a federal democratic republic in 2008.

Recent History Nepal underwent significant political changes in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The country was ruled by a constitutional monarchy until 1990 when a pro-democracy movement led to the establishment of a multiparty parliamentary system. In 2006, the decade-long Nepalese Civil War between government forces and Maoist insurgents ended with the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, leading to the abolition of the monarchy in 2008 and the establishment of a federal democratic republic.


Nepal is characterized by its diverse geography, ranging from the high Himalayas in the north to the fertile plains of the Terai region in the south. Mount Everest, the world's highest peak, lies on the Nepal-China border. The country is also home to numerous other peaks, including several of the world's eight-thousanders.[4]


Nepal has a diverse population comprising various ethnic groups, languages, and religions. The largest ethnic group is the Chhetri, followed by the Brahmins, Magars, Tharus, and Tamangs. Nepali is the official language, but numerous other languages and dialects are spoken throughout the country. Hinduism is the predominant religion, followed by Buddhism, Islam, and others.[5]


Nepal's economy is primarily agrarian, with agriculture employing a significant portion of the workforce. The country's economy is also heavily reliant on tourism, particularly trekking and mountaineering in the Himalayas. Remittances from Nepali migrants working abroad also contribute significantly to the economy.


Nepal has a rich cultural heritage influenced by Hinduism, Buddhism, and indigenous traditions. The country is known for its vibrant festivals, intricate architecture, traditional music and dance, and diverse cuisine. Mountaineering and trekking are popular outdoor activities, attracting adventurers from around the world.