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Medical rehabilitation is the science of optimizing parameters of disturbed homeostasis through its effects on compensatory-adaptive processes.
CONCEPTS OF MEDICAL REHABILITATION
The term «rehabilitation» comes from the Latin words «re» - recovery and «habilis» - recovery of ability (properties), individual’s validity.
« We live to survive (to adjust, adapt to the new conditions) ». Despite on the great success of modern biology and medicine, the development and implementation of high standards of prevention and treatment of various diseases, the health of population is steadily deteriorating. The incidence of many nosological forms is increasing, new kinds of pathologies are emerging, «old-time» diseases are returning (tuberculosis, malaria, abdominal typhus and other). The birth rate is markedly declining, the birth rates of non-viable children or children with severe genetic pathology are increasing , the number of retired people is increasing also. All of these factors cause an increase in the number of people with disability (sick and disabled, eldery people) in overall population structure. Improvement of medical rehabilitation is becoming a social challenge. The persistent deterioration of the health among younger generation causes more serious concerns today. An increase in intensity and duration on human’s body burden changes the natural rhythms of physiological activity (daily allowance, seasonal, annual, climate etc.). Correction of biorhythms – is the most important challenge of preventive medicine. The task of formation of the adaptive direction in medicine becomes topical - the need of finding ways to increase the adaptive capabilities of human’s body through the correction of homeostasis parameters.
The strategic purpose of medicine is an active longevity, which is determined by genotype («vegetative passport»), mental, physical and sexual activities, balanced diet and psychical balance (life optimistic). It can be achieved by apply of the adaptive kinesith- , psycho-, physio-, pharmacotherapy and nutrition considering human’s vegetative tonus. The topical issue of medicine remains the prevention of exhausting and recovery of adaptive capabilities of human’s body, rehabilitation of homeostasis (homeokinesis ) disorders. The modern scientific and technical, cultural and social progress in biology and medicine, success in food production industry and other achievements of civilization, besides the expansion of population potentials, productive and creative human’s abilities, have also discovered the health issues, changed the reactivity and resistance of the human body. Under the conditions of an industrial society, with the successful achievement in the elimination of inflectional diseases’ natural foci and the reduction of the influence of natural factors on human health, against the background of an increase in life expectancy, there is also an increase in the incidence of circulatory, respiratory and digestive organs, mental disorders, the emerging of new infections and diseases, which haven’t been described by science previously. The progress of work on reducing mortality of myocardial infarctions and accurate disorders of cerebral circulation is combined with the increased incidence of oncological pathology. The paradox of the situation is that, so with some probability, one can predict the cause of death (family predisposition - «domino’s effect»). Shifts of homeokinesis determine the type of disease.
Such features of the state of public health are directly related to the underestimation of a human as a biological organism, whose health is determined by the concept of homeostasis - the ability to maintain the constancy of the internal environment under the conditions of external factors. “The constancy of the internal environment is a condition of free life”, as the famous French physiologist and pathologist Claude Bernard formulated this position. The homeostasis is based on dynamic processes (homeokinesis), aimed at its maintaining. Therefore, the state of humans health and pathology (healthy and sick, athletes and sportsmen), at different periods of their life, at the time of the survey is the result of dynamic interaction of environmental factors and the body's regulatory systems. The state of protective properties of the body is determined by the nature of the interaction of its regulatory systems (nervous, hormonal, immune and metabolic). The grade of determination of the operation of regulatory systems, their own properties determine the state of adaptation or disadaptation to the action of environmental factors. As a result of the interaction of the etiological factor in the human body, occur either the sanogenesis reactions (protective, adaptive, compensatory), aimed at achieving the favorable outcome (adaptation, recovery) or the reactions of pathogenesis, accompanied by the development of disadaptation, the unfavorable course of the disease and the development of its complications. The direction and nature of systemic reactions (sanogenesis, pathogenesis) at the time of interaction are determined by the reactivity of the body.
Reactivity - is genetically determined complex of the body's qualities, influenced by the external environmental factors (physico-chemical, biological, social). The reactions of sanogenesis develop against the background of the body’s normal activity. Pathogenesis is characterized by impaired reactivity (hyper, hypo or their intermediate vibrational forms at sub-compensation). With an adequate body’s reaction (normoreactivity) to the etiological factor’s effect, a normalergic response is observed - the dual response of the nervous, hormonal, immune and humoral systems, creating “the square of homeostasis”. Disorders of reactivity are manifested by dysregulation with the lacking predominance of one or several regulatory elements (reduced at hypo-, increased at hyperergia), causing the organism’s low resistance to the action of the stimulus. [http://medgarant.net.ua/metodologiya/rehabilitation_1].
Rehabilitation - is a complex of activities aimed to recover health, functional condition and working capacity of the body, caused by diseases, traumas, physical, chemical and social factors. World Health Organization gives its' own definition of rehabilitation: "Rehabilitation is a set of activities, designed to help people with the impaired functions, traumas and birth defects, adaptation to the new conditions of life in society where they live." According to the definition of WHO, rehabilitation is a process aimed at providing comprehensive assistance to sick and disabled people, so that they can reach the maximum possible physical, mental, professional, social and economic usefulness. In other words, the goals of rehabilitation are: achievement of recovery of impaired human functions (parameters of multilevel homeostasis) at the appropriate time and with minimal costs for the health, his adaptation to the environment and participation in social life with the previous or changed due to the disease social functions.