English surnames of Norman origin
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Some family names contain clues as to their origin, like English surnames of Norman Origin. William, Duke of Normandy, successfully invaded England in 1066, and this invasion left a lasting legacy in the English language, in general, and in surnames, in particular.
According to Christopher Daniell, in From Norman Conquest to Magna Carta, in 1140 marked what might be the first recorded use of a modern surname, inherited by multiple generations. The sons of a Norman named Robert used a modern inheritable surname, FitzGerald, in honour of an earlier relative, named Gerald.
- Christopher Daniell (2013). From Norman Conquest to Magna Carta: England 1066–1215. Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 9781136356971. https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=DUNGAQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=surname+Fitz+%22norman+invasion%22+OR+%22norman+conquest%22&ots=TaKWj0EQZ4&sig=q0gw2clZQ8T8SOdNeEw6p7PxqmM&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=surname%20Fitz%20%22norman%20invasion%22%20OR%20%22norman%20conquest%22&f=false. Retrieved 2017-10-26.