Difference between revisions of "Silver Star"

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{{Wp-cca}}<br/><!-- {{About|United States military decoration}} -->
  
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[[File:Mullen Awards Silver Star to Capt. Ambrosia.JPG|thumb|[[United States Army|Army]] [[Captain (United States)|Captain]] Gregory Ambrosia receiving the Silver Star from [[United States Navy|Navy]] [[Admiral (United States)|Admiral]] [[Michael Mullen]], [[Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff]].]]
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[[File:Cheney Presents Silver Star to Spc. Monica Brown.jpg|thumb|[[United States Army|Army]] [[Specialist (rank)|Specialist]] [[Monica Lin Brown]] receives the Silver Star from [[Vice President of the United States|Vice President]] [[Dick Cheney]].]]
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The '''Silver Star''', referred to as the '''Silver Star Medal''' by all United States Armed Forces, is the third highest [[Awards and decorations of the United States military|military decoration]] for [[valor]] that can be awarded to any person serving in any capacity with the [[United States Armed Forces]]. The medal is awarded for gallantry in action against an enemy of the United States.
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==History==
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The Silver Star medal is the successor award to the [[Citation Star]] which was established by an [[Act of Congress]] on July 9, 1918. On July 19, 1932, the [[United States Secretary of War|Secretary of War]] approved the Silver Star to replace the Citation Star. The original Citation Star is incorporated into the center of the Silver Star, and the suspension and [[service ribbon]] for the Silver Star is based closely on the [[Certificate of Merit Medal]].<ref name=tioh>{{cite web|title=Silver Star|url=http://www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil/Awards/silver_star.aspx|work=[http://www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil/ The Institute of Heraldry]|publisher=Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army|accessdate=1 July 2012}}</ref>
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Authorization for the Silver Star was placed into law by an Act of Congress for the [[United States Navy|U.S. Navy]] on August 7, 1942 and an Act of Congress for the [[United States Army|U.S. Army]] on December 15, 1942. The current statutory authorization for the Silver Star is [[Title 10 of the United States Code]], 3746 for the Army, 8746 for the Air Force, and 6244 for the Naval Service.
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==Award criteria==
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The Silver Star is awarded for gallantry not justifying the award of one of the next higher valor awards – the [[Distinguished Service Cross (United States)|Distinguished Service Cross]], the [[Navy Cross]], or the [[Air Force Cross (United States)|Air Force Cross]].<ref name="Section 578.12">{{cite web|title=Section 578.12 - Silver Star|url=http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2008-title32-vol3/xml/CFR-2008-title32-vol3-sec578-12.xml|work=Code of Federal Regulations|publisher=Government Printing Office|accessdate=9 October 2012}}</ref> The gallantry displayed must have taken place while in action against an enemy of the United States, while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force, or while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict against an opposing armed force in which the United States is not a belligerent party.<ref name=DoD1348.33v3>{{cite web|title=Department of Defense Manual 1348.33 Volume 3 |url=http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/134833vol3.pdf |work=[http://www.dtic.mil/ Defense Technical Information Center]|publisher=Department of Defense |accessdate=9 October 2012 |pages=13, 52 |format=pdf |date=23 November 2010}}</ref>
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Air Force pilots, combat systems officers, Navy and Marine Corps Naval Aviators and Naval Flight Officers flying fighter aircraft are often considered eligible to receive a Silver Star upon becoming an [[Flying ace|ace]] (i.e., having five or more confirmed aerial kills), which entails the pilot and, in multi-seat fighters, the weapons system officer or radar intercept officer, intentionally and successfully risking his life multiple times under combat conditions and emerging victorious.<ref>[http://www.maxwell.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123126667 Korean War pilot receives Silver Star 56 years later]. Retrieved 2009-03-10.</ref>  However, during the Vietnam War, the last conflict to produce U.S. fighter aces, the one USAF pilot, the two USAF navigators/weapon systems officers (who were later retrained as USAF pilots), the one USN Naval Aviator and the one USN Naval Flight Officer/radar intercept officer to achieve this distinction were eventually awarded the [[Air Force Cross (United States)|Air Force Cross]] and [[Navy Cross]], respectively, in addition to Silver Stars previously awarded for earlier aerial kills.
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==Appearance==
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The Silver Star is a gold [[five-pointed star]], 1+1/2 inches in circumscribing diameter with a [[laurel wreath]] encircling rays from the center and a 3/16 inch diameter silver star superimposed in the center. The pendant is suspended from a rectangular shaped metal loop with rounded corners. The reverse has the inscription ''FOR GALLANTRY IN ACTION''. The ribbon is 1+3/8 inch wide and consists of the following stripes: 7/32 inch Old Glory red (center stripe); proceeding outward in pairs 7/32 inch white; 7/32 inch ultramarine blue; 3/64 inch white; and 3/32 inch ultramarine blue.<ref name=tioh/>
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Second and subsequent awards of the Silver Star medal are denoted by [[oak leaf cluster]]s in the [[United States Army|Army]] and [[United States Air Force|Air Force]] and by [[5/16 inch star]]s in the [[United States Navy|Navy]], [[United States Marine Corps|Marine Corps]], and [[United States Coast Guard|Coast Guard]]<ref name=DoD1348.33v3/><ref>Coast Guards Medals and Awards, COMDTINSTM1650D, May 2008, P. 1-13 a, 2-3 5., 1-16 "a"</ref><ref>Navy-Marine Awards manual, Aug. 22, 2006, SECNAVINST 1650.1H, P. 1-8, 123. 1., 1-22</ref><ref>DOD Awards Manual, 1348.33, Oct. 12, 2011, P. 60, Order of Precedence, Silver Star Medal.</ref>
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==Recipients==
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The Department of Defense does not keep extensive records of awards of the Silver Star. Independent groups estimate that between 100,000 and 150,000 Silver Stars have been awarded since the decoration was established.<ref>[http://homeofheroes.com/valor/02_awards/04_ss.html Home of Heroes: Silver Star Medal]. Retrieved 2008-12-16.</ref> [[Colonel (United States)|Colonel]] [[David Hackworth]] is likely to be the person who has been awarded the most Silver Stars. He earned ten Silver Stars for service in the [[Korean War]] and the [[Vietnam War]].<ref>{{cite news|accessdate=9 October 2012 |url=http://www.military.com/NewContent/0,13190,NI_Hackworth_1202,00.html |title=Look Truth Right in the Eye |first=Col David H., U.S. Army (retired)|last=Hackworth |interviewer=Fred L. Schultz and Gordon Keiser |program=Naval Institute ''Proceedings''|date=December 2002 |publisher=Military.com}}</ref>
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===Female recipients===
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An unknown number of women received the award in World War II.  In 1944, four Army nurses serving in Italy – [[First Lieutenant]] Mary Roberts, [[Second Lieutenant]] [[Elaine Roe]], Second Lieutenant Rita Virginia Rourke, and Second Lieutenant Ellen Ainsworth (posthumous) – became the first women recipients of the Silver Star, all cited for their bravery in successfully evacuating the 33rd Field Hospital at [[Anzio]], Italy on February 10.<ref name=foxnews/> 
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No record of additional female awardees since World War II has come to light, until [[Sergeant]] [[Leigh Ann Hester]] was awarded the Silver Star in 2005 for gallantry during an insurgent ambush on a convoy in Iraq.<ref name=foxnews/> In 2007, it was discovered that three nurses who served in World War I were cited with Citation Stars for their service in July 1918.  Having never been awarded their Citation Stars, they were awarded the Silver Star posthumously.<ref>{{cite web|title=Daughter Accepts Silver Star Her World War I Nurse Mother Earned|url=http://www.army.mil/article/4259/daughter-accepts-silver-star-her-world-war-i-nurse-mother-earned/|publisher=United States Army|accessdate=9 October 2012|date=2 August 2007}}</ref> Army [[Specialist (rank)|Specialist]] [[Monica Lin Brown]] was awarded the Silver Star in March 2008 for heroism in the [[War in Afghanistan (2001–present)|War in Afghanistan]].<ref name=foxnews>{{cite news | last = Abrashi | first = Fisnik | title = Medic Stationed in Afghanistan Becomes 2nd Woman to Be Awarded Silver Star | publisher = [[Associated Press]] | date =March 9, 2008 | url = http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,336259,00.html | accessdate = }}</ref>
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===Notable recipients===
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{{Main|Category:Recipients of the Silver Star}}
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Notable recipients include:
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<!-- Do not add additional people to this list unless there is already an article on them -->
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*[[Alfredo M. Santos|Gen. Alfredo M. Santos (Philippines)]]
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*[[Joseph H. Albers]]
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*[[John R. Alison]]
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*[[Terry de la Mesa Allen, Sr.]]
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*[[Bernard L. Austin]]
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*[[William Brantley Aycock]]
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*[[Peter Badcoe]] (two awards)
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*[[Robert H. Barrow]]
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*[[Olinto Barsanti]]
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*[[César Basa]]
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*[[Harry F. Bauer]]
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*[[Charles Alvin Beckwith]]
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*[[David Bellavia]]
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<!-- Do not add additional people to this list unless there is already an article on them -->
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*[[Rafael Celestino Benítez]]
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*[[Albert Blithe]]
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*[[Richard Bong]]
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*[[Bruce Godfrey Brackett]]
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*[[Omar Bradley]]
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*[[Maurice L. Britt]]
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*[[Phil H. Bucklew]]
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*[[Arleigh Burke]]
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*[[Jess Cain]]
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<!-- Do not add additional people to this list unless there is already an article on them -->
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*[[Modesto Cartagena]]
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*[[Johnny Checketts]]
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*[[Llewellyn Chilson]] (three awards)
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*[[David A. Christian|David Christian]]
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*[[Nestor Chylak]]
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*[[Wesley Clark]]
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*[[Max Cleland]]
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<!-- Do not add additional people to this list unless there is already an article on them -->
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*[[Lynn Compton]]
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*[[Louis Cukela]]
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*[[Roy M. Davenport]]
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*[[Juan César Cordero Dávila]]
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*[[Benjamin O. Davis Jr.]]
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*[[Ray Davis (U.S. Marine)|Ray Davis]]
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*[[Oliver W. Dillard]]
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*[[James H. Doolittle]]
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*[[Hugh A. Drum]]
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<!-- Do not add additional people to this list unless there is already an article on them -->
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*[[Charles Durning]]
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*[[Graves B. Erskine]]
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*[[Douglas Fairbanks Jr.]]
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*[[Joseph A. Farinholt]]
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*[[Bernard Francis Fisher|Bernard Fisher]]
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*[[Wayne Fisk]]
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*[[Martin H. Foery]]
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*[[Ronald Fogleman]]
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*[[Mayhew Foster]]
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*[[Guy Gabaldon]]
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<!-- Do not add additional people to this list unless there is already an article on them -->
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*[[James M. Gavin]]
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*[[Hobart R. Gay]]
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*[[Jerauld R. Gentry]]
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*[[John J. Gilligan]]
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<!-- Please do not add additional people to this list unless there is already an article on them -->
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*[[Luigi Giorgi (soldier)|Luigi Giorgi]] (Italian serviceman)
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*[[David L. Grange]] (three awards)
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*[[Charles Hercules Green|Charles H. Green]] (Cdr, [[3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment|3rd Bn, RAR]])
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*[[John Campbell Greenway]]
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*[[William Guarnere]]
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*[[Ed Guthman]]
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*[[David Hackworth]] (ten awards)
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*[[Hugh William Hadley]]
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*[[Alexander Haig]]
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*[[Robert Halperin]]
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*[[Iceal Hambleton]]
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*[[Edward Hardin]]
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<!-- Do not add additional people to this list unless there is already an article on them -->
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*[[Tom Harmon]]
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*[[Raymond Harvey]]
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*[[Carlos Hathcock]]
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*[[Sterling Hayden]]
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*[[Diego E. Hernández]]
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*[[Clifford B. Hicks]]
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*[[Thomas Taro Higa]]
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<!-- Do not add additional people to this list unless there is already an article on them -->
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*[[Charles Franklin Hildebrand]]
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*[[David Lee "Tex" Hill]]
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*[[Tony Hillerman]]
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*[[Lucius Roy Holbrook]]
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*[[Gordon Pai'ea Chung-Hoon]]
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*[[Joe Hooper (soldier)|Joe R. Hooper]]
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*[[Robert L. Howard]]
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*[[Clifton James]]
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*[[Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg]]
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*[[Lyndon B. Johnson]]
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*[[Sam Johnson]] (two awards)
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*[[James L. Jones]]
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*[[John Kerry]]
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*[[Joseph Kittinger]] (two awards)
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*[[Charles C. Krulak]]
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*[[Chris Kyle]] (two awards)
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*[[Henry Louis Larsen]] (three awards)
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*[[Ben Lear]] <!-- Please do not add additional people to this list unless there is already an article on them -->
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*[[John C. H. Lee]]
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*[[Kurt Chew-Een Lee]]
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<!-- Do not add additional people to this list unless there is already an article on them -->
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*[[Homer Litzenberg]]
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*[[Elliott Loughlin]] (two awards)
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*[[Douglas MacArthur]] (seven awards)
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*[[Fred K. Mahaffey]] (three awards)
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*[[Peyton C. March]]
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*[[Richard Marcinko]]
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*[[George Marshall]]
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*[[Richard Marshall (American general)|Richard Marshall]]
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*[[John McCain]]
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*[[Sid McMath]]
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*[[Merrill A. McPeak]]
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*[[Charles B. McVay III]]
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*[[Charles L. Melson]]
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*[[Daniel J. Miller]]
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*[[Michael A. Monsoor]]
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<!-- Do not add additional people to this list unless there is already an article on them -->
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*[[Cliff Montgomery]]
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*[[Audie Murphy]] (two awards)
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*[[Raymond Murray]] (four awards)
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*[[Bismarck Myrick]]
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*[[Oliver North]]
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*[[Mike O'Callaghan]]
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*[[Eric T. Olson]]
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*[[Jorge Otero Barreto]] (three awards)
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*[[George S. Patton]]
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*[[George Patton IV]]
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*[[Keith Payne]]
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*[[Endicott Peabody]]
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*[[John J. Pershing]]
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*[[Basil L. Plumley]]
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<!-- Do not add additional people to this list unless there is already an article on them -->
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*[[Harvey Possinger]]
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*[[Charles E. Potter]]
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*[[Tommy Prince]]
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*[[Francis Gary Powers]]
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*[[Chesty Puller]]
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*[[Agustín Ramos Calero]]
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*[[Edward F. Rector]]
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*[[Stephen C. Reich]]
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*[[Robert B. Rheault]]
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*[[Karl W. Richter]]
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*[[Matthew Ridgeway]] (two awards)
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*[[Antonio Rodríguez Balinas]]
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*[[Pedro Rodriguez (soldier)|Pedro Rodriguez]]
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*[[Robert Rosenthal (USAF)|Robert Rosenthal]]
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*[[Barney Ross]]
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*[[James N. Rowe]]
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<!-- Do not add additional people to this list unless there is already an article on them -->
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*[[Dick Rutan]]
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*[[Wade Sanders]] (later revoked)
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*[[Paul Saunders]]
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*[[Harold Schrier]]
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*[[Leonard T. Schroeder|Leonard T. Schroeder Jr.]]
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*[[Robert L. Scott]]
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*[[Arthur D. Simons]]
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*[[Rodger W. Simpson]]
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*[[Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr.|H. Norman Schwarzkopf]]
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*[[Sidney Shachnow]]
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*[[Frederick W. Smith]]
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*[[Oliver Prince Smith]]
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*[[Ronald Speirs]]
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<!-- Please do not add additional people to this list unless there is already an article on them -->
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*[[Brian Stann]]
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*[[James Stockdale]] (four awards)
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*[[George L. Street III]]
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*[[Samuel D. Sturgis Jr.]]
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*[[Richard K. Sutherland]]
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*[[Thomas Tigue]]
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*[[Pat Tillman]]
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*[[Michel Thomas]]
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*[[William F. Train|William F. Train II]]
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*[[Matt Urban]] (two awards)
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*[[James Van Fleet]] (three awards)
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*[[Paul K. Van Riper]] (two awards)
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*[[Humbert Roque Versace]]
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<!-- Do not add additional people to this list unless there is already an article on them -->
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*[[Donald Walters]]
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*[[John T. Walton]]
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*[[Billy Waugh]]
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*[[Jim Webb]]
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*[[Charles Willeford]]
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*[[Jerauld Wright]]
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*[[Tahsin Yazıcı]]
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*[[Chuck Yeager]] (two awards)
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*[[Elton Younger]]
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*[[Douglas A. Zembiec]]
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<!-- Please do not add additional people to this list unless there is already an article on them -->
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==Unit award equivalent==
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* Army - [[Valorous Unit Award]]
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* Navy-Marine - [[Navy Unit Commendation]]
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* Air Force - [[Gallant Unit Citation]]
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* Coast Guard - [[Coast Guard Unit Commendation]]
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== References ==
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{{reflist}}
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==External links==
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{{commons category|Silver Star (United States)|Silver Star}}
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* [http://militarytimes.com/citations-medals-awards/citation.php?citation=42525 MilitaryTimes.com]
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* [http://www.afpc.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=7729 Awards and Decorations Air Force Personnel Center]
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[[Category:Military awards and decorations of the United States]]
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[[Category:Awards established in 1932]]
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[[Category:Courage awards]]

Latest revision as of 00:37, 13 January 2020

The below content is licensed according to Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License contrary to the public domain logo at the foot of the page. It originally appeared on http://en.wikipedia.org. The original article might still be accessible here. You may be able to find a list of the article's previous contributors on the talk page.

Army Captain Gregory Ambrosia receiving the Silver Star from Navy Admiral Michael Mullen, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

The Silver Star, referred to as the Silver Star Medal by all United States Armed Forces, is the third highest military decoration for valor that can be awarded to any person serving in any capacity with the United States Armed Forces. The medal is awarded for gallantry in action against an enemy of the United States.

History

The Silver Star medal is the successor award to the Citation Star which was established by an Act of Congress on July 9, 1918. On July 19, 1932, the Secretary of War approved the Silver Star to replace the Citation Star. The original Citation Star is incorporated into the center of the Silver Star, and the suspension and service ribbon for the Silver Star is based closely on the Certificate of Merit Medal.[1]

Authorization for the Silver Star was placed into law by an Act of Congress for the U.S. Navy on August 7, 1942 and an Act of Congress for the U.S. Army on December 15, 1942. The current statutory authorization for the Silver Star is Title 10 of the United States Code, 3746 for the Army, 8746 for the Air Force, and 6244 for the Naval Service.

Award criteria

The Silver Star is awarded for gallantry not justifying the award of one of the next higher valor awards – the Distinguished Service Cross, the Navy Cross, or the Air Force Cross.[2] The gallantry displayed must have taken place while in action against an enemy of the United States, while engaged in military operations involving conflict with an opposing foreign force, or while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict against an opposing armed force in which the United States is not a belligerent party.[3]

Air Force pilots, combat systems officers, Navy and Marine Corps Naval Aviators and Naval Flight Officers flying fighter aircraft are often considered eligible to receive a Silver Star upon becoming an ace (i.e., having five or more confirmed aerial kills), which entails the pilot and, in multi-seat fighters, the weapons system officer or radar intercept officer, intentionally and successfully risking his life multiple times under combat conditions and emerging victorious.[4] However, during the Vietnam War, the last conflict to produce U.S. fighter aces, the one USAF pilot, the two USAF navigators/weapon systems officers (who were later retrained as USAF pilots), the one USN Naval Aviator and the one USN Naval Flight Officer/radar intercept officer to achieve this distinction were eventually awarded the Air Force Cross and Navy Cross, respectively, in addition to Silver Stars previously awarded for earlier aerial kills.

Appearance

The Silver Star is a gold five-pointed star, 1+1/2 inches in circumscribing diameter with a laurel wreath encircling rays from the center and a 3/16 inch diameter silver star superimposed in the center. The pendant is suspended from a rectangular shaped metal loop with rounded corners. The reverse has the inscription FOR GALLANTRY IN ACTION. The ribbon is 1+3/8 inch wide and consists of the following stripes: 7/32 inch Old Glory red (center stripe); proceeding outward in pairs 7/32 inch white; 7/32 inch ultramarine blue; 3/64 inch white; and 3/32 inch ultramarine blue.[1]

Second and subsequent awards of the Silver Star medal are denoted by oak leaf clusters in the Army and Air Force and by 5/16 inch stars in the Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard[3][5][6][7]

Recipients

The Department of Defense does not keep extensive records of awards of the Silver Star. Independent groups estimate that between 100,000 and 150,000 Silver Stars have been awarded since the decoration was established.[8] Colonel David Hackworth is likely to be the person who has been awarded the most Silver Stars. He earned ten Silver Stars for service in the Korean War and the Vietnam War.[9]

Female recipients

An unknown number of women received the award in World War II. In 1944, four Army nurses serving in Italy – First Lieutenant Mary Roberts, Second Lieutenant Elaine Roe, Second Lieutenant Rita Virginia Rourke, and Second Lieutenant Ellen Ainsworth (posthumous) – became the first women recipients of the Silver Star, all cited for their bravery in successfully evacuating the 33rd Field Hospital at Anzio, Italy on February 10.[10]

No record of additional female awardees since World War II has come to light, until Sergeant Leigh Ann Hester was awarded the Silver Star in 2005 for gallantry during an insurgent ambush on a convoy in Iraq.[10] In 2007, it was discovered that three nurses who served in World War I were cited with Citation Stars for their service in July 1918. Having never been awarded their Citation Stars, they were awarded the Silver Star posthumously.[11] Army Specialist Monica Lin Brown was awarded the Silver Star in March 2008 for heroism in the War in Afghanistan.[10]

Notable recipients

Notable recipients include:

Unit award equivalent

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Silver Star". The Institute of Heraldry. Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army. http://www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil/Awards/silver_star.aspx. Retrieved 1 July 2012. 
  2. "Section 578.12 - Silver Star". Code of Federal Regulations. Government Printing Office. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2008-title32-vol3/xml/CFR-2008-title32-vol3-sec578-12.xml. Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Department of Defense Manual 1348.33 Volume 3" (pdf). Defense Technical Information Center. Department of Defense. 23 November 2010. pp. 13, 52. http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/pdf/134833vol3.pdf. Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  4. Korean War pilot receives Silver Star 56 years later. Retrieved 2009-03-10.
  5. Coast Guards Medals and Awards, COMDTINSTM1650D, May 2008, P. 1-13 a, 2-3 5., 1-16 "a"
  6. Navy-Marine Awards manual, Aug. 22, 2006, SECNAVINST 1650.1H, P. 1-8, 123. 1., 1-22
  7. DOD Awards Manual, 1348.33, Oct. 12, 2011, P. 60, Order of Precedence, Silver Star Medal.
  8. Home of Heroes: Silver Star Medal. Retrieved 2008-12-16.
  9. Hackworth, Col David H., U.S. Army (retired) (December 2002). "Look Truth Right in the Eye". Military.com. http://www.military.com/NewContent/0,13190,NI_Hackworth_1202,00.html. Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Abrashi, Fisnik (March 9, 2008). "Medic Stationed in Afghanistan Becomes 2nd Woman to Be Awarded Silver Star". Associated Press. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,336259,00.html. 
  11. "Daughter Accepts Silver Star Her World War I Nurse Mother Earned". United States Army. 2 August 2007. http://www.army.mil/article/4259/daughter-accepts-silver-star-her-world-war-i-nurse-mother-earned/. Retrieved 9 October 2012. 

External links