From WikiAlpha
Jump to: navigation, search


Republic of Ghana
Flag of Ghana Coat of arms of Ghana
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Freedom and Justice"
Anthem: "God Bless Our Homeland Ghana"
and largest city
Official languages English[1][2]
Recognised national languages
Ethnic groups (2010[2][3])
Religion Template:Ublist
Demonym Ghanaian
 •  President Nana Akufo-Addo
 •  Vice-President Mahamudu Bawumia
 •  Speaker of Parliament Alban Sumana Kingsford Bagbin
 •  Chief Justice Kwasi Anin-Yeboah
Legislature Parliament
Independence from the United Kingdom
 •  Dominion 6 March 1957 
 •  Republic 1 July 1960 
 •  Current constitution 28 April 1992 
 •  Total 239,567 km2 (80th)
92,099 sq mi
 •  Water (%) 4.61 (11,000 km; 4,247 mi2)
 •  2020 estimate 31,072,940[4] (47th)
 •  2010 census 24,200,000[5]
 •  Density 101.5/km2 (103rd)
258.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2020 estimate
 •  Total $226 billion[6]
 •  Per capita $8,343[6]
GDP (nominal) 2020 estimate
 •  Total $73.594  billion[6]
 •  Per capita $2,374[6]
Gini (2016)Template:IncreaseNegative 43.5[7]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.611[8]
Template:Color · 138th
Currency Cedi (GHS)
Time zone GMT (UTC )
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +233
ISO 3166 code GH
Internet TLD .gh

Ghana (Listeni/ˈɡɑːnə/), officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country in West Africa. It spans the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean to the south, sharing borders with the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, and Togo in the east.[9] Ghana covers an area of 238,535 km2 (Template:Convert/Loff), spanning a diverse geography and ecology that ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical rain forests. With over 31 million people, Ghana is the second-most populous country in West Africa, after Nigeria. The capital and largest city is Accra; other major cities include Kumasi, Tamale, and Sekondi-Takoradi.

The first permanent state in present-day Ghana was the Bono state of the 11th century.[10] Numerous kingdoms and empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful were the Kingdom of Dagbon in the north[11] and the Ashanti Empire in the south.[12] Beginning in the 15th century, the Portuguese Empire, followed by numerous other European powers, contested the area for trading rights, until the British ultimately established control of the coast by the late 19th century. Following over a century of native resistance, Ghana's current borders took shape, encompassing four separate British colonial territories: Gold Coast, Ashanti, the Northern Territories and British Togoland. These were unified as an independent dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations on 6 March 1957, becoming the first colony in sub-Saharan Africa to achieve sovereignty.[13][14][15] Ghana subsequently became influential in decolonisation efforts and the Pan-African movement.[16]

Ghana is a multinational state, home to a variety of ethnic, linguistic and religious groups;[4] while the Akan are the largest ethnic group, they constitute only a plurality. The vast majority of Ghanaians are Christian (71.2%), with close to a fifth being Muslim and a tenth practising traditional faiths or reporting no religion.[17] Ghana is a unitary constitutional democracy led by a president who is both head of state and head of government.[18] Since 1993, it has maintained one of the freest and most stable governments on the continent, and performs relatively well in metrics of healthcare, economic growth, and human development.[16] Ghana consequently enjoys significant influence in West Africa,[19] and is highly integrated in international affairs, being a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Group of 24 (G24) and the Commonwealth of Nations.[20]


The etymology of the name Ghana means "Strong Warrior King" and was the title accorded to the kings of the medieval Ghana Empire in West Africa, not to be confused with today's Ghana, as the empire was further north in modern-day Republic of Mali, Senegal, southern Mauritania, as well as in the region of Guinea.[21] Ghana was known for its large Gold usage, and hence was named the Land of Gold[22] by the Arabs during the Trans-Saharan trades.


File:Guinea from Milner's Atlas.jpg
An 1850 map showing the Akan Kingdom of Ashanti within the Guinea region and surrounding regions in West Africa
File:Lidded Vessel (Kuduo) MET DP108293.jpg
18th-century Ashanti brass kuduo. Gold dust and nuggets were kept in kuduo, as were other items of personal value and significance. As receptacles for their owners' kra, or life force, kuduo were prominent features of ceremonies designed to honour and protect that individual.

Medieval kingdoms

Most of what is now Ghana was inhabited in the Middle Ages and the Age of Discovery by local tribes.

The earliest known kingdoms to emerge in modern Ghana were the Mole-Dagbani states.[23] The Mole-Dagomba came on horseback from present-day Burkina Faso under a single leader, Naa Gbewaa.[24] With their advanced weapons and based on a central authority, they easily invaded and occupied the lands of the local people ruled by the Tendamba (land god priests), established themselves as the rulers over the locals, and made Gambaga their capital.[25] The death of Naa Gbewaa caused civil war among his children, some of whom broke off and founded separate states including Dagbon, Mamprugu, Mossi, Nanumba and Wala.[26][27]

Although the area of present-day Ghana in West Africa has experienced many population movements, the Akan speaking peoples began to move into it toward the end of the 15th Century.[23][28] By the early sixteenth century, the Akans were firmly established in the Akan state called Bonoman, for which the Brong-Ahafo Region is named.[23][29]

From the 13th century, Akans emerged from what is believed to have been the Bonoman area, to create several Akan states, mainly based on gold trading.[30] These states included Bonoman (Brong-Ahafo Region), Ashanti (Ashanti Region), Denkyira (Western North region), Mankessim Kingdom (Central region), and Akwamu (Eastern region).[23] By the 19th century, the territory of the southern part of Ghana was included in the Kingdom of Ashanti, one of the influential states in sub-saharan Africa prior to the onset of colonialism.[23]

The government of the Ashanti Empire operated first as a loose network, and eventually as a centralised kingdom with an advanced, highly specialised bureaucracy centred in the capital city of Kumasi.[23] Prior to Akan contact with Europeans, the Akan people created an advanced economy based on principally gold and gold bar commodities then traded with the states of Africa.[23][31]

European contact (15th century)

File:Elmina slave castle.jpg
The Portuguese established the Portuguese Gold Coast with the construction of Elmina Castle (Castelo da Mina) by Diogo de Azambuja in 1482, making it the oldest European building in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Akan trade with European states began after contact with the Portuguese in the 15th century.[32] Early European contact by the Portuguese people, who came to the Gold Coast region in the 15th century to trade and then established the Portuguese Gold Coast (Costa do Ouro), focused on the extensive availability of gold.[33] The Portuguese built a trading lodge at a coastal settlement called Anomansah (the perpetual drink) which they renamed São Jorge da Mina.[33]

In 1481, King John II of Portugal commissioned Diogo de Azambuja to build the Elmina Castle, which was completed in three years.[33] By 1598, the Dutch had joined the Portuguese in the gold trade, establishing the Dutch Gold Coast (Nederlandse Bezittingen ter Kuste van Guinea) and building forts at Fort Komenda and Kormantsi.[34] In 1617, the Dutch captured the Olnini Castle from the Portuguese, and Axim in 1642 (Fort St Anthony).[34]

Other European traders had joined in gold trading by the mid-17th century, most notably the Swedes, establishing the Swedish Gold Coast (Svenska Guldkusten), and Denmark-Norway, establishing the Danish Gold Coast (Danske Guldkyst or Dansk Guinea).[35] Portuguese merchants, impressed with the gold resources in the area, named it Costa do Ouro or Gold Coast.[35] Also beginning in the 17th century – in addition to the gold trade – Portuguese, Dutch, English, and French traders also participated in the Atlantic slave trade in this area.[36]

File:British Ransack Fomena Palace.png
During Anglo-Ashanti Wars British troops ransacking a Fomena chief's palace en route to Kumasi in 1874

More than thirty forts and castles were built by the Portuguese, Swedish, Dano-Norwegians, Dutch and German merchants; the latter Germans establishing the German Gold Coast (Brandenburger Gold Coast or Groß Friedrichsburg).[37] In 1874 Great Britain established control over some parts of the country, assigning these areas the status of British Gold Coast.[38] Many military engagements occurred between the British colonial powers and the various Akan nation-states. The Akan Kingdom of Ashanti defeated the British a few times in the 100-year-long Anglo-Ashanti wars but eventually lost with the War of the Golden Stool in the early 1900s.[39][40][41]

Transition to independence

Template:Multiple images In 1947, the newly formed United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) led by "The Big Six" called for "self-government within the shortest possible time" following the Gold Coast legislative election, 1946.[35][42] Kwame Nkrumah, a Ghanaian nationalist who led Ghana from 1957 to 1966 as the country's first Prime Minister and President, formed the Convention People's Party (CPP) in 1949 with the motto "self-government now".[35] The party initiated a "positive action" campaign involving non-violent protests, strikes and non-cooperation with the British authorities. Nkrumah was arrested and sentenced to one year imprisonment during this time. In the Gold Coast's February 1951 general election, he was elected to Parliament and released from prison to become leader of government business.[35] He became Prime Minister of the Gold Coast in 1952. He improved the infrastructure of the country and his Africanisation policies created better career opportunities for Ghanaians.

On 6 March 1957 at 12 midnight, the Gold Coast, Ashanti, the Northern Territories and British Togoland were unified as one single independent dominion within the British Commonwealth under the name Ghana. This was done under the Ghana Independence Act 1957. The current flag of Ghana, consisting of the colours red, gold, green, and a black star, dates back to this unification.[43] It was designed by Theodosia Salome Okoh; the red represents the blood that was shed towards independence, the gold represents the industrial minerals wealth of Ghana, the green symbolises the rich grasslands of Ghana, and the black star is the symbol of the Ghanaian people and African emancipation.[44]

On 1 July 1960, following the Ghanaian constitutional referendum and Ghanaian presidential election, Nkrumah declared Ghana as a republic and assumed the presidency.[13][14][15][35] 6 March is the nation's Independence Day and 1 July is now celebrated as Republic Day.[45][46]

At the time of independence Nkrumah declared, "My first objective is to abolish from Ghana poverty, ignorance, and disease. We shall measure our progress by the improvement in the health of our people; by the number of children in school, and by the quality of their education; by the availability of water and electricity in our towns and villages; and by the happiness which our people take in being able to manage their own affairs. The welfare of our people is our chief pride, and it is by this that the 5 will ask to be judged.".[47]

Nkrumah was the first African head of state to promote the concept of Pan-Africanism, which he had been introduced to during his studies at Lincoln University, Pennsylvania in the United States, at the time when Marcus Garvey was becoming famous for his "Back to Africa Movement".[35] Nkrumah merged the teachings of Garvey, Martin Luther King Jr. and the naturalised Ghanaian scholar W. E. B. Du Bois into the formation of 1960s Ghana.[35]

Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, as he became known, played an instrumental part in the founding of the Non-Aligned Movement, and in establishing the Kwame Nkrumah Ideological Institute to teach his ideologies of communism and socialism.[48] His life achievements were recognised by Ghanaians during his centenary birthday celebration, and the day was instituted as a public holiday in Ghana (Founder's Day).[49] Template:Clear left

Operation Cold Chop and aftermath

The government of Nkrumah was subsequently overthrown by a coup by the Ghana Armed Forces codenamed "Operation Cold Chop". This occurred while Nkrumah was abroad with Zhou Enlai in the People's Republic of China, on a fruitless mission to Hanoi in Vietnam to help end the Vietnam War. The coup took place on 24 February 1966, led by Col. Emmanuel Kwasi Kotoka. The National Liberation Council (NLC) was formed, chaired by Lt. General Joseph A. Ankrah.[50]

A series of alternating military and civilian governments, often affected by economic instabilities,[51] ruled Ghana from 1966 to 1981, ending with the ascension to power of Flight Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings of the Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC) in 1981.[52] These changes resulted in the suspension of the Constitution of Ghana in 1981, and the banning of political parties in Ghana.[53] The economy soon declined, so Rawlings negotiated a structural adjustment plan changing many old economic policies, and economic growth soon recovered during the mid-1980s.[53] A new Constitution of Ghana restoring multi-party system politics was promulgated in Ghanaian presidential election, 1992; Rawlings was elected as president of Ghana then, and again in Ghanaian general election, 1996.[54] Template:Clear left

21st century

Traditional chiefs in Ghana in 2015

Winning the 2000 Ghanaian elections, John Agyekum Kufuor of the New Patriotic Party (NPP) was sworn into office as president of Ghana on 7 January 2001, and attained the presidency again in the 2004 Ghanaian elections, thus also serving two terms (the term limit) as president of Ghana and thus marking the first time under the fourth republic that power was transferred from one legitimately elected head of state and head of government to another.[54]

Nana Akufo-Addo, the ruling party candidate, was defeated in a very close election by John Atta Mills of the National Democratic Congress (NDC) following the Ghanaian presidential election, 2008.[55][56] Mills died of natural causes and was succeeded by vice-president John Dramani Mahama on 24 July 2012.[57]

Following the Ghanaian presidential election, 2012, John Dramani Mahama became President-elect and was inaugurated on 7 January 2013.[58] Ghana was a stable democracy.[54]

As a result of the Ghanaian presidential election, 2016,[59] Nana Akufo-Addo became President-elect and was inaugurated as the fifth President of the Fourth Republic of Ghana and eighth President of Ghana on 7 January 2017.[60] In December 2020, President Nana Akufo-Addo was re-elected after a tightly contested election.[61]

Geography and geology

Template:Multiple images

Ghana is located on the Gulf of Guinea, only a few degrees north of the Equator, therefore giving it a warm climate.[62] Ghana spans an area of 238,535 km2 (Template:Convert/Loff), and has an Atlantic coastline that stretches Template:Convert/LoffAnoneDbSoff on the Gulf of Guinea in Atlantic Ocean to its south.[62] It lies between latitudes 4°45'N and 11°N, and longitudes 1°15'E and 3°15'W. The Prime Meridian passes through Ghana, specifically through the industrial port town of Tema.[62] Ghana is geographically closer to the "centre" of the Earth geographical coordinates than any other country; even though the notional centre, (0°, 0°) is located in the Atlantic Ocean approximately 614 km (Template:Convert/Loff) off the south-east coast of Ghana on the Gulf of Guinea.

Grasslands mixed with south coastal shrublands and forests dominate Ghana, with forest extending northward from the south-west coast of Ghana on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean Template:Convert/LoffAnoneDbSoff and eastward for a maximum of about Template:Convert/LoffAnoneDbSoff with the Kingdom of Ashanti or the southern part of Ghana being a primary location for mining of industrial minerals and timber.[62] Ghana is home to five terrestrial ecoregions: Eastern Guinean forests, Guinean forest-savanna mosaic, West Sudanian savanna, Central African mangroves, and Guinean mangroves.[63] It had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 4.53/10, ranking it 112nd globally out of 172 countries.[64]

Ghana encompasses plains, waterfalls, low hills, rivers, Dodi Island and Bobowasi Island on the south Atlantic Ocean coast, and Lake Volta, the world's largest artificial lake.[65] The northernmost part of Ghana is Pulmakong and the southernmost part of Ghana is Cape Three Points.[62]


The climate of Ghana is tropical, and there are two main seasons: the wet season and the dry season.[66] Template:Excerpt

Government and politics

File:Presidents of Ghana and of the 4th Republic of Ghana.JPG
First President of the Republic of Ghana Nkrumah and the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th presidents of the 4th Republic of Ghana Rawlings; Kufuor; Mills and Mahama.

Ghana is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy with a parliamentary multi-party system that is dominated by two parties – the National Democratic Congress (NDC) and the New Patriotic Party (NPP). Ghana alternated between civilian and military governments until January 1993, when the military government gave way to the Fourth Republic of Ghana after presidential and parliamentary elections in late 1992. The 1992 constitution of Ghana divides powers among a Commander-in-Chief of the Ghana Armed Forces (President of Ghana), parliament (Parliament of Ghana), cabinet (Cabinet of Ghana), council of state (Ghanaian Council of State), and an independent judiciary (Judiciary of Ghana). The Government of Ghana is elected by universal suffrage after every four years.[67]

Nana Akufo-Addo won the Presidency in the Ghanaian general election held on 7 December 2016, defeating incumbent John Mahama. He was sworn in on 7 January 2017. He also won the 2020 election and was subsequently sworn in on 7 January 2021. Presidents are limited to two four-year terms in office. The president can serve a second term only upon re-election. Ghana has never had a female president.

The 2012 Fragile States Index indicated that Ghana is ranked the 67th least fragile state in the world and the 5th least fragile state in Africa after Mauritius, 2nd Seychelles, 3rd Botswana, and 4th South Africa. Ghana ranked 112th out of 177 countries on the index.[68] Ghana ranked as the 64th least corrupt and politically corrupt country in the world out of all 174 countries ranked and Ghana ranked as the 5th least corrupt and politically corrupt country in Africa out of 53 countries in the 2012 Transparency International Corruption Perception Index.[69][70] Ghana was ranked 7th in Africa out of 53 countries in the 2012 Ibrahim Index of African Governance. The Ibrahim Index is a comprehensive measure of African government, based on a number of different variables which reflect the success with which governments deliver essential political goods to its citizens.[71]

Foreign relations

File:Kofi Annan at OYW.jpg
Kofi Annan, Ghanaian diplomat and United Nations Secretary-General 1997–2006

Since independence, Ghana has been devoted to ideals of nonalignment and is a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement. Ghana favours international and regional political and economic co-operation, and is an active member of the United Nations and the African Union.[72]

Ghana has a strong relationship with the United States. Three recent US presidents--Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama—made diplomatic trips to Ghana. Many Ghanaian diplomats and politicians hold positions in international organisations, including Ghanaian diplomat and former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan, International Criminal Court Judge Akua Kuenyehia, and former President Jerry John Rawlings and former President John Agyekum Kufuor, who both served as diplomats of the United Nations.[67]

In September 2010, Ghana's former President John Atta Mills visited China on an official visit. Mills and China's former President Hu Jintao, marked the 50th anniversary of diplomatic ties between the two nations, at the Great Hall of the People on 20 September 2010.[73] China reciprocated with an official visit in November 2011, by the Vice-Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of China, Zhou Tienong who visited Ghana and met with Ghana's President John Dramani Mahama.[74]

The Islamic Republic of Iran and the 6th President of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad met with the 12th President of Ghana, John Dramani Mahama on 16 April 2013 to hold discussions with President John Dramani Mahama on strengthening the Non-Aligned Movement and also co–chair a bilateral meeting between Ghana and Iran at the Ghanaian presidential palace Flagstaff House.[75][76][77][78][79]

The Sustainable Development Goals in Ghana were integrated into Ghana's development agenda and the budget. The SDGs were said to have been implemented through the decentralized planning system. This allows stakeholders participations such as UN Agencies, traditional leaders, civil society organizations, academia, and others.[80] The SDGs are a global call to action to end poverty among others. The goals are 17 in number and the UN and its partners in the country are working towards achieving them.[81]
According to the president Nana Akufo-Addo of Ghana, Ghana was "the first sub-Saharan African country to achieve the goal of halving poverty, as contained in Goal 1 of the Millennium Development Goals"[82]

There are a number of UN Entities in the country such as the FAO, IFAD, ILO, IMO, IOM, UN-HABITAT, UNAIDS, UNCDF, UNDP, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNIC, UNICEF, UNIDO, UNODC, UNOPS, WFP and WHO.[83]


In 1957, the Ghana Armed Forces (GAF) consisted of its headquarters, support services, three battalions of infantry and a reconnaissance squadron with armoured vehicles.[84] Ghanaian Prime Minister and President Kwame Nkrumah aimed at rapidly expanding the GAF to support the United States of Africa ambitions. Thus in 1961, 4th and 5th Battalions were established, and in 1964 6th Battalion was established, from a parachute airborne unit originally raised in 1963.[85]

Today, Ghana is a regional power and regional hegemon.[19] In his book Shake Hands with the Devil, Canadian Forces commander Roméo Dallaire highly rated the GAF soldiers and military personnel.[84]

The military operations and military doctrine of the GAF are conceptualised on the Constitution of Ghana, Ghana's Law on Armed Force Military Strategy, and Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre (KAIPTC) agreements to which GAF is attestator.[86][87][88] GAF military operations are executed under the auspices and imperium of the Ministry of Defence (MoD) Minister for Defence.[86][89]

Although Ghana is relatively peaceful and is often considered to be one of the least violent countries in the region, Ghana has experienced political violence in the past and 2017 has thus far seen an upward trend in incidents motivated by political grievances.[90]

In 2017, Ghana signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.[91]

Law enforcement and police

The Ghana Police Service (GPS) and the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) are the main law enforcement agencies of the Republic of Ghana, and are responsible for the detection of crime, maintenance of law and order and the maintenance of internal peace and security.[92] The Ghana Police Service has eleven specialised police units including a Militarized police Rapid deployment force (RDF) and Marine Police Unit (MPU).[93][94] The Ghana Police Service operates in 12 divisions: ten covering the ten regions of Ghana, one assigned specifically to the seaport and industrial hub of Tema, and the twelfth being the Railways, Ports and Harbours Division.[94] The Ghana Police Service's Marine Police Unit and Division handles issues that arise from the country's offshore oil and gas industry.[94]

The Ghana Prisons Service and the sub-division Borstal Institute for Juveniles administers incarceration in Ghana.[95] Ghana retains and exercises the death penalty for treason, corruption, robbery, piracy, drug trafficking, rape, and homicide.[96][97] 27 convicts (all men) were sentenced to death in Ghana in 2012 and the Ghana Prisons Service statistics of the total number of convicts sentenced to death in Ghana as of December 2012 was 162 men and 4 women,[96] with a total prison inmate population of 13,983 convicts as of 22 July 2013.[98] "The new sustainable development goals adopted by the United Nations call for the international community to come together to promote the rule of law; support equal access to justice for all; reduce corruption; and develop effective, accountable, and transparent institutions at all levels."[99]

Ghanaian drug war and the Narcotics Control Board

Ghana is among the sovereign states of West Africa used by drug cartels and drug traffickers (shown in orange).

Ghana is used as a key narcotics industry transshipment point by traffickers, usually from South America as well as some from other African nations.[100] In 2013, the UN chief of the Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) stated that "West Africa is completely weak in terms of border control and the big drug cartels from Colombia and Latin America have chosen Africa as a way to reach Europe."[101]

There is not a wide or popular knowledge about the narcotics industry and intercepted narcotics within Ghana itself, due to the industry's operations and involvement in the underground economy. The social context within which narcotic trafficking, storage, transportation, and repacking systems exist in Ghana and the state's location along the Gulf of Guinea within the Atlantic OceanTemplate:Spaced ndashonly a few degrees north of the EquatorTemplate:Spaced ndashmakes Ghana an attractive country for the narcotics business.[100][102]

The Narcotics Control Board (NACOB) has impounded container ships at the Sekondi Naval Base in the Takoradi Harbour. These ships were carrying thousands of kilograms of cocaine, with a street value running into billions of Ghana cedis. However, drug seizures saw a decline in 2011.[100][102]

Drug cartels are using new methods in narcotics production and narcotics exportation, to avoid Ghanaian security agencies.[100][102] Underdeveloped institutions, porous open borders, and the existence of established smuggling organisations contribute to Ghana's position in the narcotics industry.[100][102] John Atta Mills, president between 2009 and 2012, initiated ongoing efforts to reduce the role of airports in Ghana's drug trade.[100]

Administrative divisions

Ghana is divided into 16 administrative regions, sub-divided into 275 districts:[103][104][105][106]

Regions of Ghana Area (km2) Regional capitals
Ahafo Region 5,193 Goaso Regions of Ghana from February 2019
Ashanti Region 24,389 Kumasi
Bono Region 11,107 Sunyani
Bono East Region 23,257 Techiman
Central Region 9,826 Cape Coast
Eastern Region 19,323 Koforidua
Greater Accra Region 3,245 Accra
Northern Region 25,448 Tamale
North East Region 9,074 Nalerigu
Oti Region 11,066 Dambai
Savannah Region 35,862 Damongo
Upper East Region 8,842 Bolgatanga
Upper West Region 18,476 Wa
Volta Region 9,504 Ho
Western Region 13,847 Sekondi-Takoradi
Western North Region 10,074 Wiawso

Human rights

Homosexual acts are prohibited by law in Ghana.[107] According to 2013 survey by the Pew Research Center, 96% of Ghanaians believe that homosexuality should not be accepted by society.[108] Sometimes old women in Ghana are accused of witchcraft, particularly in rural Ghana. Issues of witchcraft mainly remain as speculations based on superstitions within families. In some parts of northern Ghana, there exists what are called witch camps. This is said to house a total of around 1,000 people accused of witchcraft.[109] The Ghanaian government has announced that it intends to close the camps.[109]

While women in Ghana are given equal rights under the constitution of Ghana, disparities in education, employment, and healthcare for women remain prevalent.


Key sectors

File:Ghana Product Exports (2019).svg
A proportional representation of Ghana exports, 2019
File:Ghana Export Trends.jpg
Ghana petroleum and commodities; exports in percentage.

Ghana is an average natural resource enriched country possessing industrial minerals, hydrocarbons and precious metals. It is an emerging designated digital economy with mixed economy hybridisation and an emerging market. It has an economic plan target known as the "Ghana Vision 2020". This plan envisions Ghana as the first African country to become a developed country between 2020 and 2029 and a newly industrialised country between 2030 and 2039.[110] This excludes fellow Group of 24 member and Sub-Saharan African country South Africa, which is a newly industrialised country.[111] Ghana's economy also has ties to the Chinese yuan renminbi along with Ghana's vast gold reserves. In 2013, the Bank of Ghana began circulating the renminbi throughout Ghanaian state-owned banks and to the Ghana public as hard currency along with the national Ghana cedi for second national trade currency.[112] Between 2012 and 2013, 37.9 percent of rural dwellers were experiencing poverty whereas only 10.6 percent of urban dwellers were.[113] Urban areas hold greater opportunity for employment, particularly in informal trade, while nearly all (94 percent) of rural poor households participate in the agricultural sector.[114]

The state-owned Volta River Authority and Ghana National Petroleum Corporation are the two major electricity producers.[115] The Akosombo Dam, built on the Volta River in 1965, along with Bui Dam, Kpong Dam, and several other hydroelectric dams provide hydropower.[116][117] In addition, the Government of Ghana has sought to build the second nuclear power plant in Africa.

The Ghana Stock Exchange is the 5th largest on continental Africa and 3rd largest in sub-saharan Africa with a market capitalisation of GH¢ 57.2 billion or CN¥ 180.4 billion in 2012 with the South Africa JSE Limited as first.[118] The Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) was the 2nd best performing stock exchange in sub-saharan Africa in 2013.[119]

Ghana also produces high-quality cocoa.[120] It is the 2nd largest producer of cocoa globally,[120][121] and was projected to become the world's largest producer of cocoa in 2015.[122]

Ghana is classified as a middle income country.[6][123] Services account for 50% of GDP, followed by manufacturing (24.1%), extractive industries (5%), and taxes (20.9%).[115]

Ghana announced plans to issue government debt by way of social and green bonds in Autumn 2021, making it the first African country to do so.[citation needed][124][125] The country, which is planning to borrow up to $5 billion on international markets this year, would use the proceeds from these sustainable bonds to refinance debt used for social and environmental projects and pay for educational or health. Only a few other nations have sold them so far, including Chile and Ecuador. The country will use the proceeds to forge ahead with a free secondary-school initiative started in 2017 among other programs, despite having recorded its lowest economic growth rate in 37 years in 2020.[126]


The Ghana economy is an emerging digital-based mixed economy hybrid with an increasing primary manufacturing and export of digital technology goods along with assembling and exporting automobiles and ships, diverse resource rich exportation of industrial minerals, agricultural products primarily cocoa, petroleum and natural gas,[127] and industries such as information and communications technology primarily via Ghana's state digital technology corporation Rlg Communications which manufactures tablet computers with smartphones and various consumer electronics.[115][128] Urban electric cars have been manufactured in Ghana since 2014.[129][130]

Petroleum and natural gas production

Ghana produces and exports an abundance of hydrocarbons such as sweet crude oil and natural gas.[131][132] The 100% state-owned filling station company of Ghana, Ghana Oil Company (GOIL) is the number 1 petroleum and gas filling station of Ghana and the 100% state-owned state oil company Ghana National Petroleum Corporation (GNPC) oversees hydrocarbon exploration and production of Ghana's entire petroleum and natural gas reserves. Ghana aims to further increase output of oil to Template:Convert/e6oilbbl per day and gas to Template:Convert/e9cuft per day.[133]

Ghana's Jubilee Oilfield which contains up to Template:Convert/Goilbbl of sweet crude oil was discovered in 2007, among the many other offshore and inland oilfields in Ghana.[134] Ghana is believed to have up to Template:Convert/Goilbbl to Template:Convert/Goilbbl of petroleum in reserves,[135] which is the fifth largest in Africa and the 21st to 25th largest proven reserves in the world. It also has up to Template:Convert/e12cuft of natural gas in reserves,[136] which is the sixth largest in Africa and the 49th largest natural gas proven reserves in the world. Oil and gas exploration off Ghana's eastern coast on the Gulf of Guinea is ongoing, and the amount of both crude oil and natural gas continues to increase. The Government of Ghana has drawn up plans to nationalise Ghana's entire petroleum and natural gas reserves to increase government revenue.[137]


Industrial minerals mining

Known for its industrial minerals, Ghana is the world's 7th largest producer of gold, producing 130 metric tons in 2019,[138] and is now the largest producer in Africa ahead of South Africa.[138][139] Ghana has the 9th largest reserves and the 9th largest production rate of diamonds in the world.[140] Industrial minerals and exports from South Ghana include gold, silver, timber, diamonds, bauxite, and manganese. South Ghana also has mineral deposits of barite, basalt, clay, dolomite, feldspar, granite, gravel, gypsum, iron ore, kaolin, laterite, limestone, magnesite, marble, mica, phosphates, phosphorus, rocks, salts, sand, sandstone, silver, slate, talc, and uranium that are yet to be fully exploited.[141] The Government of Ghana has drawn up plans to nationalize Ghana's entire mining industry to increase government revenues.[142][143]


In 2011, 1,087,000 tourists visited Ghana.[145] Tourist arrivals to Ghana include South Americans, Asians, Europeans, and North Americans.[146] The attractions and major tourist destinations of Ghana include a warm, tropical climate year-round, diverse wildlife, waterfalls such as Kintampo waterfalls and the largest waterfall in west Africa, Wli waterfalls, Ghana's coastal palm-lined sandy beaches, caves, mountains, rivers, and reservoirs and lakes such as Lake Bosumtwi and the largest man-made lake in the world by surface area, Lake Volta, dozens of forts and castles, World Heritage Sites, nature reserves and national parks.[146] In addition to the beautiful natural reserves which serve as tourist sites, there are some castles in Ghana that serve as tourist sites and attract many tourists from all over the world. Some of the notable castles are Cape Coast Castle and the Elmina Castle all in the Central region of Ghana.[147] Not only are the castles important for tourism, they also mark where blood was shed in the slave trade and preserve and promote the African heritage stolen and destroyed through the slave trade.[148] As a result of this, the World Heritage Convention of UNESCO named Ghana's castles and forts as World Heritage Monuments.[148]

The World Economic Forum statistics in 2010 showed that out of the world's favorite tourist destinations, Ghana was ranked 108th out of 139 countries.[149] The country had moved two places up from the 2009 rankings. In 2011, Forbes magazine, published that Ghana was ranked the eleventh most friendly country in the world. The assertion was based on a survey in 2010 of a cross-section of travellers. Of all the African countries that were included in the survey, Ghana ranked highest.[149] Tourism is the fourth highest earner of foreign exchange for the country.[149] In 2017, Ghana ranks as the 43rd–most peaceful country in the world.[150]

A growing tourist attraction in Ghana is surfing. Up and down the coastline, several spots have been identified and cultivated by locals and internationals alike. Renowned surfers have made trips to the country to sample the waves. Suitable for beginners and seasoned surfers alike, there is a quality and consistency to the waves to suit all levels of skill. It is not unusual now to see surfers carrying their boards amid traditional Ghanaian fishing vessels. Busua, Kokrobite, and Muuston boast some of the country's best surf in warm, tropical waters.[151]

To enter Ghana, it is necessary to have a visa authorized by the Government of Ghana. Travellers must apply for this visa at a Ghanaian embassy; this process can take approximately two weeks. By law, visitors entering Ghana must be able to produce a yellow fever vaccination certificate.[152]

According to Destination Pride[153] – a data-driven search platform used to visualize the world's LGBTQ+ laws, rights and social sentiment – Ghana's Pride score is 22 (out of 100).[154]

Real estate

The real estate and housing market of Ghana has become an important and strategic economic sector, particularly in the urban centres of south Ghana such as Accra, Kumasi, Sekondi-Takoradi and Tema.[155][156][157] However, many of its citizens particularly those in Accra cannot afford the housing prices which is a trait of most major cities globally particularly in the West. Kumasi is growing at a faster rate than Accra, and there is less competition in its real estate market.[155] The gross rental income tax of Ghana is withheld at 10%, capital gains are taxed at 15% with a 5% gift tax imposed on the transfer of properties and Ghana's real estate market is divided into 3 areas: public sector real estate development, emerging private sector real estate development, and private individuals.[155][156] The activities of these 3 groups are facilitated by the Ghanaian banks and the primary mortgage market which has demonstrated enormous growth potential.[156] Recent developments in the Ghanaian economy has given birth to a boom in the construction sector, including the housing and public housing sector generating and injecting billions of dollars annually into the Ghanaian economy.[155][156] The real estate market investment perspective and attraction comes from Ghana's tropical location and robust political stability.[155][156] An increasing number of the Ghanaian populace are investing in properties and the Ghana government is empowering the private sector in the real estate direction.[155][156]

Trade and exports

File:Ghana economy treemap.png
Ghana Export Treemap by Product (2017) from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity[158]

In July 2013, International Enterprise Singapore opened its 38th global office in Accra, to develop trade and investment on logistics, oil and gas, aviation, transportation and consumer sectors.[159] Singapore and Ghana also signed four bilateral agreements to promote public sector and private sector collaboration, as Ghana aims to predominantly shift its economic trade partnership to East Asia and Southeast Asia.[159] The economic centre is IE Singapore's second office in Africa, coming six months after opening in Johannesburg, South Africa in January 2013.[159] Ghana's labour force in 2008 totalled 11.5 million Ghanaian citizens.[160][161] Tema Harbour is Africa's largest Template:Linktext harbour and Takoradi Harbour along with Tema harbour in Ghana handles goods and exports for Ghana. They are also traffic junctions where goods are transhipped; the Tema harbour handles the majority of the nation's export cargo and most of the country's chief exports is shipped from Takoradi harbour.[162][163] The Takoradi harbour and Tema harbour are operated by the state-owned Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority.[162][163]

Electricity generation sector

Severe shortages of electricity in 2015 & 2016 led to dumsor (persistent, irregular and unpredictable electric power outages),[164] increasing the interest in renewables.[165] As of 2019, there is now a surplus of electricity which now presents a new set of financial challenges.[166]

Economic transparency

According to Transparency International's Corruption Perception Index of 2018, out of 180 countries, Ghana was ranked 78th, with a score of 41 on a scale where a 0–9 score means highly corrupt, and a 90–100 score means very clean. This was based on perceived levels of public sector corruption.[167]

In 2013, out of 177 countries, Ghana was ranked 63rd with Cuba and Saudi Arabia with a score of 46.[168] Previously in 2012, the country ranked 64 and scored 45. Thus, Ghana's public sector scored lower in 2013 than in 2012, according to CPI's scores.

Local reports have claimed that Ghana loses US$4.5 billion annually from nominal gross domestic product (Nominal GDP) growth as a result of economic corruption and economic crime by the incumbent National Democratic Congress (NDC) government of Ghana led by John Dramani Mahama.[169] It is also said Ghana has lost an additional US$2.5 billion from nominal gross domestic product (Nominal GDP) growth between the months of January 2013 to October 2013 through economic corrupt practices under the Mahama administration.[170]

The incumbent president is however seen to be fighting corruption by some government members,[171] and a fellow politician of an opposition party,[172] after ordering investigations into scandals. Nonetheless others believe his actions are not sufficient in some cases.[173]

John Addo Kufuor, son of former President John Agyekum Kufuor and Kojo Annan, son of former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan, have been named in association with the Panama Papers.[174]

Science and technology

Ghana was the first Southern-Saharan African country to launch a cellular mobile network (1992). It was one of the first countries in Africa to be connected to the internet and to introduce ADSL broadband services.[175]

Space and satellite programmes

The Ghana Space Science and Technology Centre (GSSTC) and Ghana Space Agency (GhsA) oversee the space exploration and space programmes of Ghana. GSSTC and GhsA worked to have a national security observational satellite launched into orbit in 2015.[176][177] The first practical step in its endeavor was a CanSat launched on 15 May 2013, a space programme spearheaded by the All Nations University College (ANUC) in Koforidua. The CanSat was deployed Template:Convert/LoffAnoneDbSoff high from a helium-filled balloon and took some aerial images as well as temperature readings. As its next step in advancing space science and satellite technology in the sub-region, an amateur ground station has been designed and built by the university. It has successfully tracked and communicated with several (amateur) radio satellites in orbit including the International Space Station, receiving slow-scan TV images on 18 and 20 December 2014. The miniaturized earth observational satellite is to be launched into orbit in 2017.[178]

Ghana's annual space exploration expenditure has been 1% of its gross domestic product (GDP), to support research in science and technology. In 2012, Ghana was elected to chair the Commission on Science and Technology for Sustainable Development in the South (Comsats); Ghana has a joint effort in space exploration with South Africa's South African National Space Agency (SANSA).[176]

Cybernetics and cyberwarfare

The use of computer technology for teaching and learning began to receive government of Ghana's attention from the late 1990s.[179] The information and communications technology in education policy of Ghana requires the use of information and communications technology for teaching and learning at all levels of the education of Ghana system.[179] The Ministry of Education (MOE) supports institutions in teaching of information and communications technology literacy.[179] The majority of secondary, and some basic schools of Ghana have computer laboratories.[179]

Ghana's intention to become the information technology hub of West Africa has led the government of Ghana to enact cyber crime legislation and enhance cyber security practices.[180] Acting on that goal, in 2008 Ghana passed the Electronic Communications Act and the Electronic Transactions Act, which established the legal framework for governing information technology.[180] In November 2011, the Deputy Minister for Communications and Technology announced the development of a national cyber security strategy, aimed at combating cyber crime and securing critical infrastructure.[180]

In June 2012, the National Information Technology Agency (NITA) announced a national computer emergency response team "strategy" designed to co-ordinate government response to cyber-attacks, both internal and external.[180] The agency also established computer emergency response teams for each municipal, metropolitan, and district assembly to improve co-ordination and information-sharing on cyberspace threats.[180] Ghana is ranked 2nd in Africa and 7th globally in cyber warfare, cyber-terrorism, cyber crime, and internet crime.[181]

In 2018, the National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) was founded. It is the national agency responsible for cybersecurity.[182] In November 2020, Parliament passed the Cybersecurity Act 2020. The Minister for Communications, Ursula Owusu-Ekuful, indicated that, "a successful economy is hinged on a secured, safe and resilient national digital ecosystem. Cyber-security is, therefore, very critical to the economic development of the country and essential to the protection of the rights of individuals within the national digital ecosystem".[183]

Health and biotechnology

The Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine is an agency of the Ministry of Health that was set up in the 1970s for both R&D and as a practical resource (product production & distribution/provision) primarily in areas of biotechnology related to medicinal plants. This includes both herbal medicine and work on more advanced applications. It also has a secondary role as an educational resource for foreign students in health, biotechnology and related fields.



Ghanaian education system is divided in three parts: Basic Education, secondary cycle, and tertiary education. "Basic Education" lasts 11 years (ages 4‒15).[184] It is divided into Kindergarten (2 years), Primary School (2 modules of 3 years) and Junior High (3 years). Junior High School (JHS) ends with the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE).[184][185] Once the BECE is achieved, the pupil can proceed to the secondary cycle.[186] Hence, the pupil has the choice between general education (offered by the Senior High School) and vocational education (offered by the technical Senior High School or the Technical and Vocational Institutes). Senior High School lasts three years and leads to the West African Secondary School Certificate Examination (WASSCE), which is a prerequisite for enrollment in a university bachelor's degree programme.Template:Sfn Polytechnics are open to vocational students, from SHS or TVI.[187]

A Bachelor's degree usually requires four years of study. It can be followed by a one- or two-year master's degree programme, which can be followed by a PhD programme of at least three years.Template:Sfn A polytechnic programme lasts two or three years.[187] Ghana also possesses numerous colleges of education.[188] Some of the notable universities in Ghana are The University of Ghana, Legon, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, and University of Cape Coast, just to mention a few.[189] The Ghanaian education system from kindergarten up to an undergraduate degree level generally takes 20 years.[190]

The academic year usually goes from August to May inclusive.Template:Sfn The school year in primary education lasts 40 weeks in Primary School and SHS and 45 weeks in JHS.Template:Sfn

Writing System

Modern Ghanaians use Adinkra Nkyea, a writing system based on the [191] Adinkra Symbols. The Akan Language and it's dialects uses the Adinkra Nkyea writing system. Majority of Adinkra Nkyea is deprived from the original Adinkra Symbols. Adinkra Nkyea contains some 39 characters, 10 numerals, and 3 punctuation marks.
File:Adinkra Characters.png
Adinkra Characters.


Template:Multiple image With over 95% of its children in school, Ghana currently has one of the highest school enrollment rates in all of Africa.[193][194] The ratio of females to males in the total education system was 0.98, in 2014.[195]

Foreign students

Ghana's education system annually attracts a large number of foreign students particularly in the university sector.[196][197]

Funding of education

The government largely funds basic education comprising public primary schools and public junior high schools. Senior high schools were subsidised by the government until September 2017/2018 academic year that senior high education became free.[198] At the higher education level, the government funds more than 80% of resources provided to public universities, polytechnics and teacher training colleges.

As part of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education, Fcube, the government supplies all basic education schools with all their textbooks and other educational supplies like exercise books. Senior high schools are also provided with all their textbook requirement by the government. Private schools acquire their educational material from private suppliers.[199]

Kindergarten and education structure

File:Ghana Education Structure.gif
Education structure of Ghana

The female and male ages 15–24 years literacy rate in Ghana was 81% in 2010, with males at 82%,[200] and females at 80%.[201]

Ghanaian children begin their education at the age of three or four starting from kindergarten (nursery school and preschool), then to elementary school (primary school), high school (junior high school and senior high school) and finally university. The average age at which a Ghanaian child enters primary school is 6 years.[193]

Ghana has a free education 6-year primary school education system beginning at age six,[202] and, under the educational reforms implemented in 1988 and reformed in 2007, they pass on to a 3-year junior high school system. At the end of the third year of junior high, there is a mandatory "Basic Education Certificate Examination". Those continuing must complete the 4-year senior high school programme (which has been changed to three years) and take an admission exam to enter any university or tertiary programme. The Ghanaian education system from nursery school up to an undergraduate degree level takes 20 years.[190]

In 2005, Ghana had 12,130 primary schools, 5,450 junior secondary schools, 503 senior secondary schools, 21 public training colleges, 18 technical institutions, two diploma-awarding institutions and 6 universities.[203][204]

In 2010, there were relatively more females (53.0%) than males (40.5%) with primary school and JSS (junior secondary school) / JHS (junior high school) as their highest level of education.[2]


The Ghanaian Ministry of Education and the Ghanaian National Accreditation Board provide free education at the elementary school (primary school) level, and most Ghanaians have relatively easy access to high school education (junior high school and senior high school).[202] These numbers can be contrasted with the single university and handful of secondary and primary schools that existed at the time of independence in 1957. Ghana's spending on education has varied between 28 and 40% of its annual budget in the past decade. All teaching is done in English, mostly by qualified Ghanaian educators.[190]

The courses taught at the primary or basic school level include English, Ghanaian language and culture, mathematics, environmental studies, social studies, Mandarin and French as an OIF associated-member,[205] integrated or general science, pre-vocational skills and pre-technical skills, religious and moral education, and physical activities such as Ghanaian music and dance, and physical education.[190]

High school

The senior high level school curriculum has core subjects and elective subjects of which students must take four the core subjects of English language, mathematics, integrated science (including science, agriculture and environmental studies) and social studies (economics, geography, history and government).[190]

High school students also choose four elective subjects from five available programmes: agriculture programme, general programme (arts or science option), business programme, vocational programme and technical programme.[190] Apart from most primary and secondary schools which choose the Ghanaian system of schooling, there are also international schools such as the Takoradi International School, Tema International School, Galaxy International School, The Roman Ridge School, Lincoln Community School, Faith Montessori School, American International School, Alpha Beta Christian College, Ghana Christian International High School, Association International School, New Nation School, SOS Hermann Gmeiner International College, Vilac International School, Akosombo International School (which offers Cambridge O level certificate), North Legon Little Campus and International Community School, which offer the International Baccalaureat, Advanced Level General Certificate of Education and the International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE).[203]


Template:Multiple image

There are nine national public universities in Ghana: the University of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, University of Cape Coast, University of Education, University for Development Studies, University of Mines and Technology, University of Professional Studies, Accra, University of Energy and Natural Resources, and University of Health and Allied Sciences.[206]

Ghana has a growing number of accredited private universities including Lancaster University, Ghana, Ghana Technology University College, Ashesi University College, Methodist University College Ghana, Central University College, Accra Institute of Technology, Regent University College of Science and Technology, Valley View University, Catholic University College, Presbyterian University College and Zenith University College.[207]

The oldest university in Ghana, the University of Ghana, was founded in 1948. It had 29,754 students in 2008. It offers programmes in the arts, humanities, business, and the social sciences, as well as medicine.[208] Many universities—including Harvard University, Cornell University, and Oxford University—have special study-abroad programmes with Ghanaian schools and provide their students the opportunity to study abroad at Ghanaian universities. New York University has a campus in Accra.[209]

The University of Ghana has seen a shift of its traditionally best students to the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.[210] Since Ghana's independence, the country has been one of the most educational in sub-Saharan Africa. Former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan has been chancellor of the University of Ghana since 2008.[210]

Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, the second university to be established in the country, is the premier university of science and technology in Ghana and West Africa.[190]


Template:Historical populations

Ghana is a multiethnic country.[2] The largest ethnic group is the Ashanti people. Ghana's territorial area within West Africa was unoccupied and uninhabited by humans until the 10th century BC.[211] By the 10th century AD, the Guans were the first settlers in Ghana long before the other tribes came. Akans had established Bonoman (Brong Ahafo region) and were joined by the current settlers and inhabitants by the 16th century.

In 2010, the population of Ghana was 72.2% Christian (24.3% Pentecostal, 18.4% Protestant, 13.1% Catholic and 11.4% other). Approximately 18.6% of the population of Ghana are Muslim,[18] (51% Sunni, 16% Ahmadiyya, and 8% Shia).[212][213] Just over 10,000 Ghanaians practise Hinduism, with most of them being indigenous converts. Hinduism in Ghana was popularized by Swami Ghana Nanda ji, who opened several temples in the nation. The temple of Lord Shiva in Accra is one of the largest where there are celebrations to Ganesh Chaturthi, Rath Yatra, and other Hindu observations.

The Bahá’í religious community, established in Ghana in 1951, today includes more than 100 communities and over 50 local Bahá’í administrative councils, called Local Spiritual Assemblies.[214]

As of 2014, there are 375,000 registered legal skilled workers (permanent residents) or foreign workers/students (i.e. Ghana Card holders) inhabitants with an annually 1.5 million transited airport layovers. In its first post-colonial census in 1960, Ghana had a population of 6.7 million.[215] The median age of Ghanaian citizens is 30 years old and the average household size is 3.6 persons. The Government of Ghana states that the official language of Ghana is English,[1] and is spoken by 67.1% of the inhabiting population of Ghana.[2]


File:Ghana Card biometric.jpg
Ghana Card (Ghanaian electronic ID Card) – obverse with chip

As of 22 June 2019, Ghana has a population of 30,083,000.[216] Around 29 percent of the population is under the age of 15, while persons aged 15–64 make up 57.8 percent of the population.[217] The Ashanti Region had the most, (Akan) (Ashanti) (4.7 million in Ashanti, 2.3 million in Brong-Ahafo, 2.2 million in Central, 2.6 million in Eastern, 2.3 million in Western, and 4 million in the seat of government in Greater Accra geographically and legally part of Eastern then administered separately on 23 July 1982).[212] As of 2010, 4.1 million persons reside in the Northern territories (2.4 million in Northern, 1 million in Upper East, and 0.7 million in Upper West).[212]

As of 2010, 2.1 million persons reside in Ewe territory Volta.[212] Template:Bar box


Due to the recent legal immigration of skilled workers who possess Ghana Cards, there is a small population of Chinese, Malaysian, Indian, Middle Eastern and European nationals.

In 2010, the Ghana Immigration Service reported a large number of economic migrants and Illegal immigrants inhabiting Ghana: 14.6% (or 3.1 million) of Ghana's 2010 population (predominantly Nigerians, Burkinabe citizens, Togolese citizens, and Malian citizens). In 1969, under the "Ghana Aliens Compliance Order" (GACO) enacted by the Prime Minister of Ghana Kofi Abrefa Busia;[218] Government of Ghana with BGU (Border Guard Unit) deported over 3,000,000 aliens and illegal immigrants in three months as they made up 20% of the population at the time.[218][219] In 2013, there was a mass deportation of illegal miners, more than 4,000 of them Chinese nationals.[220][221]


English is the official language.[222][223]

Additionally, there are eleven languages that have the status of government-sponsored languages:

Of these, Asante Twi is the most widely spoken.[226]

Due to Ghana being surrounded by French-speaking countries, French is widely taught in schools and universities, as well as a language used for commercial and international economic exchanges and is spoken in some regions. Since 2006, Ghana has been an associate member of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie,[227] the global organisation that unites French-speaking countries (84 nations on 6 continents). In 2005, over 350 000 Ghanaian children studied French in schools. Since then, its status has progressively been updated to a mandatory language in every high school.[228] It is in the process of becoming an official language.[229][230]

Ghanaian Pidgin English (GhPE), also known as Kru English (or, in Akan, kroo brofo), is a variety of West African Pidgin English spoken mainly in Accra and in the southern towns.[231] GhPE can be divided into two varieties, referred to as "uneducated" or "non-institutionalized" pidgin and "educated" or "institutionalized" pidgin, the former associated with uneducated or illiterate people and the latter acquired and used in institutions such as universities.[232]


Religious affiliation in Ghana
Affiliation 2000 Census[17] 2010 Census[17][233] 2014 DHS Survey[234][note 1]
Christian 68.8% 71.2% 76.9%
Pentecostal/Charismatic 24.1% 28.3% 36.3%
Protestant 18.6% 18.4% 13.5%[note 2]
Catholic 15.1% 13.1% 10.4%
Other Christian 11.0% 11.4% 16.7%
Muslim 15.9% 17.6% 16.4%
Traditional 8.5% 5.2% 2.6%[note 3]
None 6.1% 5.3% 4.3%
Other 0.7% 0.8% 0.0%
  1. The DHS survey surveyed only those between the ages of 15 and 59
  2. The DHS survey used Anglican/Methodist/Presbyterian in place of "Protestant"
  3. The DHS survey combined "Traditional" with "Spiritualist"

Ghana is a largely Christian country, although a sizable Muslim minority exists. Traditional (indigenous) beliefs are also practised.

The fertility rate of Ghana declined from 3.99 (2000) to 3.28 (2010) with 2.78 in urban region and 3.94 in rural region.[235] The United Nations reports a fertility decline from 6.95 (1970) to 4.82 (2000) to 3.93 live births per woman in 2017.[236]


Life expectancy at birth in 2020 was 71 for a female and 65 for a male.[237]

The top ten causes of death in Ghana in 2018 were:[237]

  1. Malaria
  2. Lower respiratory infections
  3. Neonatal disorders
  4. Ischemic heart disease
  5. Stroke
  7. Tuberculosis
  8. Diarrheal diseases
  9. Road injuries
  10. Diabetes


Crime in Ghana is investigated by the Ghana Police Service. Ghana had a murder rate of 1.68 per 100,000 population in 2011.[238]

Universal health care and life expectancy

Ghana has a universal health care system strictly designated for Ghanaian nationals, National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS).[239] Health care is very variable throughout Ghana and in 2012, over 12 million Ghanaian nationals were covered by the National Health Insurance Scheme (Ghana) (NHIS).[240] Urban centres are well served, and contain most of the hospitals, clinics, and pharmacies in Ghana. There are over 200 hospitals in Ghana and Ghana is a destination for medical tourism.[241] In 2010, there were 0.1 physicians per 1,000 people and as of 2011, 0.9 hospital beds per 1,000 people.[217]

The 2014 estimate of life expectancy at birth had increased to an average of 65.75 years with males at 63.4 years and females at 68.2 years,[242] and in 2013 infant mortality decreased to 39 per 1,000 live births.[243] Sources vary on life expectancy at birth; the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated 62 years for men and 64 years for women born in 2016.[244]

There was an estimation of 15 physicians and 93 nurses per 100,000 persons in 2010.[245] 5.2% of Ghana's GDP was spent on health in 2010,[246] and all Ghanaian citizens have the right to access primary health care.[247] In May 2020, the WHO announced Ghana became the second country in the WHO African Region to attain regulatory system "maturity level 3", the second-highest in the four-tiered WHO classification of National medicines regulatory systems.[248]

As of 2012, the HIV/AIDS prevalence was estimated at 1.40% among adults aged 15–49.[249] Template:Clear right


Ghanaian culture is a diverse mixture of the practices and beliefs of many different Ghanaian ethnic groups. The 2010 census reported that the largest ethnic groups are the Akan (47.3 percent), the Mole-Dagbani (16.6 percent), the Ewe (13.9 percent), the Ga-Dangme (7.4 percent), the Gurma (5.7) and the Guan (3.7 percent).[235] The Akan make up a majority of the population in the Central (81.7 percent), Western (78.2 percent), Ashanti (74.2 percent), Brong Ahafo (58.9 percent) and Eastern (51.1 percent) regions.[235]

Food and drink

Ghanaian cuisine and gastronomy is diverse, and includes an assortment of soups and stews with varied seafoods and most Ghanaian soups are prepared with vegetables, meat, poultry or fish.[250] Fish is important in the Ghanaian diet with tilapia, roasted and fried whitebait, smoked fish and crayfish all being common components of Ghanaian dishes.[250]

Banku (akple) is a common Ghanaian starchy food made from ground corn (maize),[250] and cornmeal based staples, kɔmi (kenkey) and banku (akple) are usually accompanied by some form of fried fish (chinam) or grilled tilapia and a very spicy condiment made from raw red and green chillies, onions and tomatoes (pepper sauce).[250] Banku and tilapia is a combo served in most Ghanaian restaurants.[250] Fufu is the most common exported Ghanaian dish, in that it is a delicacy across the African diaspora.[250]


The Ghanaian national literature radio programme and accompanying publication Voices of Ghana was one of the earliest on the African continent. The most prominent Ghanaian authors are novelists; J. E. Casely Hayford, Ayi Kwei Armah and Nii Ayikwei Parkes, who gained international acclaim with the books, Ethiopia Unbound (1911), The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born (1968) and Tail of the Blue Bird (2009), respectively.[251] In addition to novels, other literature arts such as Ghanaian theatre and poetry have also had a very good development and support at the national level with prominent Ghanaian playwrights and poets Joe de Graft and Efua Sutherland.[251] Much of the 2016 novel Homegoing by Ghanaian-born American writer Yaa Gyasi takes place in Ghana.


During the 13th century, Ghanaians developed their unique art of adinkra printing. Hand-printed and hand-embroidered adinkra clothes were made and used exclusively by the then Ghanaian royalty for devotional ceremonies. Each of the motifs that make up the corpus of adinkra symbolism has a name and meaning derived from a proverb, a historical event, human attitude, ethology, plant life-form, or shapes of inanimate and man-made objects. These are graphically rendered in stylised geometric shapes. The meanings of the motifs may be categorised into aesthetics, ethics, human relations, and concepts.[251]

The Adinkra symbols have a decorative function as tattoos but also represent objects that encapsulate evocative messages that convey traditional wisdom, aspects of life or the environment. There are many different symbols with distinct meanings, often linked with proverbs. In the words of Anthony Appiah, they were one of the means in a pre-literate society for "supporting the transmission of a complex and nuanced body of practice and belief".[252]

Traditional clothing

File:Kent wove.jpg
Kente cloth, the traditional or national cloth of Ghana, is worn by most southern Ghanaian ethnic groups including the Akan, the Ga, and the Ewe.

Along with the Adinkra cloth Ghanaians use many different cloth fabrics for their traditional attire.[253] The different ethnic groups have their own individual cloth. The most well known is the Kente cloth.[253] Kente is a very important Ghanaian national costume and clothing and these cloths are used to make traditional and modern Ghanaian Kente attire.[253]

Different symbols and different colours mean different things.[253] Kente is the most famous of all the Ghanaian cloths.[253] Kente is a ceremonial cloth hand-woven on a horizontal treadle loom and strips measuring about 4 inches wide are sewn together into larger pieces of cloths.[253] Cloths come in various colours, sizes and designs and are worn during very important social and religious occasions.[253]

In a cultural context, kente is more important than just a cloth and it is a visual representation of history and also a form of written language through weaving.[253] The term kente has its roots in the Akan word kɛntɛn which means a basket and the first kente weavers used raffia fibres to weave cloths that looked like kenten (a basket); and thus were referred to as kenten ntoma; meaning basket cloth.[253] The original Akan name of the cloth was nsaduaso or nwontoma, meaning "a cloth hand-woven on a loom"; however, "kente" is the most frequently used term today.[253] Template:Clear left

Modern clothing

Template:Multiple image

Contemporary Ghanaian fashion includes traditional and modern styles and fabrics and has made its way into the African and global fashion scene. The cloth known as African print fabric was created out of Dutch wax textiles. It is believed that in the late 1800s, Dutch ships on their way to Asia stocked with machine-made textiles that mimicked Indonesian Batik stopped at many West African ports on the way. The fabrics did not do well in Asia. However, in West Africa – mainly Ghana where there was an already established market for cloths and textiles – the client base grew and it was changed to include local and traditional designs, colours and patterns to cater to the taste of the new consumers.[254] Today outside of Africa it is called "Ankara" and it has a client base well beyond Ghana and Africa as a whole. It is very popular among Caribbean peoples and African Americans; celebrities such as Solange Knowles and her sister Beyoncé have been seen wearing African print attire.[255] Many designers from countries in North America and Europe are now using African prints and it has gained a global interest.[256] British luxury fashion house Burberry created a collection around Ghanaian styles.[257] American musician Gwen Stefani has repeatedly incorporated African prints into her clothing line and can often be seen wearing it.[258] Internationally acclaimed Ghanaian-British designer Ozwald Boateng introduced African print suits in his 2012 collection.[259]

Music and dance

The music of Ghana is diverse and varies between different ethnic groups and regions. Ghanaian music incorporates several distinct types of musical instruments such as the talking drum ensembles, Akan Drum, goje fiddle and koloko lute, court music, including the Akan Seperewa, the Akan atumpan, the Ga kpanlogo styles, and log xylophones used in asonko music.[260] The most well known genres to have come from Ghana are African jazz, which was created by Ghanaian artist Kofi Ghanaba,[261] and its earliest form of secular music, called highlife.[260] Highlife originated in the late 19th century and early 20th century and spread throughout West Africa.[260] In the 1990s a new genre of music was created by the youth incorporating the influences of highlife, Afro-reggae, dancehall and hip hop.[260] This hybrid was called hiplife.[260] Ghanaian artists such as "Afro Roots" singer, activist and songwriter Rocky Dawuni, R&B and soul singer Rhian Benson and Sarkodie have had international success.[262][263] In December 2015, Rocky Dawuni became the first Ghanaian musician to be nominated for a Grammy award in the Grammy Award for Best Reggae Album category for his 6th studio album titled Branches of The Same Tree[264] released 31 March 2015.

Ghanaian dance is as diverse as its music, and there are traditional dances and different dances for different occasions.[265] The most known Ghanaian dances are those for celebrations. These dances include the Adowa, Kpanlogo, Azonto, Klama, Agbadza, Borborbor and Bamaya.[265]

The Nana Otafrija Pallbearing Services, also known as the Dancing Pallbearers, come from the coastal town of Prampram in the Greater Accra Region of southern Ghana. The group of pallbearers were featured in a BBC feature story in 2017, and footage from the story became part of an Internet meme in the wake of the COVID-19 world pandemic.[266]


Template:Multiple image

Ghana has a budding and thriving film industry. Ghana's film industry dates as far back as 1948 when the Gold Coast Film Unit was set up in the Information Services Department.[267] Some internationally recognised films have come from Ghana. In 1970, I Told You So was one of the first Ghanaian films to receive international acknowledgement and received great reviews from The New York Times.[268] It was followed by the 1973 Ghanaian and Italian production The African Deal also known as "Contratto carnale" featuring Bahamian American actor Calvin Lockhart.[269] 1983's Kukurantumi: the Road to Accra, a Ghanaian and German production directed by King Ampaw, was written about by famous American film critic Vincent Canby.[270] In 1987, Cobra Verde, another Ghanaian and German production directed by Werner Herzog, received international acclamation and in 1988, Heritage Africa won more than 12 film awards.

In recent times there have been collaborations between Ghanaian and Nigerian crew and cast and a number of productions turned out. Many Ghanaian films are co-produced with Nollywood, the Nigerian film industry, and some are distributed by Nigerian marketers. Also, Nigerian filmmakers often feature Ghanaian actors and actresses in their movies and Ghanaian filmmakers feature Nigerian actors and actresses in theirs. Nadia Buari, Yvonne Nelson, Lydia Forson and Jackie Appiah all popular Ghanaian actresses and Van Vicker and Majid Michel both popular Ghanaian actors, have starred in many Nigerian movies. As a result of these collaborations, Western viewers often confuse Ghanaian movies with Nollywood and count their sales as one; however, they are two independent industries that sometimes share Nollywood. In 2009, Unesco described Nollywood as the second-biggest film industry in the world after Bollywood.[271]

Though The Ghana Film Industry had a downtrend for almost a decade mainly because of low input in production this scenario has drastically change. New and emerging young film makers are adding spice to the already rich Ghana movie scene. Bliz Bazawule,[272] Peter Sedufia,[273] Joseph Clef[274] and many others have shown the world the new age of filming in Ghana.


File:Ghana Trustworthiness of Media.jpg
Ghana mass media, news and information provided by television.

The media of Ghana are amongst the most free in Africa. Chapter 12 of the 1992 Constitution of Ghana guarantees freedom of the press and independence of the media, while Chapter 2 prohibits censorship.[275] Post-independence, the government and media often had a tense relationship, with private outlets closed during the military governments and strict media laws that prevented criticism of government.[276]

Press freedoms were restored in 1992, and after the election in 2000 of John Agyekum Kufuor the tensions between the private media and government decreased. Kufuor supported press freedom and repealed a libel law, but maintained that the media had to act responsibly.[277] The Ghanaian media has been described as "one of the most unfettered" in Africa, operating with little restriction. The private press often carries criticism of government policy.[278]


Association football is the top spectator sport in Ghana and the national men's football team is known as the Black Stars, with the under-20 team known as the Black Satellites.[279] Ghana has won the African Cup of Nations four times, the FIFA U-20 World Cup once, and has participated in three consecutive FIFA World Cups in 2006, 2010, and 2014.[279] In the 2010 FIFA World Cup, Ghana became the third African country to reach the quarter-final stage of the World Cup after Cameroon in 1990 and Senegal in 2002.[280] Ghana national U-20 football team, known as the Black Satellites, is considered to be the feeder team for the Ghana national football team. Ghana is the first and only country on the Africa continent to be crowned FIFA U-20 World Cup Champions,[279] and two-time runners up in 1993 and 2001. The Ghana national U-17 football team known as the Black Starlets are two-time FIFA U-17 World Cup champions in 1991 and 1995, two-time runners up in 1993 and 1997.[281]

Ghanaian football teams Asante Kotoko SC and Accra Hearts of Oak SC are the 5th and 9th best football teams on the Africa continent and have won a total of five Africa continental association football and Confederation of African Football trophies; Ghanaian football club Asante Kotoko SC has been crowned two-time CAF Champions League winners in 1970, 1983 and five-time CAF Champions League runners up, and Ghanaian football club Accra Hearts of Oak SC has been crowned 2000 CAF Champions League winner and two-time CAF Champions League runners up, 2001 CAF Super Cup champions and 2004 CAF Confederation Cup champions.[282] The International Federation of Football History and Statistics crowned Asante Kotoko SC as the African club of the 20th century.[282] There are several club football teams in Ghana that play in the Ghana Premier League and Division One League, both administered by the Ghana Football Association.[283]

Ghana competed in the Winter Olympics in 2010 for the first time. Ghana qualified for the 2010 Winter Olympics, scoring 137.5 International Ski Federation points, within the qualifying range of 120–140 points.[284] Ghanaian skier, Kwame Nkrumah-Acheampong, nicknamed "The snow leopard", became the first Ghanaian to take part in the Winter Olympics, at the 2010 Winter Olympics held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada,[285] taking part in the slalom skiing.[286] Ghana finished 47th out of 102 participating nations, of whom 54 finished in the Alpine skiing slalom.[287][288] Kwame Nkrumah-Acheampong broke on the international skiing circuit, being the second black African skier to do so.[289]

Ghana's last medal at the Summer Olympics dates back to 1992.[290] Ghanaian athletes have won a total of four Olympics medals in thirteen appearances at the Summer Olympics, three in boxing, and a bronze medal in association football, and thus became the first country on the Africa continent to win a medal at association football.[291]

Ghana competes in the Commonwealth Games, sending athletes in every edition since 1954 (except for the 1986 games). Ghana has won fifty-seven medals at the Commonwealth Games, including fifteen gold, with all but one of their medals coming in athletics and boxing.

The country has also produced a number of world class boxers, including Azumah Nelson a three-time world champion and considered as Africa's greatest boxer,[292][293] Nana Yaw Konadu also a three-time world champion,[293] Ike Quartey,[293] and Joshua Clottey.[293]

Ghana's women's football team won bronze at the Africa Women Cup of Nations 2016 edition in Yaoundé, Cameroon. The team beat South Africa 1–0.[294]

Ghana featured a men's national team in beach volleyball that competed at the 2018–2020 CAVB Beach Volleyball Continental Cup.[295]

Ghana will host the 2023 African Games in Accra.

Cultural heritage and architecture

There are two types of Ghanaian traditional construction: the series of adjacent buildings in an enclosure around a common are common and the traditional round huts with grass roof.[296] The round huts with grass roof architecture are situated in the northern regions of Ghana (Northern, Upper East and Upper West regions), while the series of adjacent buildings are in the southern regions of Ghana (Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra and Western regions).[296]

Ghanaian postmodern architecture and high-tech architecture buildings are predominant in the Ghanaian southern regions, while the Ghanaian heritage sites are most evident by the more than thirty forts and castles built in Ghana. Some of these forts are Fort William and Fort Amsterdam. Ghana has museums that are situated inside castles, and two are situated inside a fort.[297] The Military Museum and the National Museum organise temporary exhibitions.[297]

Ghana has museums that show a in-depth look at specific Ghanaian regions, there are a number of museums that provide insight into the traditions and history of their own geographical area in Ghana.[297] The Cape Coast Castle Museum and St. Georges Castle (Elmina Castle) Museum offer guided tours. The Museum of Science and Technology provides its visitors with a look into the domain of Ghanaian scientific development, through exhibits of objects of scientific and technological interest.[297]

National symbols

The coat of arms depicts two animals: the tawny eagle (Aquila rapax, a very large bird that lives in the savannas and deserts;[298] 35% of Ghana's landmass is desert, 35% is forest, 30% is savanna) and the lion (Panthera leo, a big cat); a ceremonial sword, a heraldic castle on a heraldic sea, a cocoa tree and a mine shaft representing the industrial mineral wealth of Ghana, and a five-pointed black star rimmed with gold representing the mineral gold wealth of Ghana and the lodestar of the Ghanaian people.[299] It also has the legend Freedom and Justice.[299]

The flag of Ghana consists of three horizontal bands (strips) of red (top), gold (middle) and green (bottom); the three bands are the same height and width; the middle band bears a five-pointed black star in the centre of the gold band, the colour red band stands for the blood spilled to achieve the nation's independence: gold stands for Ghana's industrial mineral wealth, and the colour green symbolises the rich tropical rainforests and natural resources of Ghana.[43][299]

<div class="thumb tnone" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right:auto; width:99%; max-width:Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "[".px;">


National landmarks

Tourism Landmarks, National Border, Region and Terrestrial plain of the 4th Republic of Ghana
Coastal Plain Accra, Apam, Cape Coast, Elmina, Kakum National Park, Kokrobite, Nzulezo, Sekondi-Takoradi, Ada Foah The Gulf of Guinea coastal plain with the seat of government and capital city, several castles and forts and the best preserved rainforest in Ghana
Ashanti-Kwahu Koforidua, Kumasi, Obuasi, Sunyani Forested hills and the ancient Kingdom of Ashanti
Volta Basin Tamale massive and world's largest Lake Volta, the river system that feeds it and Ghana eastern border crossing
Northern Plains Wa, Bolgatanga, Mole National Park Savanna plains and north Ghana trade route and border crossing
Accra Seat of Government and Capital city.
Bolgatanga Paga Crocodile Pond location.
Cape Coast Cape Coast Castle is a UNESCO World Heritage site.
Elmina Coastal town with Elmina Castle.
Koforidua Aburi Botanical Gardens location.
Kumasi Traditional centre of the Kingdom of Ashanti.
Obuasi World's 9th largest gold mine location; and Mining town.
Sekondi-Takoradi Renowned surfing beaches such as Busua Beach,[144] and UNESCO World Heritage sites.
Tamale Largest settlement in the Kingdom of Dagbon and gateway to Mole National Park.
Yendi Traditional Capital of the Kingdom of Dagbon and seat of Yaa Naa.

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 "Language and Religion". Ghana Embassy. "English is the official language of Ghana and is universally used in schools in addition to nine other local languages. The most widely spoken local languages are Dagbanli, Ewe, Ga and Twi." 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 "Ghana – 2010 Population and Housing Census". Government of Ghana. 2010. 
  3. "People > Ethnic groups: Countries Compared". NationMaster. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "2020 Population Projection by Sex, 2010–2020". Ghana Statistical Service. 
  5. Mintah, Antoinette I. (2010). "2010 Provisional Census Results Out". Population Division, Ghana Government. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". 
  7. "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". World Bank. 
  8. "Human Development Report 2020" (in en). United Nations Development Programme. December 15, 2020. 
  9. Jackson, John G. (2001) Introduction to African Civilizations, Citadel Press, p. 201, ISBN 0-8065-2189-9.
  10. Meyerowitz, Eva L. R. (1975) (in en). The Early History of the Akan States of Ghana. Red Candle Press. ISBN 9780608390352. 
  11. Danver, Steven L (10 March 2015). Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures and Contemporary Issues. Routledge. pp. 25. ISBN 978-1-317-46400-6. 
  12. "Asante Kingdom". Afrika-Studiecentrum, Leiden. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 {{#invoke:Citation/CS1 | citation |CitationClass=audio-visual }}
  14. 14.0 14.1 "First For Sub-Saharan Africa". BBC. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 "Exploring Africa – Decolonization". 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Ateku, Abdul-Jalilu. "Ghana is 60: An African success story with tough challenges ahead" (in en). 
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 "2010 Population & Housing Census: National Analytical Report". Ghana Statistical Service. 2013. p. 63. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 CIA World FactBook. "Ghana". CIA World FactBook. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 Kacowicz, Arie M. (1998). Zones of Peace in the Third World: South America and West Africa. SUNY Press. pp. 144. ISBN 978-0-7914-3957-9. 
  20. "Ghana-US relations". United States Department of State. 13 February 2013. 
  21. "Etymology of Ghana". Douglas Harper. 
  22. "Ghana: Land of Gold". 
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 "Pre-Colonial Period". 
  24. W, Jessica (15 November 2011). "Invasion of the Peoples of the North". GhanaNation. 
  25. Curtis M. (19 November 2011). "Ghana Articles: Dagomba". 
  26. "Dagomba: Background". BristolDrumming. 
  27. "Mamprusi". 
  28. "Pre-European Mining at Ashanti, Ghana". October 1996.,%20Ghana.pdf. 
  29. Tvedten, Ige; Hersoug, Bjørn (1992). Fishing for Development: Small Scale Fisheries in Africa. Nordic Africa Institute. pp. 60–. ISBN 978-91-7106-327-4. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  30. The Techiman-Bono of Ghana: an ethnography of an Akan society Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co., 1975
  31. "A Short History of Ashanti Gold Weights". 
  32. "History of the Ashanti People". Modern Ghana. 
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 "History of Ghana". TonyX. 
  34. 34.0 34.1 Levy, Patricia; Wong, Winnie (2010). Ghana. Marshall Cavendish. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-7614-4847-1. 
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 35.4 35.5 35.6 35.7 "History of Ghana". 
  36. Emmer, Pieter C. (2018). The Dutch in the Atlantic Economy, 1580–1880: Trade, Slavery, and Emancipation (Variorum Collected Studies). Variorum Collected Studies (Book 614) (1st ed.). Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-86078-697-9. 
  37. "Bush Praises Strong Leadership of Ghanaian President Kufuor". 15 September 2008. 
  38. MacLean, Iain (2001) Rational Choice and British Politics: An Analysis of Rhetoric and Manipulation from Peel to Blair, p. 76, ISBN 0-19-829529-4.
  39. Puri, Jyoti (2008). Encountering Nationalism. Wiley. pp. 76–. ISBN 978-0-470-77672-8. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  40. Chronology of world history: a calendar of principal events from 3000 BC to AD 1973, Part 1973, Rowman & Littlefield, 1975, ISBN 0-87471-765-5.
  41. Ashanti Kingdom, Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2009, Archived 31 October 2009.
  42. Gocking, Roger (2005). The History of Ghana. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 92–. ISBN 978-0-313-31894-8. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  43. 43.0 43.1 "Ghana flag and description". 
  44. "Ghana Flag". 
  45. "5 Things To Know About Ghana's Independence Day". 
  46. Oquaye, Mike (10 January 2018). "What is Republic Day in Ghana?" (in en). 
  47. "Ghana: Problems and Progress". 
  48. "Of Nkrumah's Political Ideologies: Communism, Socialism, Nkrumaism". Ghana Web. 20 September 2006. 
  49. "When it was made a Holiday". Modern Ghana. 22 September 2012. 
  50. "The political and social thought of Kwame Nkrumah". Libyadiary. 2011. 
  51. David, Owusu-Ansah (1994). A Country Study: Ghana. La Verle Berry. 
  52. "Ghana: Flight Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings (J.J Rawlings)". Africa Confidential. 
  53. 53.0 53.1 "Rawlings: The legacy". BBC News. 1 December 2000. 
  54. 54.0 54.1 54.2 "Elections in Ghana". 
  55. Kokutse, Francis (3 January 2009). "Opposition leader wins presidency in Ghana". USA Today. Associated Press. 
  56. Emmanuel Gyimah-Boadi, "The 2008 Freedom House Survey: Another Step Forward for Ghana." Journal of Democracy 20.2 (2009): 138–152 excerpt.
  57. "Atta Mills dies". The New York Times. 25 July 2012. 
  58. "Ghanaian President John Dramani Mahama sworn in". Sina Corp. 7 January 2013. 
  59. "What the world media is saying about Ghana's 2016 elections – YEN.COM.GH". 7 December 2016. 
  60. "2016 Presidential Results". Ghana Electoral Commission. 
  61. "Ghana election: Nana Akufo-Addo re-elected as president". BBC News. 9 December 2020. 
  62. 62.0 62.1 62.2 62.3 62.4 "Ghana: Geography Physical". , "Ghana: Location and Size". 
  63. Dinerstein, Eric; Olson, David; Joshi, Anup; Vynne, Carly; Burgess, Neil D.; Wikramanayake, Eric; Hahn, Nathan; Palminteri, Suzanne et al. (2017). "An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm". BioScience 67 (6): 534–545. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix014. ISSN 0006-3568. PMC 5451287. PMID 28608869. 
  64. Grantham, H. S.; Duncan, A.; Evans, T. D.; Jones, K. R.; Beyer, H. L.; Schuster, R.; Walston, J.; Ray, J. C. et al. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity – Supplementary Material". Nature Communications 11 (1): 5978. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7723057. PMID 33293507. 
  65. "Ghana low plains". 
  66. "UNDP Climate Change Country Profile: Ghana". 
  67. 67.0 67.1 "Government and Politics". A Country Study: Ghana July 2012/ Archived July 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. (La Verle Berry, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (November 1994). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. July 2012/ Archived July 10, 2012, at the Wayback Machine..
  68. " – Failed States List 2012". 2012. 
  69. "Corruption Perceptions Index 2012". Transparency International Corruption Perception Index. 2012. 
  70. Agyeman-Duah, Baffour. "Curbing Corruption and Improving Economic Governance: The Case of Ghana". Ghana Center for Democratic Development. p. 5. 
  71. "Mo Ibrahim Foundation – 2012 Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG)". 2012. 
  72. "Official page of Nations Permanent Mission of Ghana to the United Nations". United Nations. 20 September 2011. 
  73. "Hu Jintao Holds Talks with President of Ghana Mills". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. 20 September 2010. 
  74. Deng, Shasha (12 November 2011). "Visiting senior Chinese official lauds Ghana for political stability, national unity". Xinhua News Agency. 
  75. "Ahmadinejad: Iran's populist and pariah leaves the stage". BBCNews. 4 June 2013. 
  76. "Iranian leader Ahmadinejad's West Africa tour defended". BBC News. 17 April 2013. 
  77. "CPP welcomes President Ahmadinejad visit to Ghana". Ghana News Agency. 18 April 2013. 
  78. "Ghana welcomed Iran's President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad". 17 April 2013. 
  79. "President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad To Visit Ghana". Government of Ghana. 2013. 
  80. "Ghana .:. Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform". 
  81. "Sustainable Development Goals | United Nations in Ghana" (in en). 
  82. "SDGs implementation: Ghana will be a shinning example' – Akufo-Addo" (in en-gb). Graphic Online. 
  83. "Contact Details | United Nations in Ghana" (in en). 
  84. 84.0 84.1 Kilford, Christopher R. (2010), The Other Cold War: Canada's Military Assistance to the Developing World 1945–75 October 2013/ Archived October 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine., Kingston, Ontario: Canadian Defence Academy Press, p. 138, ISBN 1-100-14338-6.
  85. Baynham, Simon (1988), The Military and Politics in Nkumrah's Ghana, Westview, Chapter 4, ISBN 0-8133-7063-9.
  86. 86.0 86.1 "Defence". Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning. 
  87. "Ghana's Regional Security Policy: Costs, Benefits and Consistency" (PDF). Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre. p. 33. 
  88. "KAIPTC". Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre. 
  89. "Vision and Mission of the Ministry of Defence (MoD)". Ghana Armed Forces. 
  90. "Real-time Analysis of African Political Violence". Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project. May 2017. 
  91. "Chapter XXVI: Disarmament – No. 9 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons". United Nations Treaty Collection. 7 July 2017. 
  92. "The Ghana Police Service". 
  93. "Ghana Police Service sets up Marine Police Unit". 
  94. 94.0 94.1 94.2 "Police Administration". 
  95. "Ghana Prisons Service General Information". 
  96. 96.0 96.1 "Ghana – Death Penalty". 
  97. "Ghana Criminal Code and Courts". 
  98. "Ghana Prisons Service Inmate Statistics". 
  99. Perriello. "Promoting Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions in the Great Lakes". US Department of state. 
  100. 100.0 100.1 100.2 100.3 100.4 100.5 "Ghana hit by illegal drug trade". Gulf News. 28 September 2013. 
  101. Gerra. "Illegal drug use on the rise in Africa". Deutsche Welle. 
  102. 102.0 102.1 102.2 102.3 "Ghana could be taken over by drug barons if". 20 November 2013. 
  103. "SOCIAL:EC has done no wrong – Dr Afari-Gyan". Ghana News Agengy. 
  104. "MPs demand 24/7 police security for 275 members". 
  105. "All Districts". 
  106. "Ghana: Regions, Major Cities & Urban Localities – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". 
  107. "Here are the 10 countries where homosexuality may be punished by death". The Washington Post. 16 June 2016. 
  108. "The Global Divide on Homosexuality." November 2013/ Archived November 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Pew Research Center. 4 June 2013.
  109. 109.0 109.1 "Ghana witch camps: Widows' lives in exile". BBC. 1 September 2012. 
  110. "Ghana" (in en). 
  111. "Is Ghana the next African economic tiger?". 4 September 2012. 
  112. "BoG introduce Chinese Yuan onto the FX market". Bank of Ghana. 2013. 
  113. Sy, Temesgen Deressa and Amadou. "Ghana's Request for IMF Assistance". 
  114. Diao, Xinshen. "Economic Importance of Agriculture for Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction: Findings from a Case Study of Ghana". Global Forum on Agriculture 29–30 November 2010 – Policies for Agricultural Development, Poverty Reduction and Food Security. Paris. 
  115. 115.0 115.1 115.2 "Ghana – Gross Domestic Product". 
  116. "A new era of transformation in Ghana". :12
  117. "New fuel for faster development". 
  118. "Ghana Market Update". Intercontinental Bank. :13
  119. "Top-Performing African Stock Markets in 2013". 2013. 
  120. 120.0 120.1 "Is Ghana Entering A Sweet, Golden Era?". African Business. 
  121. Jedwab, Rémi; Moradi, Alexander (2012). "Revolutionizing Transport: Modern Infrastructure, Agriculture and Development in Ghana". London School of Economics. "Two railway lines were built between 1901 and 1923 to connect the coast to mining areas and the large hinterland city of Kumasi. This unintendedly opened vast expanses of tropical forest to cocoa cultivation, allowing Ghana to become the world's largest producer." 
  122. "Ghana will reclaim top spot in cocoa production -Prez Mahama". Daily Graphic. 5 November 2013. 
  123. Forrest, Paul (September 2011). Ghana Market Update. Intercontinental Bank. p. 13. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  124. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}Template:Namespace detect showall". 
  125. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}Template:Namespace detect showall". 
  126. "Ghana plans to issue Africa's first social bonds with $2B sale" (in en). 
  127. "Ghana's Jubilee oil field nears output plateau -operator". Reuters. 
  128. "The Top 5 Countries for ICT4D in Africa". 
  129. Kofi Adu Domfeh (13 April 2013). "Ghana's model vehicle unveiled by Suame Magazine artisans". 
  130. "Ghana's model car attracts Dutch government support". 15 July 2013. 
  131. "Five Countries to Watch". 
  132. "Africa". 
  133. Clark, Nancy L. "Petroleum Exploration". A Country Study: Ghana July 2012/ Archived July 13, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. (La Verle Berry, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (November 1994). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. July 2012/ Archived July 10, 2012, at the Wayback Machine..
  134. "Ghana leader: Oil reserves at 3B barrels". Yahoo News. 22 December 2007. 
  135. McLure, Jason. Ghana Oil Reserves to Be Template:Convert/Goilbbl in 5 years as fields develop October 2013/ Archived October 29, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. Bloomberg Television, 1 December 2010.
  136. Aklorbortu, Moses Dotsey (13 May 2013). "Atuabo gas project to propel more growth". Daily Graphic. 
  137. "Ghana: Why Privatise Ghana Oil?". 
  138. 138.0 138.1 "Ghana Gold Production". 
  139. Whitehouse, David (8 October 2019). "Ghana now Africa's largest gold producer, but reforms await". The Africa Report. 
  140. "Ghana". 
  141. Publications, U.S.A. International Business (7 February 2007). Ghana Mineral and Mining Sector Investment and Business Guide. ISBN 978-1-4330-1775-9. Retrieved 16 May 2014. 
  142. Ghana Mineral and Mining Sector Investment and Business Guide. International Business Publications. 2007. ISBN 978-1-4330-1775-9. Retrieved 24 June 2013. 
  143. "Ghana Minerals and Mining Act". 
  144. 144.0 144.1 Hinson, Tamara (28 August 2014). "11 of the world's most unusual surf spots". CNN. 
  145. "We Are Serious About Overcoming The Challenges Confronting Tourism Development". Ministry of Tourism Ghana. 
  146. 146.0 146.1 "Trade Expo International Ghana". 
  147. "Visit Ghana | Forts and Castles in Ghana" (in en-US). 
  148. 148.0 148.1 Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Forts and Castles, Volta, Greater Accra, Central and Western Regions" (in en). 
  149. 149.0 149.1 149.2 "Forbes: Ghana is eleventh friendliest nation". 
  150. "About the Global Peace Index". Vision of Humanity. 2015. 
  151. Saxena, Kanika (2018-12-21). "Wish To Experience The Thrill Of Surfing in Ghana? Here's Where You Should Go!" (in en-us). 
  152. "Travel Advice". 
  153. Thompson, Ryan E. (16 February 2018). "Tools to help the LGBTQ community travel more safely" (in en). CBC Life. 
  154. "I'm sharing Ghana's Destination Pride Flag. What does your country score?" (in en). 
  155. 155.0 155.1 155.2 155.3 155.4 155.5 "Economic Update – Ghana: Private opportunities in real estate". 12 April 2012. 
  156. 156.0 156.1 156.2 156.3 156.4 156.5 "Real Estate Market in Ghana". 23 July 2012. 
  157. "Property market faces brighter growth prospects". 
  158. "Ghana Export Basket in ⁨2017 – The Atlas of Economic Complexity". 
  159. 159.0 159.1 159.2 "IE S'pore opens second Africa office in Ghana". AsiaOne. 27 July 2013. 
  160. "Annex 1: Political and Administrative System". World Bank. 
  161. "Republic of Ghana Country Strategy Paper 2012–2016". :12–40
  162. 162.0 162.1 "Port of Takoradi". 
  163. 163.0 163.1 "Port of Tema". 
  164. "I've been named 'Mr Dumsor' in Ghana – Prez Mahama tells Ghanaians in Germany – See more at". Graphic Communications Group Ltd (GCGL). 21 January 2015. 
  165. Agbenyega, E. (10 April 2014). "Ghana's power crisis: What about renewable energy?". 
  166. Sarkodie, Samuel Asumadu. "Lessons to be learnt from Ghana's excess electricity shambles" (in en). 
  167. "OUR WORK IN Ghana" (in en). Transparency International. 
  168. "Corruption Perceptions Index 2013". Transparency International. 
  169. "Ghana Loses $4b Annually To Corruption". 
  170. "Impeach Mahama over GYEEDA, SUBAH scandals – Group". 30 October 2013. 
  171. "Mahama more committed to fighting corruption than any past president – Apaak". My Joy Online. 
  172. "Mahama committed to fighting corruption – Mornah". GhanaWeb. 
  173. "Mahama Fighting Corruption? NO ACTION ON ¢8BN MAPUTO SCANDAL-Over Three Years After Damning Report of malfeasance". New Statesman. 
  174. Kuo, Lily (4 April 2016). "Africa loses more money to illicit financial flows than it receives in foreign aid". Quartz. 
  175. "Science & Technology". Ghanaweb. 24 June 2015. 
  176. 176.0 176.1 "Africa's journey to space begins on the ground". BBC News (United Kingdom). 2012. 
  177. "Ghana's Home-Grown Space Program Takes Off". United States: Voice of America. 2013. 
  178. Ghana's Home-Grown Space Program Takes Off, Voice of America, 2013,, retrieved 24 June 2013 
  179. 179.0 179.1 179.2 179.3 K. D. MEREKU, I. Yidana, W. H. K. HORDZI, I. Tete-Mensah; Williams, J. B. (2009). Pedagogical Integration of ICT: Ghana Report. [1] August 2014/ Archived August 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  180. "Cyber crime:Ghana 2nd in Africa, 7th in the world". 1 August 2013. 
  181. "National Cyber Security Center | Securing Ghana's Digital Journey". 
  182. "Cybersecurity Act Passed to Promote & Regulate Cybersecurity Activities | Ministry of Communications". 
  183. 184.0 184.1 "Basic Education Curriculum". Ghana Education Service. 
  184. "Basic curriculum Education: The junior High Education". Ghana Education Service. 
  185. West African Examinations Council(corporate site: Ghana). "BECE". 
  186. 187.0 187.1 "Vocational Education in Ghana". UNESCO-UNEVOC. July 2012. 
  187. Atuahene, Ansah (23 July 2013). "A Descriptive Assessment of Higher Education Access, Participation, Equity, and Disparity in Ghana". SageOpen. p. 2. 
  188. "Top 10 Best Universities in Ghana" (in en-US). 2019-09-27. 
  189. 190.0 190.1 190.2 190.3 190.4 190.5 190.6 "A Brief History of the Ghanaian Educational System". 
  190. Nkyea, Adinkra. "Adinkra Syllabary". Biswajit Mandal. 
  191. File:Adinkra Characters.png
    Adinkra Characters.
  192. 193.0 193.1 "UNICEF – Basic Education and Gender Equality". 
  193. "Africa". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). 
  194. "Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education". World Bank. 
  195. "Plight of Foreign Students in Ghana". 2 November 2013. 
  196. Nyarota, Geoffrey; Against the Grain; pp. 101–102.
  197. "Free SHS Begins in September – Government of Ghana". 
  198. Koinzer, Thomas; Nikolai, Rita; Waldow, Florian (2017). Private Schools and School Choice in Compulsory Education: Global Change and National Challenge. Springer. p. 143. ISBN 978-3-658-17104-9. 
  199. "Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15–24)". World Bank. 
  200. "Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15–24)". World Bank. 
  201. 202.0 202.1 "Ghana Lauded for Free Primary School Program". Voice of America. 16 February 2012. 
  202. 203.0 203.1 Education in Ghana February 2014/ Archived February 28, 2014, at the Wayback Machine..
  203. "Country module Ghana". . What to know about the National Accreditation Board (NAB) October 2013/ Archived October 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. National Accreditation Board – Ghana. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  204. "Le français, enjeu du XXI siècle (French)". 
  205. Ghana public universities May 2014/ Archived May 30, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. National Accreditation Board – Ghana. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
  206. "Ghana private tertiary institutions offering degree program". National Accreditation Board – Ghana. 
  207. "University of Ghana". 
  208. "NYU Accra". NYU. 
  209. 210.0 210.1 "University of Ghana". 
  210. Dickson, Kwamina B. (1969). A Historical Geography of Ghana. CUP Archive. pp. 23–. ISBN 978-0-521-07102-4. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  211. 212.0 212.1 212.2 212.3 "Islam in Ghana – Report". , "2010 Population and Housing Census". 
  212. "The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity". Pew Forum on Religious & Public life. 9 August 2012. 
  213. "The Bahá'í Community of Ghana". 
  214. "Ghana – population". Library of Congress Country Studies. Archived on 11 May 2011. Error: If you specify |archivedate=, you must also specify |archiveurl=Template:Namespace detect showall. 
  215. "Ghana Population (LIVE)". 
  216. 217.0 217.1 "Health Nutrition and Population Statistics – DataBank". 
  217. 218.0 218.1 "Ghana Owes no Apology to Anybody for Aliens Compliance Order". 14 April 2013. 
  218. "The History of Ghana's 1969 Aliens Compliance Order". 29 March 2012. 
  219. "Ghana deports thousands of illegal Chinese miners". Mail & Guardian. 16 July 2013. 
  220. "Ghana deports thousands in crackdown on illegal Chinese goldminers". The Guardian. 15 July 2013. 
  221. "The Bureau of Ghana Languages-BGL". Ghana Embassy Washington DC, USA. 2013. 
  222. Bernd Kortmann Walter de Gruyter, 2004 (2004). A handbook of varieties of English. 1. Phonology, Volume 2. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-3-11-017532-5. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  223. "The Bureau of Ghana Languages-BGL". National Commission on Culture. 2006. 
  224. "Study of Ghanaian Languages". 
  225. "Introduction to the Verbal and Multi-Verbalsystem of Akan". 2013. 
  226. "Ghana – Jeux de la francophonie". 
  227. "La Lettre Diplomatique – La revue des Relations internationales et diplomatiques depuis 1988 – La Francophonie et le Ghana". 
  228. Asiedu, Kwasi Gyamfi (7 April 2019). "Ghana's president wants to make French a formal language, but it's not a popular plan". 
  229. "Ghana adopts French as its second official language". 21 March 2019. 
  230. Magnus Huber, Ghanaian Pidgin English in its West African Context (1999), page 139
  231. Huber (1999), pp. 138–153
  232. "Ghana". The World Factbook. 
  233. "Ghana: Demographic and Health Survey, 2014". Ghana Statistical Service & Ghana Health Service. p. 32. 
  234. 235.0 235.1 235.2 "2010 Population & Housing Census: National Analytical Report". Ghana Statistical Service. May 2013. 
  235. "Fertility rate, total (births per woman), Ghana, 1960 – present". 
  236. 237.0 237.1 "CDC in Ghana". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. August 2019. 
  237. "Intentional homicide victims | Statistics and Data". 
  238. "National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS)". 
  239. "Ghana: National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS)". 
  240. "Medical tourism is emerging market for Ghana". 5 August 2009. 
  241. "Field Listing – Life expectancy at birth". CIA World Factbook. 
  242. "Field Listing – Infant mortality rate". CIA World Factbook. 
  243. "Ghana Statistics". World Health Organization. 2019. 
  244. "". 
  245. Field Listing :: Health expenditures March 2014/ Archived March 26, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  246. "These are the countries where I'm the least known" – Bill Gates visits Ghana". 
  247. "Ghana bolsters medicines regulatory system, guarantees product quality". World Health Organization. 13 May 2020. 
  248. "Library publications". 
  249. 250.0 250.1 250.2 250.3 250.4 250.5 Bah, Oumoupoo (22 October 2011). "Ghanaian cuisine, dokonu, banku, okra and soup". 
  250. 251.0 251.1 251.2 "Ghana" (in es). Amadeus. 
  251. Appiah, Kwame Anthony (1993). In my father's house : Africa in the philosophy of culture (1.paperbackedition 1993. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-506852-8. 
  252. 253.0 253.1 253.2 253.3 253.4 253.5 253.6 253.7 253.8 253.9 "Ghanaian Kente Cloth". 
  253. "The Story Behind African Wax Print Cloth". 10 July 2008. 
  254. Wilson, Erin (5 April 2013). "Beyonce vs. Solange: Which Sister Wears Bold Prints Best". 
  255. ChiomaChinweoke (21 September 2011). "African-Inspired Spring 2012 Collections Takes Over LFW & NYFW". 
  256. Edozien, Frankie (26 May 2012). "African Style Goes Global, Despite Little Tangible Support From African Leaders". The New York Times. 
  257. "Design: Gwen Stefani's L.A.M.B Spring 2011 Collection". 3 August 2011. 
  258. "African Icons Show at NYFW: Ozwald Boateng". 10 September 2012. 
  259. 260.0 260.1 260.2 260.3 260.4 "Ghana: From Highlife to Hiplife". 
  260. "Ghana: Kofi Ghanaba – Influential Drummer Who Emphasised the African Origins of Jazz". Ghanaian Chronicle. 12 February 2009. 
  261. "Rhian Benson's global soul sound". CNN. 1 March 2011. 
  262. "Sarkodie". 
  263. "Branches of the Same Tree album". iTunes. 
  264. 265.0 265.1 "Dance, Ghana". Temple. 
  265. "How Prampram pallbearers became an international sensation – and a meme" (in en). 17 April 2020. 
  266. "Gold Coast Film Unit". 
  267. Template:IMDb title
  268. "The African Deal (1973)". 
  269. "Kukurantumi The Road To Accra (1983)". The New York Times. 1 April 1984. 
  270. Clayton, Jonathan (3 April 2010). "Nollywood success puts Nigeria's film industry in regional spotlight". The Times. 
  271. "The Burial of Kojo(2018)". 
  272. "Aloe Vera(2020)". 
  273. "Till Sunset(2019)". 
  274. "Constitution of Ghana". , Government of Ghana.
  275. Anokwa, K. (1997). In Press Freedom and Communication in Africa. Erbio, F. & Jong-Ebot, W. (Eds.) Africa World Press. ISBN 978-0-86543-551-3.
  276. Basic Data January 2009/ Archived January 16, 2009, at the Wayback Machine..
  277. BBC Country Profile: Ghana June 2006/ Archived June 15, 2006, at the Wayback Machine., BBC News.
  278. 279.0 279.1 279.2 "Ghana thrilled by historic title". BBC. 17 October 2009. 
  279. "USA 1–2 Ghana (aet)". BBC. 26 June 2009. 
  280. "World Championship for U-16/U-17 Teams". 
  281. 282.0 282.1 "Africa's club of the Century". IFFHS official website. 
  282. "Premier League". 
  283. "Base Camp Sponsored Ghanaian skier Kwame Nkrumah-Acheampong has qualified for 2010 Olympics". 0–21 Snowboarding. 13 March 2009. 
  284. Dutta, Kunal (22 October 2009). "Forget Eric the Eel... meet the Snow Leopard". The Independent. 
  285. "Kwame Nkrumah-Acheampong, Alpine Skiing". Vancouver, 2010. 
  286. "Men's Slalom – Run 2". 
  287. "Men's Slalom". Vancouver, 2010. 
  288. Wilson, Chris (3 February 2010). "Ghana's first winter Olympian gears up for Vancouver Games". Daily Mirror. 
  289. Morgan, Liam (19 August 2020). "Ghana Olympic Committee President claims country will not win a medal at Tokyo 2020". Inside the Games. 
  290. "Ghana clinging to Olympic dream". BBC News. 8 April 2011. 
  291. Barnett, Errol (10 August 2012). "Is Azumah Nelson Africa's greatest boxer?". CNN. 
  292. 293.0 293.1 293.2 293.3 "Top 5 Ghanaian Boxers". 
  293. "Banyana go down to Ghana in women's Afcon bronze-medal match". 
  294. "Continental Cup Finals start in Africa". FIVB. 22 June 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2021. 
  295. 296.0 296.1 "Culture, Art and Architecture: Ghana". Countriesquest. 
  296. 297.0 297.1 297.2 297.3 "Ghana Museums and Monuments Board". 
  297. "Tawny eagle videos, photos and facts – Aquila rapax" (in en-GB). 
  298. 299.0 299.1 299.2 "Ghana National Emblems". 
  299. "Parks and reserves of Ghana: Management Effectiveness Assessment of Protected Areas". IUCN Organization. 
  300. 301.0 301.1 "Kakum National Park (Assin Attandanso Reserve) (#)". UNESCO Organization. 
  301. "Kakum National Park". Microsfere Organization. 
  302. "Kakum National Park – Assin Attandaso Resource Reserve". Bird Life organization. 

Further reading

  • Arhin, Kwame, The Life and Work of Kwame Nkrumah (Africa Research & Publications, 1995)
  • Babatope, Ebenezer, The Ghana Revolution: From Nkrumah to Jerry Rawlings (Fourth Dimension Publishing, 1982)
  • Birmingham, David, Kwame Nkrumah: Father Of African Nationalism (Ohio University Press, 1998)
  • Boafo-Arthur, Kwame, Ghana: One Decade of the Liberal State (Zed Books, 2007)
  • Briggs, Philip, Ghana (Bradt Travel Guide) (Bradt Travel Guides, 2010)
  • Clark, Gracia, African Market Women: Seven Life Stories from Ghana (Indiana University Press, 2010)
  • Davidson, Basil, Black Star: A View of the Life and Times of Kwame Nkrumah (James Currey, 2007)
  • Falola, Toyin, and Salm, Stephen J, Culture and Customs of Ghana (Greenwood, 2002)
  • Grant, Richard, Globalizing City: The Urban and Economic Transformation of Accra, Ghana (Syracuse University Press, 2008)
  • Hadjor, Kofi Buenor, Nkrumah and Ghana (Africa Research & Publications, 2003)
  • Hasty, Jennifer, The Press and Political Culture in Ghana (Indiana University Press, 2005)
  • James, C.L.R., Kwame Nkrumah and the Ghana Revolution (Allison & Busby, 1977)
  • Kuada, John, and Chachah Yao, Ghana. Understanding the People and their Culture (Woeli Publishing Services, 1999)
  • Miescher, Stephan F, Making Men in Ghana (Indiana University Press, 2005)
  • Milne, June, Kwame Nkrumah, A Biography (Panaf Books, 2006)
  • Nkrumah, Kwame, Ghana: The Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah (International Publishers, 1971)
  • Utley, Ian, Ghana – Culture Smart!: the essential guide to customs & culture (Kuperard, 2009)
  • Various, Ghana: An African Portrait Revisited (Peter E. Randall Publisher, 2007)
  • Younge, Paschal Yao, Music and Dance Traditions of Ghana: History, Performance and Teaching (Mcfarland & Co Inc., 2011)
  • Burke, Laura; Armando García Schmidt (2013). Ghana: Staying on Track in a Challenging Environment. Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung, Gütersloh. pp. 127–147. ISBN 978-3-86793-491-6. 

External links


General information


Template:Ghana topics Template:Navboxes

[create] Documentation