List of human phenotypes

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Below is a list of human phenotypes ("anthropological types").[1]

Phenotypes

Negroid

  • Sanid
    • Kalaharid: Northern and Central Bushmen, e.g. the !Kung (e.g. Ju/'hoansi), Naro, Khwe, Amkoe, and related people
    • Karroid: Taa speakers, Xam, Khomani, Karretjie, and Coloreds
    • Strandlooper: South African coasts from Cape Colony to the Skeleton Coast; Topnaar (ǂAonin)
  • Khoid
  • Bambutid
  • Congolid
    • Congolesid: Lingala, Tshiluba, Bapoto, Boa, Ngumba, Ba Soko, Mpongwe, Barotse, and related people, more mixed in Chokwe, Kordofanians, Zande, Kongo, etc.
    • West Congolesid: Makaa-Njem speakers, also in Bamileke, Bassa, Ewondo, Batanga, and Eto
    • Guinesid: Susu, Konyanke, Krou, Kuranko, Kissi, Guerzè, Kpelle, Yakoba, Temne, Bidyogo, Baule, Dida, Nago, Yoruba, also Ekoi, Kongo, Teke, and related people
      • Sudano Guinesid: Mandinka, Mandjak, Fon, Dyula, Ekoi, Gurma, Balanta, Baga, Mankanya, Yoruba, Yalunka, Karaboro, Wamey, and many others
    • Guineo Camerunian: Gagu, Anyi, Ashanti, Southern Igbo, Cameroonians (e.g. Bakaka, Nen), and many related people
    • Mundu Mangbeto: Mangbetu, Mundu, Lese, Medje, more mixed in Zande and some Central Sudanic speakers
    • Mountain Dama: Damara, Ovambo, and related groups
  • Bantuid
    • North Bantuid: Ganda, Hutu, Nyoro, Hehe, Gogo, Chaga, Sukuma, Nyamwezi, Swahili, mixed in Hemba, Kikuyu, Kamba, and others
    • South Bantuid: Zulu, Swazi, Bhaca, also in Makua, Kwanyama, Hlubi, Fengu, Ovambo, Pondo and many more
    • Central Bantuid: Tsonga and Tonga, also in Kunda, Mbundu, Vili, Venda, Nyungwe, and others
    • Chopi-Tswana: Chopi and Tswana, also in the Nyamban, sometimes Tsonga, Sotho, and surrounding groups
    • Fengu-Pondo: Fengu, Pondo, and Hlubi
    • Xhosaid: Xhosa, Southern Sotho, and Shangana
    • Katangid: Korana, as well as Zulus, Xhosa, and others
  • Sudanid
    • Sudanid: Mossi, Lobi, Dagaaba, Senufo, Northern Malinke, Gurunsi, Songhai, and Bambara
    • East Sudanid: Fur, Kresh, Yulu, Nara, Kunama, and even Southern Egyptians
    • Middle Nile: Khartoum to Kosti and west to El Obeid, also in Kababish, Sudanese Arabs, and even Baqquara
    • Bobo: Bobo-Fing and Bobo-Dyula, also in Dogon, Senufo, and Songhai
    • Senegalid: Wolof, more mixed in Serer
    • Equatorial Sudanid: Azande, Baya, Mundu, Banda, Nzkara, Logo, Keliko, Kresh, Bongo, Avukaya, Madi, but also Fang
    • Casamance: Jola, Jola-Felupe, Diamate, and related groups
    • Fezzanid: Fezzanesi of South Libya, the Iravellan caste of Tuaregs, and even Haratins
  • Nilotid
    • Dinkaid: Dinka and Nuer, but also Atuot, Atwot, Agar, Bor
    • Shillukid: Shilluk, but also in Anuak
    • South Nilotid: Acholi, Alur, Kawka, Bari, Kresh, Luo, Lotuko, sometimes even Mangbetu
    • Shari: Sara, also in Bua, Mbum, Ouldeme, Madara, Massa, Mousgoum, Banda, and even Azande
    • Pre Nilotid: Kwama, Uduk, Gumuz, Mao, and related people
  • Ethiopid
    • East Ethiopid: Hawiye, Darod, Dir, but also common in Tigray-Tigrinya, Agaw, and Eastern Oromo
    • North Ethiopid: Beja, Beni Amer, Nubians, Hadendoa
    • South Ethiopid: Tutsi, also in Hema
    • Maasai
    • Central Ethiopid: Oromo, also Somali, Borana, Konso, and Sidama
    • Saharan Ethiopid: Toubou, but more mixed in Hausa, Iravellans of the Tuareg, Kanembu, Buduma, Zande, Fur, even Eton
    • Proto Ethiopid: occasionally found in Kunama and Nara, but also Amhara, Tigray-Tigrinya, rarer in Oromo, Beja, and others
    • Omotic: Ari/Aari, Banna, Hamer, Karo, Turmi, and Erbore
    • Paleo Saharid: about 20% of Toubous (Teda) in the Tibesti mountains, also Dawada of Libya
    • Danakil: Afar people and southern tribes of the Saho (e.g. Hazu)
    • Siwa: Siwa and Awjila oases of Northwestern Egypt
    • Moorish: Moors and Nemadi of Mauritania

Australoid

  • Negritid
  • Veddid
    • Vedda
    • North Gondid: Gond, Kurukh, Bhil, Juang, Baiga
    • South Gondid: Muria, also Mardia, Koyi, and the tribes of Bastar
    • Malid: isolated groups of Kanikkaran, Kadar, and Paniya
    • Malabarese: Malabarese and related people
    • Toalid: Toala, also Tokea and Loinang
    • Senoid: Semai, Temiar, Mahmeri, Chewong, also Moken, Degar, Porr, and Shompen
    • Arabian Veddoid: Mehri of South Oman, around Hadramaut in Yemen, Iranians of Susa, Makran, and Socotrans
  • Indo Melanid
    • Karnatid: Tamils, mixed in Periya, sometimes other Indian people
    • Kolid: Santhal and Ho
  • Melanesid
    • Insular Melanesid: East Papua, New Britain, New Ireland, Admiralty Islands, Eastern Solomon Islands, Nendo, Banks Islands, and Vanuatu
    • Brachio Melanesid: Kerewo of Goaribari Island in the Papua Gulf - and the related Kiwai; the Bismarck Archipelago
    • Neo Melanesid: Papuan speakers, also in the Torres Strait, Ceram, Halmahera, East Flores, Aru, and North Australia
    • Mountain Melanesid: Dani, Moni, Ekagi, Mbowamb, Enga, Paniani, Yali, and many others
    • Tapirid: Tapiro (extinct), also in Pesechem, Goliath, Aiome, Afere, Baining, Mafulu, Yali, Kimyal, Mek, Ketengban, and Una
    • Bukaid: Western Solomons (e.g. Buka, New Georgia) and Bougainville, also Nissan
    • Paleo Melanesid: Kanak of New Caledonia (purest in the north of the island)
  • Australid

Caucasoid

  • Orientalid
  • Armenoid
  • Mediterranid
    • Eurafricanid: Portugal, Eastern Spain (e.g. Valencia), Liguria, Western Switzerland, Wales, Croatia, North Algeria, Morocco, and Canary Islands
    • Berberid
    • Pontid
    • Gracile Mediterranid: Iberia, Southern Italy, Mediterranean islands, Western France, Southern Greece, Northern Tunisia
    • Paleo Sardinian
    • Trans Mediterranid: North Africa from Morocco to Egypt with high concentrations in Tunisia and Algeria
    • Canarid: Canary Islands, especially in Gomera, Tenerife (Guanches), and Gran Canaria
  • Dinarid
    • Dinarid: Dinaric Alps
    • Norid: Austria, Slovakia, Southern and Eastern Germany, Northern France, Northern Albania
  • Nordid
    • Proto Nordid: Russians, Balts, and other peoples
      • Indo Nordic: Pathan, Nuristani, and Kalash, occasionally Dards, Brokpa of Ladak, Kashmiri, Pamiri, Tajik, and Uyghurs
    • Aisto Nordid: coastal regions of Baltic countries
    • Fenno Nordid: Finno-Ugric people, a minority element in Eastern Finns, e.g. Mordvins, Komi (esp around Vashka), Mari, Udmurts, and Carelians, sometimes in Russians, Western Finns, Balts, and even Saami
    • Dalofaelid: Central Germany, Netherlands, and Southern Sweden / Norway, partially even Southern Finland
    • Hallstatt: Swedes and South Norwegians
    • Trønder: Norwegian Trøndelag region, also in in other parts of Norway, Iceland, and Central Sweden
    • Anglo-Saxon: East England
    • Paleo Atlantid: Southern Norwegian mountain valleys (e.g. Tydal), Dalarna (Sweden), Western Scotland, and Ireland
    • Borreby: Denmark, South Norway (Jæren), and North Germany (esp. Fehmarn)
  • Alpinid
    • West Alpinid: Western Alps and Central France (e.g. the Swiss Disentis, the French Savoy, Auvergne and Massif Central regions)
    • East Alpinid: mountain zones of Anatolia, to Northern Syria and Iraq
    • African Alpinoid: Atlas Mountains of Algeria and Tunisia
    • Gorid: Southern Poland and surrounding peoples
    • Strandid: Southwestern Norway
    • Baskid: Basques of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques region of Southwestern France
  • East Europid
    • Tavastid: Baltic countries, from Sweden to Finland and from Estonia to Germany and Romania
    • Savolaxid: Eastern Finland, Karelia, and Northern Russia, also Lappland
    • Neo Danubian: Belarus, Greater Russia, and Poland
    • Pre Slavic: Poles and West Ukrainians, especially in Volhynia, Galicia, Podolia, and east of Warsaw
  • Turanid
    • East Pamirid: Pamiri speakers of the Pamir Mountains in Eastern Tajikistan and Northern Afghanistan, especially in the areas of Rushan, Shugan, and Vakhan
    • Central Pamirid: highland Tajiks
    • Plains Pamirid: Uzbeks and Uyghurs
    • Andronovo-Turanid: Kazan Tatars, but also in other Turkic people
    • Alföld: Hungary, especially the Alföld plain and Transdanubia
  • Indid
    • Indo Brachid: Nagar Brahmin, Kayastha, Kannada, Jat and Mir-Jat, South Baluchistan, sometimes Baloch
    • Central Brachid: Uttar Pradesh, South Nepal, the Gangetic Plain, the Deccan Plateau, and other parts of Central India as far as Orissa
    • East Brachid: Western Himalaya / Nepal to Bhutan to the Bengals and Burma
    • Gracile Indid: along the Ganges river and Deccan
    • Mountain Indid: Garhwali of Uttarakhand and Pahari, but also in Purigi, Kanets, Rajputs, Himachal Pradesh, Kashmir, Nepal, Eastern Afghanistan, even Tajikistan
    • Sinhalesid: Sinhalese and related people
    • Keralid: plains of Malabar (Kerala), typical for Tiyer / Ezhava, Mukkaver, Kammalan, Nairs, and similar medium ranked castes of Kerala
    • North Indid: Sikh and Punjabi and upper/warrior castes of the Doab, also in Rajputs, Patharns, in Kashmir and the Hindu Kush
    • Toda

Mongoloid

  • Tungid
    • Gobid: Buryat, Mongolians, Tuvins, also in Yakut, South Altaians
    • Baykal: Evens, Eastern Evenks, Yukagirs
    • Katanga: Tofalars, Western Evenks of the Yenisei and Taz river basins, as well as Eastern Tuvin
    • Amur-Sakhalin: Nivkhs (Gilyaks)
    • Aralid: Kazakhs, but also in other Turkic people like Kyrgyz, Uzbeks, and Tatars
    • Manchu-Korean
    • Satsuma: southern coasts of Kagoshima, Shikoku, and Honshu, also in the Ryukyu Islands and along Korea's south coast
  • Sibirid
    • Uralid: Khanty and Mansi
    • Ladogan: Khanty, Mansi, and Chuvash
    • Volgid: Mari, Chuvash, Volga-Finns. More mixed in Udmurts, Finns, and Ryazan
    • Yenisey: Ket
    • Samoyedic: Nenets, also in Enets, and mixed in Selkups and Nganasans
    • Chukchid: Koryak and Reindeer Chukchis
  • Lappid
  • Ainuid
    • Aoshima: Ainu of Hokkaido
    • Chikuzen: northern half of Kyushu Island, and was often found among Samurai
    • Ishikawa: northern middle and northeastern part of Honshu Island
  • Sinid
    • Huanghoid: Liaoning, Kirin, Heilungkiang and Jehol, sometimes Hoklo in Fuijan
    • Chukiangid: Cantonese, Guangdong, Fukien, Southern Yunna, mixed in Vietnamese, Tai, and Muong
    • Tonkinesid: Northern Vietnam
    • Annamid: Central Vietnam, slightly more mixed in South Vietnam
    • Changkiangid: Kiangsu, Chekiang, Anhuei, Kiangsi, Hupei, Hunan, Szechuan, Kueichow, and Yunnan
    • Kham: Eastern Tibet
    • Tibetid: Ladhak of Northern India and West Tibetans, also in Eastern and Northern Tibetans, especially in nomads, as well as in Szechuan and Northern Yunnan (especially in Yi, sometimes Miao)
    • Choshiu: west coast of Honshu
    • Yakonin: occasionally found across Japan
  • South Mongolid
    • Palaungid: Central Burmese hill tribes
      • East Palaungid: hills of South China, often in Pakanic, Liau, Pu-man, Zhuang, Angku, etc.
      • South Palaungid: hill tribes of Thailand, Laos, and parts of Vietnam, in Lao Soung, Khmu, Lua, Degar
    • Kachinid: Kachin, also in Karen, and has a Nagid subvariety in Naga, Khmu and Lao
    • Shanid: Burmese
    • Khmerid: Khmer
    • Deutero Malayid: Malay
    • Dayakid: Dayaks of Borneo, also common in Batak, Kubu, Toradja, Bugi, Bontoc, Ibaloi, Isnag, Nabaloi, Kankani, Bonto, Kalinga, Ifuago, Jakun, sometimes Taiwanese, Malagasy, Polynesians, and others
    • Proto Malayid: Lesser Sunda Islands like Sumba, Flores, Timor up to Kisar, also common in the Maluku Islands (Aru, Lei, Tanimbar, Ceram, Ambon, Buru), West Tenggarese of Java, and in Siberut in the west of Sumatra
    • Malagasid: Sihanka, Betsileo, Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Sakalava, etc.
  • Polynesid

Amerindian

  • Eskimid
  • Silvid
    • Planid: Siouan speakers (Dakota, Assiniboine, Lakota, Crow, etc.), Blackfoot, and Cheyenne
    • Appalacid: East Algonquins and Iroquois
  • Pacifid
    • Pacifid: Wakashan and many Salishan speakers, especially Kwakiutl and Nez Perce, also Flatheads, Tlinkit, Haida, Coeur d'Alene, Shuswap, Yakama, and many related groups
    • California Pacifid: Yurok as well as Chinook groups, also in Hupa, Modoc, Klamath, the extinct Chumash, and related people
    • Athabaskid: Athabaskan speakers like Ahtna, Carrier Chilcotin, Dogrib, Sacree, Tanana, Telah, Tutchone, and others
    • Arizonid: Apache, Navajo, and Comanche, also in some neighboring tribes
  • Centralid
    • Isthmid: Mayangna, Pech, Kuna, Naso, Ngäbe, Bokota, and related people
    • Maya
    • Pueblid: Hopi, Zuni, Choctaw, Caddo, Ute, Mohave, Nahua, Huichol, and many of their neighbors
  • Margid
    • Mexicid: Otomi, Purépecha, Pame, Pima of Mexico, as well West Mono and Pomo of California
    • Sonorid: Pima (O'odham) and Seri
    • Californid: Yuki, North Pomo, Wailaki, Kato, Huchnom, and Wappo
  • Andid
  • Patagonid
    • Patagonid: Tehuelche, and slightly Fuegid-admixed in Selknam
    • Bororo
    • Pampid: Chorote, Chané, Mataco, Kadiweu, Pilagá, Toba, Wichí, Mocoví, Abipón, and the extinct Charrúa of Uruguay
  • Lagid
    • Lagoa Santa: Ję speakers like Xavante, Xerente, Krahô, Kayapo, Apinajé, U'wa; also in Xingu and Ayoreo and some Amazonians (e.g. Yanomani, Ye'kuana)
    • South Fuegid: Yaghan and Kawésqar, also the extinct Chonos, Changos, and others
    • Huarpid: Huarpe, common in Sirionó and the almost-gone Comechingónes
    • Botocudo: Botocudo (Aimoré, Krenak)
  • Amazonid
    • North Amazonid: Cariban speakers, e.g. Caribs, Makushi, Pemón, Taurepang, Wayana, Yabarana, among others
    • South Amazonid: Tupian speakers, e.g. Apika, Awá-Guajá, Guarani, Kawahib, Chiriguano, Piripkura, etc., and the extinct Tupi and Querandí
    • West Amazonid: Arawakan speakers, typical groups are Yawalapiti, Asháninka, Mashco-Piro, Piapoco, Wayuu, among others
    • Chocó-Motilon: Chocó (Embera, Wounaan), Motilon (Barí, Yukpa) and some related people

Typologies

Typologies of human phenotypes include:[2]

  • Knussmann (1996)[3]
  • Lundman (1988)[4]
  • Alexeev (1979)[5]
  • Debets (1974)[6]
  • Vogel (1974)[7]
  • Vallois (1968)[8]
  • Biasutti (1967)[9]
  • Czekanowski (1967)[10]
  • Lundman (1967)[11]
  • Cole (1965)[12]
  • Drexel (1955)[13]
  • Eickstedt (1952)[14]
  • Cheboksarov (1951)[15]
  • Coon, Garn, Birdsell (1950)[16]
  • Hooton (1946)[17]
  • Lundman (1943)[18]
  • Biasutti (1941)[19]
  • Eickstedt (1937)[20]
  • Montandon (1933)[21]
  • Klimek (1932)[22]
  • Haddon (1925)[23]
  • Kleinschmidt (1922)[24]
  • Gregory (1921)[25]
  • Giuffrida-Ruggeri (1912/13)[26][27]
  • Biasutti (1912)[28]
  • Bonarelli (1909)[29]
  • Sergi (1908)[30]
  • Schurtz (1903)[31]
  • Deniker (1900)[32]
  • Brinton (1890)[33]
  • Deniker (1889)[34]
  • Flower (1885)[35]
  • Haeckel (1873)[36]
  • Müller (1873)[37]
  • Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire (1860)[38]
  • Zeune (1846)[39]
  • Morton (1839)[40]
  • Broc (1836)[41]
  • Fischer (1829)[42]
  • Bory (1827)[43]
  • Lesson (1827)[44]
  • Desmoulins (1826)[45]
  • Malte-Brun (1812)[46]
  • Blumenbach (1806)[47]
  • Virey (1801)[48]
  • Erxleben (1777)[49]
  • Hunter (1775)[50]
  • Müller (1773)[51]
  • Linné (1758)[52]
  • Bernier (1684)[53]

References

  1. HumanPhenotypes.net
  2. Typologies. HumanPhenotypes.net. Accessed on May 2021.
  3. Knussmann, R. 1996. Vergleichende Biologie des Menschen: Lehrbuch der Anthropologie und Humangenetik. 2ed. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag.
  4. Lundman, B. 1988. Jordens folkstammar. Huddinge.
  5. Alexeev, V. P. 1979. The Differential Geography of Races. In: Stini, W. A. Physiological and Morphological Adaptation and Evolution. De Gruyter.
  6. Debets, G. 1974. Essay on the Graphical Presentation of the Genealogical Classification of Human Races. In: Bromley, Y. Soviet Ethnology and Anthropology Today. Mouton & Co.
  7. Vogel, C. 1974. Biologie in Stichworten V, Humanbiologie, Menschliche Stammesgeschichte - Populationsdifferenzierung Ferdinand Hirt. Kiel.
  8. Vallois, H. V. 1968. Las races humaines. 7 Ed. Grammont.
  9. Biasutti, R. 1967 (1941). Le Razze e i Popoli della terra. 4th Ed. Vol 1-4. U.T.E.T., Torino.
  10. Czekanowski, J.. 1967. Cz owiek w czasie i przestrzenie. Pa stwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. Warsaw.
  11. Lundman, B. 1967. Geographische Anthropologie. Rassen und Völker der Erde. G. Fischer, Stuttgart.
  12. Cole, S. 1965. Races of Man. Butler & Tanner Ltd. Frome and London.
  13. Drexel, A. 1955. Die Völker der Erde. 2nd Ed. Akademie Verlag. Zürich.
  14. Eickstedt, E. von. 1952. Die prioritätsgerechten Bezeichnungen der menschlichen Varitäten. In: Historia Mundi. Band 1, Munich, 223-226.
  15. Cheboksarov, N.N.. 1951. Osnovnyje printsipy antropologicheskikh klassifikatsij. TIE. 16.
  16. Coon, C. S., Garn, S. M. and Birdsell, J. B. 1950. Races: a Study of Race formation in Man. Charles C. Thomas. Springfield.
  17. Hooton, E.A. 1946. Up from the Ape. Rev. ed. Macmillan Company . New York.
  18. Lundman, B. 1943. Jordens Människoraser och Folkstammar. Nybloms Förlag, Uppsala.
  19. Biasutti, R. 1941. Le Razze e i Popoli della terra. 1st Ed. Vol 1-3. U.T.E.T., Torino.
  20. Eickstedt, E. von. 1937. Geschichte der anthropologischen Namengebung und Klassifikation. In: Zeitschrift für Rassenkunde. Band 5, 209-282, Band 6, 36-96, 151-210.
  21. Montandon, G. 1933. La race, les races: mise au point d éthnologie somatique. Payot. Paris.
  22. Klimek, St. 1932. Terytorja antropologiczne. Prace Geogr. 15. Lwow / Warzawa.
  23. Haddon, A.C.. 1925. The Races of Man and their distribution. Cambridge at the University Press. London.
  24. Kleinschmidt, O. 1922. Realgattung Homo Sapiens. Eine naturgeschichtliche Monographie des Menschen. In: Beraja, Zoographia infinita. Halle.
  25. Gregory, W. 1921. Conspectus of the species and chief races of Hominidae. J. Dental Resreach 3. 178-197.
  26. Giuffrida-Ruggeri, V. 1913. Homo sapiens. Einleitung zu einem Kurse der Anthropologie. Wien.
  27. Giuffrida-Ruggeri, V. 1912. Schema di Classificazione degli hominidae attuali. Arch. per l'A. e l'Etn. XLII.
  28. Biasutti, R. 1912 Studi di Antropogeografia Generale. I Studi sulla distribuzione dei caratteri e dei tipi antropologici. Mem. Geogr. 6. Firenze.
  29. Bonarelli, G. 1909. Le Razze umane e le loro probabili affinità. Bull. Soc. Geogr. Ital. 66. 953-979.
  30. Sergi, G. 1908. Di una classificatione razionale dei gruppi umani. Att Soc. Ital. progr. Sci. Rome.
  31. Schurtz, H. 1903. Völkerkunde. Leipzig and Wien.
  32. Deniker, J., 1900, The Races of Man: An Outline of Anthropology and Ethnography. Books for Libraries Press. Freeport, NY.
  33. Brinton, D. G. 1890. Races and Peoples. Lectures on the science of ethnography. Philadelphia.
  34. Deniker, J. 1889. Essai d'une classification des races humaines basée uniquement sur les caractères physiques. Bull. Soc. d'A. 3 (12). 320-336.
  35. Flower, H. W. 1885. On the Classification of the varieties of the human species. J. Anthr. Inst. 14. 378-395.
  36. Haeckel, E. 1873. Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschichte. 4. Berlin.
  37. Müller, F. 1873. Allgemeine Ethnographie. Wien.
  38. Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire, I. 1860. Sur la classification anthropologique et particulièrement sur les types principaux du genre humain. Mém. Soc. d'Anthr, 1. 125-144. Paris.
  39. Zeune, A. 1846. Über Schädelbildung zur festern Begründung der Menschenrassen. Berlin.
  40. Morton, S. G. Crania Americana. 296. Philadelphia.
  41. Broc, P. P. 1836. Essai sur les Races Humaines. Paris.
  42. Fischer, J. B. 1829. Synopsis Mammalium. Stuttgart.
  43. Bory de Saint-Vincent, M. 1827. L'Homme (Homo). Essai Zoologique sur le Genre Humain. 2nd Ed. Paris.
  44. Lesson, R.-P. 1827. Manuel de Mammologie, ou Historie Naturellle des Mammifères. Paris.
  45. Desmoulins, A. 1826. Historie Naturelle des Races Humaines du Nord-Est de l'Europe, de l'Asie Boréale et Orientale, et de l'Afrique Australe. Paris.
  46. Malte-Brun, K. 1812. Précis de la Géographie Universelle ou Description de Toutes les Parties du Monde, sur un Plan Noveau. 1. Paris.
  47. Blumenbach, J. F. 1806. Beyträge zur Naturgeschichte. Göttingen.
  48. Virey, J. J. 1801. Histoire Naturelle du Genre Humain. 2 Vol. Paris.
  49. Erxleben, J. C. P. 1777. Systema Regni Animalis per Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Varietates cum Synonymia et Historia Animalium. Leipzig.
  50. Hunter, J. 1775. Disputatio inauguralis quaedam de hominum varietatibus et harum causes, exponens. Diss. Edinburgh.
  51. Müller, P. L. S. 1773. Des Ritters Carl von Linné, Könglich Schwedischen Leibarztes vollständiges Natursystem. Von den säugenden Thieren. Nürnberg.
  52. Linné, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae. 10 Ed.1 Holmiae.
  53. Bernier, F. 1684. Nouvelle divison de la Terre pour les différentes espèces ou races d'hommes qui l'habitent. Journal des sçavans. 133-140.

See also

External links