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Coordinates: 7°49′N 1°03′W / 7.817°N 1.05°W / 7.817; -1.05{{#coordinates:7|49|N|1|03|W||| |primary |name= }} Template:EngvarB

Republic of Ghana
Flag of Ghana Coat of arms of Ghana
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Freedom and Justice"
Anthem: "God Bless Our Homeland Ghana"
and largest city
Official languages English[1][2]
Recognised national languages
Ethnic groups (2010[2][3])
Religion Template:Ublist
Demonym Ghanaian
 •  President Nana Akufo-Addo
 •  Vice-President Mahamudu Bawumia
 •  Speaker of Parliament Alban Sumana Kingsford Bagbin
 •  Chief Justice Kwasi Anin-Yeboah
Legislature Parliament
Independence from the United Kingdom
 •  Dominion 6 March 1957 
 •  Republic 1 July 1960 
 •  Current constitution 28 April 1992 
 •  Total 239,567 km2 (80th)
92,099 sq mi
 •  Water (%) 4.61 (11,000 km; 4,247 mi2)
 •  2020 estimate 31,072,940[4] (47th)
 •  2010 census 24,200,000[5]
 •  Density 101.5/km2 (103rd)
258.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2020 estimate
 •  Total $226 billion[6]
 •  Per capita $8,343[6]
GDP (nominal) 2020 estimate
 •  Total $73.594  billion[6]
 •  Per capita $2,374[6]
Gini (2016)Template:IncreaseNegative 43.5[7]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.611[8]
Template:Color · 138th
Currency Cedi (GHS)
Time zone GMT (UTC )
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +233
ISO 3166 code GH
Internet TLD .gh

Ghana (Listeni/ˈɡɑːnə/), officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country in West Africa. It spans the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean to the south, sharing borders with the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, and Togo in the east.[9] Ghana covers an area of 238,535 km2 (Template:Convert/Loff), spanning a diverse geography and ecology that ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical rain forests. With over 31 million people, Ghana is the second-most populous country in West Africa, after Nigeria. The capital and largest city is Accra; other major cities include Kumasi, Tamale, and Sekondi-Takoradi.

The first permanent state in present-day Ghana was the Bono state of the 11th century.[10] Numerous kingdoms and empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful were the Kingdom of Dagbon in the north[11] and the Ashanti Empire in the south.[12] Beginning in the 15th century, the Portuguese Empire, followed by numerous other European powers, contested the area for trading rights, until the British ultimately established control of the coast by the late 19th century. Following over a century of native resistance, Ghana's current borders took shape, encompassing four separate British colonial territories: Gold Coast, Ashanti, the Northern Territories and British Togoland. These were unified as an independent dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations on 6 March 1957, becoming the first colony in sub-Saharan Africa to achieve sovereignty.[13][14][15] Ghana subsequently became influential in decolonisation efforts and the Pan-African movement.[16]

Ghana is a multinational state, home to a variety of ethnic, linguistic and religious groups;[4] while the Akan are the largest ethnic group, they constitute only a plurality. The vast majority of Ghanaians are Christian (71.2%), with close to a fifth being Muslim and a tenth practising traditional faiths or reporting no religion.[17] Ghana is a unitary constitutional democracy led by a president who is both head of state and head of government.[18] Since 1993, it has maintained one of the freest and most stable governments on the continent, and performs relatively well in metrics of healthcare, economic growth, and human development.[19] Ghana consequently enjoys significant influence in West Africa,[20] and is highly integrated in international affairs, being a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Group of 24 (G24) and the Commonwealth of Nations.[21]
  1. "Language and Religion". Ghana Embassy. "English is the official language of Ghana and is universally used in schools in addition to nine other local languages. The most widely spoken local languages are Dagbanli, Ewe, Ga and Twi." 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Ghana – 2010 Population and Housing Census". Government of Ghana. 2010. 
  3. "People > Ethnic groups: Countries Compared". NationMaster. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "2020 Population Projection by Sex, 2010–2020". Ghana Statistical Service. 
  5. Mintah, Antoinette I. (2010). "2010 Provisional Census Results Out". Population Division, Ghana Government. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". 
  7. "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". World Bank. 
  8. "Human Development Report 2020" (in en). United Nations Development Programme. December 15, 2020. 
  9. Jackson, John G. (2001) Introduction to African Civilizations, Citadel Press, p. 201, ISBN 0-8065-2189-9.
  10. Meyerowitz, Eva L. R. (1975) (in en). The Early History of the Akan States of Ghana. Red Candle Press. ISBN 9780608390352. 
  11. Danver, Steven L (10 March 2015). Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures and Contemporary Issues. Routledge. pp. 25. ISBN 978-1-317-46400-6. 
  12. "Asante Kingdom". Afrika-Studiecentrum, Leiden. 
  13. {{#invoke:Citation/CS1 | citation |CitationClass=audio-visual }}
  14. "First For Sub-Saharan Africa". BBC. 
  15. "Exploring Africa – Decolonization". 
  16. Ateku, Abdul-Jalilu. "Ghana is 60: An African success story with tough challenges ahead" (in en). 
  17. "2010 Population & Housing Census: National Analytical Report". Ghana Statistical Service. 2013. p. 63. 
  18. CIA World FactBook. "Ghana". CIA World FactBook. 
  19. Ateku, Abdul-Jalilu. "Ghana is 60: An African success story with tough challenges ahead" (in en). 
  20. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named South_America_and_West_Africa
  21. "Ghana-US relations". United States Department of State. 13 February 2013.