Difference between revisions of "Bangladesh"

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(Created page with " {{Infobox country | conventional_long_name = People's Republic of Bangladesh | common_name = Bangladesh | native_name = {{ubl|{{native name|bn|গণপ...")
 
 
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{{short description|Country in South Asia}}
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{{Other uses}}
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{{pp-protected|small=yes}}
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{{Use Bangladeshi English|date=December 2021}}
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{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2021}}
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{{coord|24|N|90|E|type:country_region:BD|display=title}}
 
{{Infobox country
 
{{Infobox country
 
| conventional_long_name = People's Republic of Bangladesh
 
| conventional_long_name = People's Republic of Bangladesh
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| other_symbol          = {{unbulleted list |[[File:Government Seal of Bangladesh.svg|100px|Seal of the Government of Bangladesh]]}}
 
| other_symbol          = {{unbulleted list |[[File:Government Seal of Bangladesh.svg|100px|Seal of the Government of Bangladesh]]}}
 
| other_symbol_type      = [[Government Seal of Bangladesh|Official Seal of the Government of Bangladesh]]
 
| other_symbol_type      = [[Government Seal of Bangladesh|Official Seal of the Government of Bangladesh]]
| national_anthem        = {{native phrase|bn|"[[Amar Shonar Bangla]]"|italics=off}}<br />{{small|"My Golden Bengal"}}<br /><div style="display:inline-block;margin-top:0.4em;">[[File:Amar Shonar Bangla instrumental.ogg|center]]</div>{{center|'''March:''' "[[Notuner Gaan]]"<br />{{small|"The Song of Youth"}}<ref name="national march">{{cite web|title=National Symbols→National march|website=Bangladesh Tourism Board|location=Bangladesh|publisher=Ministry of Civil Aviation & Tourism|url=http://visitbangladesh.gov.bd/about-bangladesh/national-symbol/|quote=In 13 January 1972, the ministry of Bangladesh has adopted this song as a national marching song on its first meeting after the country's independence.|access-date=21 February 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161228040953/http://visitbangladesh.gov.bd/about-bangladesh/national-symbol/|archive-date=28 December 2016|url-status=dead}}</ref>}}{{center|'''National Slogan''': "[[Joy Bangla]]" <br />{{small|"Victory to Bengal"}}<ref>{{cite news|url= https://en.prothomalo.com/bangladesh/joy-bangla-to-be-national-slogan-hc|title='Joy Bangla' to be national slogan: HC|publisher= Daily Prothom Alo|date= 10 March 2020|access-date = 10 March 2020}}</ref><ref name="bn2">{{cite news|url= https://m.bdnews24.com/en/detail/bangladesh/1732865|title= HC orders govt to announce 'Joy Bangla' as national slogan in three months|publisher=bdnews24.com|date= March 10, 2020|access-date= March 10, 2020}}</ref>}}
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| national_anthem        = {{native phrase|bn|"[[Amar Sonar Bangla]]"|italics=off}}<br />{{small|"My Golden Bengal"}}<br /><div style="display:inline-block;margin-top:0.4em;">[[File:Amar Shonar Bangla instrumental.ogg|center]]</div>{{center|'''March:''' "[[Notuner Gaan]]"<br />{{small|"The Song of Youth"}}<ref name="national march">{{cite web|title=National Symbols→National march|website=Bangladesh Tourism Board|location=Bangladesh|publisher=Ministry of Civil Aviation & Tourism|url=http://visitbangladesh.gov.bd/about-bangladesh/national-symbol/|quote=In 13 January 1972, the ministry of Bangladesh has adopted this song as a national marching song on its first meeting after the country's independence.|access-date=21 February 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161228040953/http://visitbangladesh.gov.bd/about-bangladesh/national-symbol/|archive-date=28 December 2016|url-status=dead}}</ref>}}{{center|'''National Slogan''': "[[Joy Bangla]]" <br />{{small|"Victory to Bengal"}}<ref>{{cite news|url= https://en.prothomalo.com/bangladesh/joy-bangla-to-be-national-slogan-hc|title='Joy Bangla' to be national slogan: HC|publisher= Daily Prothom Alo|date=10 March 2020|access-date = 10 March 2020}}</ref><ref name="bn2">{{cite news|url= https://m.bdnews24.com/en/detail/bangladesh/1732865|title= HC orders govt to announce 'Joy Bangla' as national slogan in three months|publisher=bdnews24.com|date=10 March 2020|access-date=10 March 2020}}</ref>}}
 
| image_map              = Bangladesh (orthographic projection).svg
 
| image_map              = Bangladesh (orthographic projection).svg
| map_caption            =
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| map_caption            =  
 
| map_width              = 220px
 
| map_width              = 220px
 
| capital                = [[Dhaka]]
 
| capital                = [[Dhaka]]
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| ethnic_groups_year    = 2011<ref name="বাংলাদেশকে জানুন">{{cite web |url=http://www.bangladesh.gov.bd/site/page/812d94a8-0376-4579-a8f1-a1f66fa5df5d/বাংলাদেশকে-জানুন |script-title=bn:জানুন |title=Bānlādēśakē jānuna |language=bn |trans-title=Discover Bangladesh |publisher=National Web Portal of Bangladesh |access-date=13 February 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150216093108/http://www.bangladesh.gov.bd/www.bangladesh.gov.bd/index6517.html?q=bn%2F%E0%A6%AC%E0%A6%BE%E0%A6%82%E0%A6%B2%E0%A6%BE%E0%A6%A6%E0%A7%87%E0%A6%B6%E0%A6%95%E0%A7%87-%E0%A6%9C%E0%A6%BE%E0%A6%A8%E0%A7%81%E0%A6%A8 |archive-date=16 February 2015 |url-status=live}}</ref>
 
| ethnic_groups_year    = 2011<ref name="বাংলাদেশকে জানুন">{{cite web |url=http://www.bangladesh.gov.bd/site/page/812d94a8-0376-4579-a8f1-a1f66fa5df5d/বাংলাদেশকে-জানুন |script-title=bn:জানুন |title=Bānlādēśakē jānuna |language=bn |trans-title=Discover Bangladesh |publisher=National Web Portal of Bangladesh |access-date=13 February 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150216093108/http://www.bangladesh.gov.bd/www.bangladesh.gov.bd/index6517.html?q=bn%2F%E0%A6%AC%E0%A6%BE%E0%A6%82%E0%A6%B2%E0%A6%BE%E0%A6%A6%E0%A7%87%E0%A6%B6%E0%A6%95%E0%A7%87-%E0%A6%9C%E0%A6%BE%E0%A6%A8%E0%A7%81%E0%A6%A8 |archive-date=16 February 2015 |url-status=live}}</ref>
 
| demonym                = [[Bangladeshi]]
 
| demonym                = [[Bangladeshi]]
| government_type        = [[Unitary state|Unitary]]<br>[[dominant-party]] [[Parliamentary system|parliamentary]]<br>[[Constitution of Bangladesh|constitutional]] [[republic]]
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| government_type        = [[Unitary state|Unitary]] [[dominant-party]] [[parliamentary republic]]
 
| leader_title1          = [[President of Bangladesh|President]]
 
| leader_title1          = [[President of Bangladesh|President]]
 
| leader_name1          = [[Abdul Hamid (politician)|Abdul Hamid]]
 
| leader_name1          = [[Abdul Hamid (politician)|Abdul Hamid]]
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| leader_name3          = [[Shirin Sharmin Chaudhury]]
 
| leader_name3          = [[Shirin Sharmin Chaudhury]]
 
| leader_title4          = [[Chief Justice of Bangladesh|Chief Justice]]
 
| leader_title4          = [[Chief Justice of Bangladesh|Chief Justice]]
| leader_name4          = [[Syed Mahmud Hossain]]
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| leader_name4          = [[Hasan Foez Siddique]]
 
| legislature            = [[Jatiya Sangsad]]
 
| legislature            = [[Jatiya Sangsad]]
 
| sovereignty_type      = <div style="text-align: left;">[[Bangladesh Liberation War|Independence]] from [[Pakistan]]</div>
 
| sovereignty_type      = <div style="text-align: left;">[[Bangladesh Liberation War|Independence]] from [[Pakistan]]</div>
 
| established_event1    = [[Independence Day of Bangladesh|Declared]]
 
| established_event1    = [[Independence Day of Bangladesh|Declared]]
 
| established_date1      = 26 March 1971
 
| established_date1      = 26 March 1971
| established_event2    = [[Victory Day of Bangladesh|V-Day]]
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| established_event2    = [[Victory day of Bangladesh|V-Day]]
 
| established_date2      = 16 December 1971
 
| established_date2      = 16 December 1971
 
| established_event3    = [[Constitution of Bangladesh|Current constitution]]
 
| established_event3    = [[Constitution of Bangladesh|Current constitution]]
 
| established_date3      = 16 December 1972
 
| established_date3      = 16 December 1972
| area_km2              = 148,560<ref name="bdarea">{{cite web|title=South Asia :: Bangladesh — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency|url=http://bbs.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/bbs.portal.gov.bd/page/6a40a397_6ef7_48a3_80b3_78b8d1223e3f/SVRS_Report_2018_29-05-2019(Final).pdf|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200110115455/http://bbs.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/bbs.portal.gov.bd/page/6a40a397_6ef7_48a3_80b3_78b8d1223e3f/SVRS_Report_2018_29-05-2019(Final).pdf|url-status=dead|archive-date=2020-01-10|access-date=7 July 2021}}</ref> <!--Don't change it, I couldn't find any BD gov website with the updated value but that doesn't changed the fact that BD got new water lands and its total area is increased from '147570sq km.'-->
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| area_km2              = 148,460 <ref name="bdarea">{{cite web| url=https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/bangladesh/|title=South Asia :: Bangladesh — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency|website=www.cia.gov|accessdate=2021-11-13}}</ref>
| area_rank              = 92nd
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| area_rank              = 94nd<ref name="bdarea"/>
| area_sq_mi            = 57359.34
+
| area_sq_mi            = 57320
 
+
| area_label2           = Land area
|area_label2 = Land area
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| area_data2             = 130,170 sq Km<ref name="bdarea"/>
|area_data2 = 130,170 sq Km<ref name=":0">{{Cite web|title=Bangladesh Geography 2020, CIA World Factbook|url=https://theodora.com/wfbcurrent/bangladesh/bangladesh_geography.html|access-date=17 December 2020|website=theodora.com}}</ref>
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| area_label3           = Water area
 
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| area_data3             = 18,290 sq km<ref name="bdarea"/>
|area_label3= Water area
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|area_data3= 18,290 sq km<ref name=":0"/>
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| percent_water          = 6.4
 
| percent_water          = 6.4
| population_estimate    = {{IncreaseNeutral}}{{UN_Population|Bangladesh}}{{UN_Population|ref}}
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| population_estimate    = {{IncreaseNeutral}} {{UN_Population|Bangladesh}}{{UN_Population|ref}}
 
| population_census      = 149,772,364<ref>[http://www.bbs.gov.bd/Home.aspx Data] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110904045106/http://www.bbs.gov.bd/Home.aspx |date=4 September 2011}}. Census – Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.</ref>
 
| population_census      = 149,772,364<ref>[http://www.bbs.gov.bd/Home.aspx Data] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110904045106/http://www.bbs.gov.bd/Home.aspx |date=4 September 2011}}. Census – Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.</ref>
 
| population_estimate_year = {{UN_Population|Year}}
 
| population_estimate_year = {{UN_Population|Year}}
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| population_density_sq_mi = 2,864.5
 
| population_density_sq_mi = 2,864.5
 
| population_density_rank = 7th
 
| population_density_rank = 7th
| GDP_PPP                = {{increase}} $966.485 billion<ref name="IMFWEOBD">{{cite web |url=https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/weo-database/2021/April/weo-report?c=513,&s=NGDP_RPCH,NGDPD,PPPGDP,NGDPDPC,PPPPC,&sy=2016&ey=2026&ssm=0&scsm=1&scc=0&ssd=1&ssc=0&sic=0&sort=country&ds=.&br=1 |title=World Economic Outlook Database, April 2021 |website=[[International Monetary Fund]] |access-date=6 April 2021}}</ref>
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| GDP_PPP                = {{increase}} $1.070 trillion<ref name="November2021gdp2">{{cite web |url= https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/weo-database/2021/October/weo-report?c=512,914,612,171,614,311,213,911,314,193,122,912,313,419,513,316,913,124,339,638,514,218,963,616,223,516,918,748,618,624,522,622,156,626,628,228,924,233,632,636,634,238,662,960,423,935,128,611,321,243,248,469,253,642,643,939,734,644,819,172,132,646,648,915,134,652,174,328,258,656,654,336,263,268,532,944,176,534,536,429,433,178,436,136,343,158,439,916,664,826,542,967,443,917,544,941,446,666,668,672,946,137,546,674,676,548,556,678,181,867,682,684,273,868,921,948,943,686,688,518,728,836,558,138,196,278,692,694,962,142,449,564,565,283,853,288,293,566,964,182,359,453,968,922,714,862,135,716,456,722,942,718,724,576,936,961,813,726,199,733,184,524,361,362,364,732,366,144,146,463,528,923,738,578,537,742,866,369,744,186,925,869,746,926,466,112,111,298,927,846,299,582,487,474,754,698,&s=NGDPD,PPPGDP,NGDPDPC,PPPPC,&sy=2022&ey=2022&ssm=0&scsm=1&scc=0&ssd=1&ssc=0&sic=0&sort=country&ds=.&br=1 |title=World Economic Outlook Database, October 2021 |website=[[International Monetary Fund]] |access-date=23 December 2021}}</ref>
 
| GDP_PPP_year          = 2021
 
| GDP_PPP_year          = 2021
| GDP_PPP_rank          = 31st
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| GDP_PPP_rank          = 27th
| GDP_PPP_per_capita    = {{increase}} $5,812<ref name="IMFWEOBD"/>
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| GDP_PPP_per_capita    = {{increase}} $6,630
| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 130th
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| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 125th
| GDP_nominal            = {{increase}} $352.908 billion<ref name="IMFWEOBD"/>
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| GDP_nominal            = {{increase}} $411 billion<ref name="November2021gdp">{{cite web |last1=Byron |first1=Rejaul Karim |title=Bangladesh poised to become $500b economy by next fiscal |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/news/bangladesh/news/500m-economy-next-fiscal-2926946 |work=The Daily Star |access-date=28 December 2021 |language=en |date=28 December 2021}}</ref>
 
| GDP_nominal_year      = 2021
 
| GDP_nominal_year      = 2021
| GDP_nominal_rank      = 37th
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| GDP_nominal_rank      = 33rd
| GDP_nominal_per_capita = {{increase}} $2,122<ref name="IMFWEOBD"/>
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| GDP_nominal_per_capita = {{increase}} $2,554 <ref name="November2021gdp2"/>
 
| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 149th
 
| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 149th
 
| Gini                  = 39.5 <!--number only-->
 
| Gini                  = 39.5 <!--number only-->
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| Gini_change            = increase<!--increase/decrease/steady-->
 
| Gini_change            = increase<!--increase/decrease/steady-->
 
| Gini_ref              = <ref name="wb-gini">{{cite web |url=https://knoema.com/atlas/Bangladesh/topics/Poverty/Income-Inequality/GINI-index |title=Gini Index |publisher=[[Knoema]] |access-date=10 July 2021 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130907061928/http://knoema.com/atlas/Bangladesh/topics/Poverty/Income-Inequality/GINI-index |archive-date=7 September 2013 |url-status=live}}</ref>
 
| Gini_ref              = <ref name="wb-gini">{{cite web |url=https://knoema.com/atlas/Bangladesh/topics/Poverty/Income-Inequality/GINI-index |title=Gini Index |publisher=[[Knoema]] |access-date=10 July 2021 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130907061928/http://knoema.com/atlas/Bangladesh/topics/Poverty/Income-Inequality/GINI-index |archive-date=7 September 2013 |url-status=live}}</ref>
| Gini_rank              =
+
| Gini_rank              =  
 
| HDI                    = 0.632 <!--number only-->
 
| HDI                    = 0.632 <!--number only-->
 
| HDI_year              = 2019 <!--Please use the year to which the HDI data refers, not the publication year-->
 
| HDI_year              = 2019 <!--Please use the year to which the HDI data refers, not the publication year-->
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| time_zone              = [[Bangladesh Standard Time|BST]]
 
| time_zone              = [[Bangladesh Standard Time|BST]]
 
| utc_offset            = +6
 
| utc_offset            = +6
| date_format            = dd-mm-yyyy [[Common Era|CE]]
+
| date_format            = {{nowrap|{{abbr|dd|day}}-{{abbr|mm|month}}-{{abbr|yyyy|year}}}} ([[Common Era|CE]])
| drives_on              = [[Right- and left-hand traffic#Asia|left]]
+
| drives_on              = left
 
| calling_code          = [[Telephone numbers in Bangladesh|+880]]
 
| calling_code          = [[Telephone numbers in Bangladesh|+880]]
 
| cctld                  = [[.bd]]<br />{{lang|bn|[[.bangla|.বাংলা]]}}
 
| cctld                  = [[.bd]]<br />{{lang|bn|[[.bangla|.বাংলা]]}}
 
| official_website      = <!-- do not add www.bangladesh.gov.bd – The article is about the country, not the government – from Template:Infobox country, "do not use government website (e.g. usa.gov) for countries (e.g. United States) -->
 
| official_website      = <!-- do not add www.bangladesh.gov.bd – The article is about the country, not the government – from Template:Infobox country, "do not use government website (e.g. usa.gov) for countries (e.g. United States) -->
| area_magnitude        =
+
| area_magnitude        =  
| footnote              =
+
| footnote              =  
| today                  =
+
| today                  =  
|electricity=220 V AC 50 Hz}}
+
| electricity           = [[Mains electricity by country|220&nbsp;V{{ndash}}50 Hz]]
 +
}}
 
{{Contains special characters|Bengali}}
 
{{Contains special characters|Bengali}}
'''Bangladesh''' ({{IPAc-en|b|æ|ŋ|l|ə|ˈ|d|ɛ|ʃ}};<ref>{{cite web |title=English pronunciation of Bangladesh |url=https://dictionary.cambridge.org/pronunciation/english/bangladesh |website=Cambridge Dictionary |publisher=Cambridge Dictionary |access-date=26 March 2020}}</ref> {{lang-bn|<!-- The following spelling is correct. If you see anything odd, your browser isn't Unicode compliant. -->বাংলাদেশ}}, {{IPA-bn|ˈbaŋlaˌdeʃ|pron|Bn-বাংলাদেশ.oga}}), officially the '''People's Republic of Bangladesh''', is a country in [[South Asia]]. It is the [[List of countries and dependencies by population|eighth-most populous country]] in the world, with a population exceeding 163 million people, in an area of {{convert|148560|km2|sqmi}},<ref name="bdarea"/> making it one of the [[List of countries and dependencies by population density|most densely populated countries]] in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with [[India]] to the west, north, and east, [[Myanmar]] to the southeast, and the [[Bay of Bengal]] to the south. It is narrowly separated from [[Nepal]] and [[Bhutan]] by the [[Siliguri Corridor]], and from [[China]] by the Indian state of [[Sikkim]] in the north, respectively. [[Dhaka]], the capital and [[List of cities and towns in Bangladesh|largest city]], is the nation's economic, political, and cultural hub. [[Chittagong]], the [[Port of Chittagong|largest seaport]] is the second-largest city.
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'''Bangladesh''' ({{IPAc-en|b|æ|ŋ|l|ə|ˈ|d|ɛ|ʃ}};<ref>{{cite web |title=English pronunciation of Bangladesh |url=https://dictionary.cambridge.org/pronunciation/english/bangladesh |website=Cambridge Dictionary |publisher=Cambridge Dictionary |access-date=26 March 2020}}</ref> {{lang-bn|<!-- The following spelling is correct. If you see anything odd, your browser isn't Unicode compliant. -->বাংলাদেশ}}, {{IPA-bn|ˈbaŋlaˌdeʃ|pron|Bn-বাংলাদেশ.oga}}), officially the '''People's Republic of Bangladesh''', is a country in [[South Asia]]. It is the [[List of countries and dependencies by population|eighth-most populous country]] in the world, with a population exceeding 163 million people in an area of either {{convert|148460|km2|sqmi}} or {{convert|147570|km2|sqmi}},<ref name="bdarea"/><ref name="bbs">{{cite book|title= বাংলাদেশ পরিসংখ্যান বর্ষগ্রন্থ ২০২০ - Bangladesh Statistics annual book 2020 |url= http://bbs.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/bbs.portal.gov.bd/page/b2db8758_8497_412c_a9ec_6bb299f8b3ab/2021-08-11-04-54-154c14988ce53f65700592b03e05a0f8.pdf|url-status=live |publisher= Bangladesh Statistics Bureau|page=21 |isbn= 978-984-475-047-0}}</ref> making it one of the [[List of countries and dependencies by population density|most densely populated countries]] in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with [[India]] to the west, north, and east, [[Myanmar]] to the southeast, and the [[Bay of Bengal]] to the south. It is narrowly separated from [[Nepal]] and [[Bhutan]] by the [[Siliguri Corridor]]; and from [[China]] by 100&nbsp;km of the Indian state of [[Sikkim]] in the north.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.tbsnews.net/thoughts/america-should-bet-bangladesh-338458 |title=America should bet on Bangladesh |publisher=Tbsnews.net |date=2021-12-04 |accessdate=2022-01-10}}</ref> [[Dhaka]], the capital and [[List of cities and towns in Bangladesh|largest city]], is the nation's economic, political, and cultural hub. [[Chittagong]], the [[Port of Chittagong|largest seaport]], is the second-largest city.
  
Bangladesh forms the larger and eastern part of the [[Bengal]] region.<ref name="EyetsemitanGire2003">{{cite book|author1=Frank E. Eyetsemitan|author2=James T. Gire|title=Aging and Adult Development in the Developing World: Applying Western Theories and Concepts|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=xxZf3Jai1rAC&pg=PA91|year=2003|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|isbn=978-0-89789-925-3|page=91}}</ref> According to the ancient Indian texts, ''[[Ramayana|Rāmāyana]]'' and ''[[Mahabharata|Mahābhārata]]'', the [[Vanga Kingdom]], one of the namesakes of the Bengal region, was a strong naval power. In the ancient and classical periods of the [[Indian subcontinent]], the territory was home to many principalities, including the [[Pundravardhana|Pundra]], [[Gangaridai]], [[Gauda Kingdom|Gauda]], [[Samatata]], and [[Harikela]]. It was also a [[Mauryan Empire|Mauryan province]] under the reign of [[Ashoka]]. The principalities were notable for their overseas trade, contacts with the Roman world, the export of fine [[Muslin trade in Bengal|muslin]] and silk to the Middle East, and spreading of philosophy and art to [[Southeast Asia]]. The [[Gupta Empire]], [[Pala Empire]], the [[Chandra dynasty]], and the [[Sena dynasty]] were the last pre-Islamic Bengali [[middle kingdoms of India|middle kingdoms]]. [[Islam]] was introduced during the Pala Empire, through trade with the [[Abbasid Caliphate|Abbāsid Caliphate]],<ref name="kumar">{{cite book |author=Raj Kumar |date=2003 |title=Essays on Ancient India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=qvnjXOCjv7EC |publisher=Discovery Publishing House |page=199 |isbn=978-81-7141-682-0}}</ref> but following the [[Ghurid Empire|Ghurid]] conquests led by [[Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji|Bakhtiyār Khaljī]], the establishment of the [[Delhi Sultanate]] and preaching of [[Shah Jalal|Shah Jalāl]] in the north-east, it spread across the entire region. In 1576, the wealthy [[Bengal Sultanate]] was absorbed into the [[Mughal Empire]], but its rule was briefly interrupted by the [[Sur Empire|Sūr Empire]]. [[Mughal Bengal]], worth 12% of world GDP (late 17th century), waved the [[Proto-industrialization]], showed signs of a possible [[industrial revolution]],<ref name="ray">{{cite book |author=Indrajit Ray |year=2011 |title=Bengal Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757-1857) |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=CHOrAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA57 |publisher=Routledge |pages=57, 90, 174 |isbn=978-1-136-82552-1}}</ref><ref name="sengupta">Shombit Sengupta, [http://www.financialexpress.com/archive/bengals-plunder-gifted-the-british-industrial-revolution/576476/ Bengals plunder gifted the British Industrial Revolution], ''[[The Financial Express (India)|The Financial Express]]'', 8 February 2010</ref> established relations with the [[Dutch East India Company|Dutch]] and [[English East India Company]], and became also the basis of the [[Anglo-Mughal War]]. Following the death of Emperor [[Aurangzeb|Aurangzēb Ālamgir]] and Governor [[Shaista Khan|Shāista Khān]] in the early 1700s, the region became a semi-independent state under the [[Nawabs of Bengal]]. [[Siraj Ud-Daulah|Sirāj ud-Daulah]], the last Nawab of Bengal, was defeated by the [[British East India Company]] at the [[Battle of Plassey]] in 1757 and the whole region fell under [[Company rule in India|Company rule]] by 1793.<ref>{{cite book |editor1-last=Esposito |editor1-first=John L. |editor1-link=John L. Esposito |year=2004 |title=The Islamic World: Past and Present |volume=Volume 1: Abba Hist. |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=KZcohRpc4OsC&pg=PT190 |publisher=Oxford University Press |page=174 |isbn=978-0-19-516520-3 |access-date=29 August 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171220230104/https://books.google.com/books?id=KZcohRpc4OsC&pg=PT190 |archive-date=20 December 2017 |url-status=live}}</ref>
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Bangladesh forms the sovereign part of the historic and [[ethnolinguistic]] region of [[Bengal]], which was [[Partition of Bengal (1947)|divided]] during the [[Partition of British India]] in 1947.<ref name="EyetsemitanGire2003">{{cite book|author1=Frank E. Eyetsemitan|author2=James T. Gire|title=Aging and Adult Development in the Developing World: Applying Western Theories and Concepts|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=xxZf3Jai1rAC&pg=PA91|year=2003|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|isbn=978-0-89789-925-3|page=91}}</ref> The country has a [[Bengali Muslim]] majority. Ancient Bengal was an important cultural center in the [[Indian subcontinent]] as the home of the states of [[Vanga Kingdom|Vanga]], [[Pundravardhana|Pundra]], [[Gangaridai]], [[Gauda Kingdom|Gauda]], [[Samatata]], and [[Harikela]]. The [[Mauryan Empire|Mauryan]], [[Gupta Empire|Gupta]], [[Pala Empire|Pala]], [[Sena dynasty|Sena]], [[Chandra dynasty|Chandra]] and [[Deva dynasty|Deva]] dynasties were the last pre-Islamic rulers of Bengal. The [[Muslim conquests in the Indian subcontinent|Muslim conquest of Bengal]] began in 1204 when [[Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji|Bakhtiar Khalji]] overran northern Bengal and [[Islamic invasion of Tibet|invaded Tibet]]. Becoming part of the [[Delhi Sultanate]], three city-states emerged in the 14th century with much of eastern Bengal being ruled from [[Sonargaon]]. [[Sufi]] missionary leaders like [[Sultan Balkhi]], [[Shah Jalal]] and [[Shah Makhdum Rupos]] helped in spreading Muslim rule. The region was unified into an independent, unitary [[Bengal Sultanate]]. Under [[Mughal Empire|Mughal rule]], eastern Bengal continued to prosper as the melting pot of Muslims in the eastern subcontinent and attracted traders from around the world. [[Mughal Bengal]] became increasingly assertive and independent under the [[Nawabs of Bengal]] in the 18th century. In 1757, the betrayal of [[Mir Jafar]] resulted in the defeat of Nawab [[Siraj-ud-Daulah]] to the [[British East India Company]] and eventual British dominance across South Asia. The [[Bengal Presidency]] grew into the largest administrative unit in [[British India]]. The creation of [[Eastern Bengal and Assam]] in 1905 set a precedent for the emergence of Bangladesh.
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In 1947, [[East Bengal]] became the most populous province in the [[Dominion of Pakistan]]. It was renamed as [[East Pakistan]] with Dhaka becoming the country's legislative capital. The [[Bengali Language Movement]] in 1952; the [[East Bengali legislative election, 1954]]; the [[1958 Pakistani coup d'état]]; the [[Six point movement]] of 1966; and the [[1970 Pakistani general election]] resulted in the rise of [[Bengali nationalism]] and [[pro-democracy]] movements in East Pakistan. The refusal of the Pakistani military junta to transfer power to the [[Awami League]] led by [[Sheikh Mujibur Rahman]] led to the [[Bangladesh Liberation War]] in 1971, in which the [[Mukti Bahini]] aided by [[India]] waged a guerrilla war. The conflict saw the [[1971 Bangladesh genocide]] and the massacre of pro-independence Bengali civilians, including [[1971 killing of Bengali intellectuals|intellectuals]]. The new state of Bangladesh became the first constitutionally [[Secularism in Bangladesh|secular state]] in South Asia in 1972.<ref>{{cite web|author=Lailufar Yasmin |url=https://institute.global/policy/struggle-soul-bangladesh |title=Struggle for the Soul of Bangladesh &#124; Institute for Global Change |publisher=Institute.global |date= |accessdate=2022-01-10}}</ref> [[Islam]] was declared the state religion in 1988.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-12651483 |title=Bangladesh profile - Timeline |work=BBC News  |date=February 26, 2019 |accessdate=2022-01-10}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/43110030|title=The State-Religion Amendment to the Constitution of Bangladesh: A Critique|author=Alam, Shah|year=1991|journal=Verfassung und Recht in Übersee / Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America|volume=24|issue=2|pages=209–225|jstor=43110030|via=JSTOR}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.thedailystar.net/city/islam-retains-status-state-religion-1200808 |title=Writ challenging Islam as state religion rejected |publisher=The Daily Star |date=2016-03-28 |accessdate=2022-01-10}}</ref> In 2010, the [[Bangladesh Supreme Court]] reaffirmed secular principles in the constitution.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://2009-2017.state.gov/documents/organization/171752.pdf |title=Bangladesh |website=U.S. State Department |access-date=7 November 2016}}</ref>
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Bangladesh is a [[Unitary state|unitary]] [[parliamentary democracy|parliamentary]] [[constitutional republic]] based on the [[Westminster system]]. [[Bengalis]] make up 98% of the total population of Bangladesh,<ref name="bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd" /> and the large [[Muslims|Muslim]] population of Bangladesh makes it the [[Islam by country|third-largest Muslim-majority country]]. The country is divided into [[Divisions of Bangladesh|eight administrative divisions]] and [[Districts of Bangladesh|64 districts]].<ref>{{cite web |title=Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population |work=[[Pew Research Center]] |date=7 October 2009 |access-date=30 November 2019 |url=http://www.pewforum.org/2009/10/07/mapping-the-global-muslim-population/}}</ref> It maintains the third-largest [[Bangladesh Armed Forces|military]] in South Asia after India and Pakistan; and has been a major contributor to [[UN peacekeeping]] operations. A [[middle power]] in the [[Indo-Pacific]],<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/rising-bangladesh-starts-exert-its-regional-power |title=A rising Bangladesh starts to exert its regional power &#124; The Interpreter |publisher=Lowyinstitute.org |date=2019-02-21 |accessdate=2022-01-10}}</ref> Bangladesh is an [[emerging and growth-leading economies|emerging economy]] ranked as the [[List of countries by GDP (nominal)|33rd-largest in the world by nominal GDP]], and the [[List of countries by GDP (PPP)|29th-largest by PPP]]. It hosts one of the largest [[Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh|refugee]] populations in the world due to the [[Rohingya genocide]].<ref>{{cite web|last=Mahmud |first=Faisal |url=https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2021/8/25/rohingya-exodus-hopes-are-getting-thin-for-repatriation |title=Four years on, Rohingya stuck in Bangladesh camps yearn for home &#124; Rohingya News |publisher=Al Jazeera |date= |accessdate=2022-01-10}}</ref> Bangladesh faces many challenges, including the adverse [[effects of climate change]],<ref>{{cite web |last=Maxwell |first=David |url=http://voices.nationalgeographic.com/2010/10/20/bangladesh_india_at_risk_from_climate_change/ |title=Bangladesh, India Most Threatened by Climate Change, Risk Study Finds &#124; National Geographic (blogs) |publisher= |date= |accessdate=2022-01-10 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160503045634/http://voices.nationalgeographic.com/2010/10/20/bangladesh_india_at_risk_from_climate_change/ |archive-date=3 May 2016 |url-status=dead}}</ref>  poverty, [[illiteracy]],<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://archive.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2019/09/08/1-in-4-illiterate-in-bangladesh|title=1 in 4 illiterate in Bangladesh|date=8 September 2019|website=Dhaka Tribune}}</ref> corruption, authoritarianism and human rights abuses. However, the poverty rate has halved since 2011 and the country is expected to become a middle income country in this decade.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://m.theindependentbd.com/home/printnews/271826|title=Bangladesh needs continued commitment to democracy, HR for next level dev: US &#124; Independent|website=m.theindependentbd.com}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/bangladesh/overview#:~:text=From%20being%20one%20of%20the,(LDC)%20list%20in%202026.|title=Overview}}</ref> Once a historic center of the [[Muslin trade in Bengal|muslin cloth trade]], Bangladesh is now one of the world's largest modern garment exporters.
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==Etymology==
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{{Main|Names of Bengal}}
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The etymology of ''Bangladesh'' (Country of Bengal) can be traced to the early 20th century, when Bengali patriotic songs, such as ''Namo Namo Namo Bangladesh Momo'' by [[Kazi Nazrul Islam]] and ''Aaji Bangladesher Hridoy'' by [[Rabindranath Tagore]], used the term.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.geetabitan.com/lyrics/A/aaji-bangladesher-hridoy.html |title=Notation of song aaji bangladesher hridoy |accessdate=10 September 2015 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150904011316/http://www.geetabitan.com/lyrics/A/aaji-bangladesher-hridoy.html |url-status=dead |archivedate=4 September 2015  }}</ref> The term ''Bangladesh'' was often written as two words, ''Bangla Desh'', in the past. Starting in the 1950s, Bengali nationalists used the term in political rallies in [[East Pakistan]]. The term ''Bangla'' is a major name for both the [[Bengal]] region and the [[Bengali language]]. The origins of the term ''Bangla'' are unclear, with theories pointing to a [[Bronze Age]] [[Proto-Dravidian language|proto-Dravidian]] tribe,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field%28DOCID+bd0014%29|title=Bangladesh: early history, 1000&nbsp;B.C.–A.D. 1202|date=September 1988|website=Bangladesh: A country study|publisher=[[Library of Congress]]|location=Washington, DC|accessdate=1 December 2014|quote=Historians believe that Bengal, the area comprising present-day Bangladesh and the Indian state of [[West Bengal]], was settled in about 1000 B.C. by Dravidian-speaking peoples who were later known as the Bang. Their homeland bore various titles that reflected earlier tribal names, such as Vanga, Banga, Bangala, Bangal, and Bengal.|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131207010051/http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd%2Fcstdy%3A%40field%28DOCID+bd0014%29|url-status=live|archive-date=7 December 2013|df=dmy-all}}</ref> the [[Austric]] word "Bonga" (Sun god),<ref name="auto4">{{cite book |last=SenGupta |first=Amitabh |date=2012 |title=Scroll Paintings of Bengal: Art in the Village |publisher=AuthorHouse UK |page=14 |isbn=978-1-4678-9663-4}}</ref> and the Iron Age [[Vanga Kingdom]].<ref name="auto4"/> The earliest known usage of the term is the [[Nesari|Nesari plate]] in 805&nbsp;AD. The term ''Vangaladesa'' is found in 11th-century South Indian records.<ref>{{cite book |last=Keay |first=John |author-link=John Keay |year=2000 |title=India: A History |publisher=Atlantic Monthly Press |page=220 |isbn=978-0-87113-800-2 |quote=In C1020 ... launched Rajendra's great northern escapade ... peoples he defeated have been tentatively identified ... 'Vangala-desa where the rain water never stopped' sounds like a fair description of Bengal in the monsoon.}}</ref><ref name="auto3">{{cite book |last=Sen |first=Sailendra Nath |year=1999 |orig-year=First published 1988 |title=Ancient Indian History and Civilization |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Wk4_ICH_g1EC&pg=PA281 |publisher=New Age International |page=281 |isbn=978-81-224-1198-0}}</ref> The term gained official status during the [[Sultanate of Bengal]] in the 14th century.<ref name="Ahmed2004">{{cite book |last=Ahmed |first=Salahuddin |date=2004 |title=Bangladesh: Past and Present |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Szfqq7ruqWgC&pg=PA23 |publisher=APH Publishing |page=23 |isbn=978-81-7648-469-5 |access-date=14 May 2016 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161223012150/https://books.google.com/books?id=Szfqq7ruqWgC&pg=PA23 |url-status=live |archive-date=23 December 2016 |df=dmy-all }}</ref><ref>"But the most important development of this period was that the country for the first time received a name, ie Bangalah." [http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Islam,_Bengal Banglapedia: Islam, Bengal] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150723091245/http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Islam,_Bengal |date=23 July 2015 }}</ref> [[Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah]] proclaimed himself as the first "[[Shah]] of Bangala" in 1342.<ref name="Ahmed2004"/> The word ''Bangla'' became the most common name for the region during the Islamic period. The [[Portuguese people|Portuguese]] referred to the region as ''Bengala'' in the 16th century.<ref>{{Cite book |last=Sircar |first=D.C. |date=1990 |title=Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=AqKw1Mn8WcwC |publisher=Motilal Banarsidass |page=135 |isbn=978-81-208-0690-0 |access-date=19 April 2016 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160610203345/https://books.google.com/books?id=AqKw1Mn8WcwC |url-status=live |archive-date=10 June 2016 |df=dmy-all }}</ref> 16th-century historian [[Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak]] mentions in his ''[[Ain-i-Akbari]]'' that the addition of the suffix ''"al"'' came from the fact that the ancient rajahs of the land raised mounds of earth 10 feet high and 20 in breadth in lowlands at the foot of the hills which were called "al".<ref>Land of Two Rivers, [[Nitish Sengupta]]</ref> This is also mentioned in [[Ghulam Husain Salim]]'s [[Riyaz-us-Salatin]].<ref name="riaj">[http://persian.packhum.org/persian/pf?file=07601010&ct=11 RIYAZU-S-SALĀTĪN: A History of Bengal] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141215055926/http://persian.packhum.org/persian/pf?file=07601010&ct=11|date=15 December 2014}}, [[Ghulam Husain Salim]], The Asiatic Society, Calcutta, 1902.</ref> The Indo-Aryan suffix ''Desh'' is derived from the Sanskrit word ''deśha'', which means "land" or "country". Hence, the name ''Bangladesh'' means "Land of Bengal" or "Country of Bengal".<ref name="auto3"/>
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==History==
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{{Main|History of Bengal|History of Bangladesh}}
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===Ancient Bengal===
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[[File:Mahajanapadas (c. 500 BCE).png|thumb|[[Vanga Kingdom]] and erstwhile neighbours in ancient South Asia]]
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[[File:1.পাহাড়পুর বৌদ্ধ বিহার.jpg|thumb|left|Aerial view of [[Somapura Mahavihara]], once the largest monastery in South Asia and now a UNESCO World Heritage Site]]
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[[Stone Age]] tools found in Bangladesh indicate human habitation for over 20,000 years,<ref name="Bharadwaj2003">{{cite book |editor=Majumdar, RC |year=2003 |title=History of Bengal |publisher=B.R. Publishing Corp |isbn=93-86223-46-5}}</ref>{{page needed|date=October 2021}} and remnants of [[Copper Age]] settlements date back 4,000 years.<ref name="Bharadwaj2003"/> Ancient Bengal was settled by [[Austroasiatic]]s, [[Tibeto-Burman]]s, [[Dravidian people|Dravidians]] and [[Rigvedic tribes|Indo-Aryans]] in consecutive waves of migration.<ref name="Bharadwaj2003" /><ref name="congress">{{cite book |last=Blood |first=Peter R. |year=1989 |chapter=Early History, 1000 B.C.–A.D. 1202 |chapter-url=http://countrystudies.us/bangladesh/4.htm |editor1-last=Heitzman |editor1-first=James |editor2-last=Worden |editor2-first=Robert |title=Bangladesh: A Country Study |url=http://countrystudies.us/bangladesh/ |location=Washington, DC |publisher=Federal Research Division, Library of Congress |page=4 |access-date=17 October 2010 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110622211513/http://countrystudies.us/bangladesh/21.htm |archive-date=22 June 2011 |url-status=live}}</ref> Archaeological evidence confirms that by the second millennium BCE, rice-cultivating communities inhabited the region. By the 11th century people lived in systemically aligned housing, buried their dead, and manufactured copper ornaments and black and red pottery.<ref name="google5">{{cite book|title=The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204–1760|author=Eaton, R.M.|date=1996|publisher=University of California Press|isbn=978-0-520-20507-9|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=gKhChF3yAOUC|access-date=20 June 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170106124647/https://books.google.com/books?id=gKhChF3yAOUC|archive-date=6 January 2017|url-status=live}}</ref> The [[Ganges]], [[Brahmaputra]] and [[Meghna]] rivers were natural arteries for communication and transportation,<ref name="google5"/> and estuaries on the Bay of Bengal permitted maritime trade. The early [[Iron Age]] saw the development of metal weaponry, coinage, agriculture and [[irrigation]].<ref name="google5"/> Major urban settlements formed during the late Iron Age, in the mid-[[first millennium BCE]],<ref>{{cite book |last=Lewis |first=David |author-link=David Lewis (academic) |date=2011 |title=Bangladesh: Politics, Economy and Civil Society |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5lH40gT7xvYC&pg=PA42 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=42 |isbn=978-1-139-50257-3 |access-date=16 July 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180131225046/https://books.google.com/books?id=5lH40gT7xvYC&pg=PA42 |archive-date=31 January 2018 |url-status=live}}</ref> when the [[Northern Black Polished Ware]] culture developed.<ref name="PierisRaven2010">{{cite book |last1=Pieris |first1=Sita |last2=Raven |first2=Ellen |date=2010 |title=ABIA: South and Southeast Asian Art and Archaeology Index |volume=3 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=fCL8pjd0JVMC&pg=PA116 |publisher=Brill |page=116 |isbn=978-90-04-19148-8 |access-date=11 December 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161223010855/https://books.google.com/books?id=fCL8pjd0JVMC&pg=PA116 |archive-date=23 December 2016 |url-status=live}}</ref> In 1879, [[Alexander Cunningham]] identified [[Mahasthangarh]] as the capital of the [[Pundra Kingdom]] mentioned in the ''[[Rigveda]]''.<ref>{{cite book |last=Alam |first=Shafiqul |year=2012 |chapter=Mahasthan |chapter-url=http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Mahasthan |editor1-last=Islam |editor1-first=Sirajul |editor1-link=Sirajul Islam |editor2-last=Jamal |editor2-first=Ahmed A. |title=Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh |edition=Second |publisher=[[Asiatic Society of Bangladesh]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last=Ghosh |first=Suchandra |year=2012 |chapter=Pundravardhana |chapter-url=http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Pundravardhana |editor1-last=Islam |editor1-first=Sirajul |editor1-link=Sirajul Islam |editor2-last=Jamal |editor2-first=Ahmed A. |title=Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh |edition=Second |publisher=[[Asiatic Society of Bangladesh]]}}</ref> The oldest inscription in Bangladesh was found in Mahasthangarh and dates from the 3rd century BCE. It is written in the [[Brahmi script]].<ref>{{cite web | url=http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Mahasthan_Brahmi_Inscription |title = Mahasthan Brahmi Inscription |website=Banglapedia}}</ref>
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[[Greco-Roman world|Greek and Roman]] records of the ancient [[Gangaridai]] Kingdom, which (according to legend) deterred the invasion of [[Alexander the Great]], are linked to the fort city in [[Wari-Bateshwar ruins|Wari-Bateshwar]].<ref>{{cite book |author=Diodorus Siculus |translator=Charles Henry Oldfather |title=The Library of History of Diodorus Siculus |volume=II |series=[[Loeb Classical Library]] |publisher=[[Harvard University Press]] |url=https://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Diodorus_Siculus/2B*.html |year=1940 |oclc=875854910}}</ref><ref name="thedailystar1">{{cite news |last=Hossain |first=Emran |date=19 March 2008 |title=Wari-Bateshwar one of earliest kingdoms |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-28431 |work=The Daily Star |access-date=16 July 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170630014116/http://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-28431 |archive-date=30 June 2017 |url-status=live}}</ref> The site is also identified with the prosperous trading centre of Souanagoura listed on [[Ptolemy's world map]].<ref name="google1">{{cite book |last=Olivelle |first=Patrick |date=2006 |title=Between the Empires: Society in India 300 BCE to 400 CE |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=efaOR_-YsIcC&pg=PA6 |publisher=Oxford University Press |page=6 |isbn=978-0-19-977507-1 |access-date=20 June 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150903184553/https://books.google.com/books?id=efaOR_-YsIcC&pg=PA6 |archive-date=3 September 2015 |url-status=live}}</ref> Roman geographers noted a large seaport in southeastern Bengal, corresponding to the present-day [[Chittagong District|Chittagong]] region.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Ring |first1=Trudy |last2=Salkin |first2=Robert M. |last3=La Boda |first3=Sharon |date=1994 |title=International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=vWLRxJEU49EC&pg=PA186 |publisher=Taylor & Francis |page=186 |isbn=978-1-884964-04-6 |access-date=11 December 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170106025441/https://books.google.com/books?id=vWLRxJEU49EC&pg=PA186 |archive-date=6 January 2017 |url-status=live}}</ref>
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[[File:Asia 800ad.jpg|thumb|The [[Pala Empire]] was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.]]
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Ancient [[Buddhist]] and [[Hindu]] states which ruled Bangladesh included the [[Vanga Kingdom|Vanga]], [[Samatata]] and Pundra kingdoms, the Mauryan and [[Gupta Empire]]s, the [[Varman dynasty]], [[Shashanka]]'s kingdom, the [[Khadga dynasty|Khadga]] and [[Candra dynasty|Candra dynasties]], the [[Pala Empire]], the [[Sena dynasty]], the [[Harikela]] kingdom and the [[Deva dynasty]]. These states had well-developed currencies, banking, shipping, architecture, and art, and the ancient universities of [[Bikrampur]] and [[Mainamati]] hosted scholars and students from other parts of Asia. [[Xuanzang]] of China was a noted scholar who resided at the [[Somapura Mahavihara]] (the largest monastery in ancient India), and [[Atisa]] travelled from Bengal to [[Tibet]] to preach Buddhism. The earliest form of the [[Bengali language]] emerged during the eighth century.
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===Islamic Bengal===
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[[File:ষাট গম্বুজ মসজিদ (সম্মূখ).jpg|thumb|left|The [[Sixty Dome Mosque]] is the largest mosque in the UNESCO protected [[Mosque City of Bagerhat]].]]
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[[File:Bengal Sultanate.png|thumb |The [[Sultanate of Bengal]] was the sovereign power of Bengal for much of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries.]]
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[[File:Faridpur PatrailMoshjid MG 2977.jpg|thumb|left|[[Pathrail Mosque]], built during the reign of Sultan [[Alauddin Hussain Shah]]]]
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[[File:Kusumba Mosque, Naogaon.jpg|thumb|left|[[Kusumba Mosque]]]]
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The early history of Islam in Bengal is divided into two phases. The first phase is the period of maritime trade with Arabia and Persia between the 8th and 12th centuries. The second phase covers centuries of Muslim dynastic rule after the Islamic conquest of Bengal. The writings of [[Muhammad al-Idrisi|Al-Idrisi]], [[Ibn Hawqal]], [[Al-Masudi]], [[Ibn Khordadbeh]] and [[Sulaiman al-Tajir|Sulaiman]] record the maritime links between Arabia, Persia and Bengal.<ref name="auto5">{{Cite web|url=https://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Arabs,_The|title=Arabs, The - Banglapedia|website=en.banglapedia.org}}</ref> Muslim trade with Bengal flourished after the fall of the [[Sasanian Empire]] and the Arab takeover of Persian trade routes. Much of this trade occurred with southeastern Bengal in areas east of the [[Meghna River]]. There is speculation regarding the presence of a Muslim community in Bangladesh as early as 690 CE; this is based on the discovery of one of South Asia's oldest mosques in northern Bangladesh.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D7zy_hTIyNA|title=Remains of ancient mosque found in Bangladesh|via=www.youtube.com}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://m.theindependentbd.com/magazine/details/139441/Harano-Masjid-|title=Harano Masjid|website=Harano Masjid &#124; theindependentbd.com}}</ref><ref name="auto5"/> Bengal was possibly used as a transit route to [[China]] by the earliest Muslims. [[Abbasid]] coins have been discovered in the archaeological ruins of [[Somapura Mahavihara|Paharpur]] and [[Mainamati]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://en.banglapedia.org/index.php/Coins|title=Coins - Banglapedia|website=en.banglapedia.org}}</ref> A collection of Sasanian, [[Umayyad]] and Abbasid coins are preserved in the [[Bangladesh National Museum]].<ref>https://www.asiaticsociety.org.bd/journal/H_DEC_2017/4_H_Shariful%20%20&%20Monir.pdf</ref>
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[[File:Maritime links of the Sultanate of Bengal.png|thumb|Maritime links of the Bengal Sultanate]]
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The Muslim conquest of Bengal began with the 1204 [[Ghurid Empire|Ghurid]] expeditions led by [[Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji]], who overran the Sena capital in [[Gauda (city)|Gauda]] and led the [[Islamic invasion of Tibet|first Muslim army into Tibet]].<ref name="google5" /> The conquest of Bengal was inscribed in gold coins of the [[Delhi Sultanate]]. Bengal was ruled by the Sultans of Delhi for a century under the [[Mamluk dynasty (Delhi)|Mamluk]], Balban, and [[Tughluq dynasty|Tughluq dynasties]]. In the 14th century, three city-states emerged in Bengal, including [[Sonargaon]] led by [[Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah]], [[Satgaon]] led by [[Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah]] and [[Lakhnauti]] led by [[Alauddin Ali Shah]]. These city-states were led by former governors who declared independence from Delhi. The Moroccan traveler [[Ibn Battuta]] visited eastern Bengal during the reign of Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah. Ibn Battuta also visited the [[Sufi]] leader [[Shah Jalal]] in [[Sylhet]]. Sufis played an important role in spreading Islam in Bengal through both peaceful conversion and militarily overthrowing pre-Islamic rulers. In 1352, Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah united the three city-states into a single, unitary and independent [[Bengal Sultanate]]. The new Sultan of Bengal led the first Muslim army into [[Nepal]] and forced the Sultan of Delhi to [[Bengal Sultanate-Delhi Sultanate War|retreat]] during an invasion. The army of Ilyas Shah reached as far as [[Varanasi]] in the northwest, [[Kathmandu]] in the north, [[Kamarupa]] in the east and [[Orissa]] in the south. Ilyas Shah raided many of these areas and returned to Bengal with treasures. During the reign of [[Sikandar Shah]], Delhi recognized Bengal's independence. The Bengal Sultanate established a network of mint towns which acted as a provincial capitals where the [[History of the taka|Sultan's currency]] was minted.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://en.banglapedia.org/index.php/Mint_Towns|title=Mint Towns - Banglapedia|website=en.banglapedia.org}}</ref> Bengal became the eastern frontier of the Islamic world, which stretched from [[Muslim Spain]] in the west to Bengal in the east. The Bengali language crystallized as an official court language during the Bengal Sultanate, with prominent writers like Nur Qutb Alam, [[Usman Serajuddin]], [[Alaul Haq]], [[Alaol]], [[Shah Muhammad Sagir]], [[Abdul Hakim (poet)|Abdul Hakim]] and [[Syed Sultan]]; and the emergence of ''[[Dobhashi]]'' to write Muslim epics in Bengali literature.
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The Bengal Sultanate was a melting pot of Muslim political, mercantile and military elites. Muslims from other parts of the world migrated to Bengal for military, bureaucratic and household services.<ref name="auto1">{{Cite encyclopedia|url=https://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/bengal|title=Bengal|encyclopedia=Encyclopaedia Iranica}}</ref> Immigrants included Persians who were lawyers, teachers, clerics, and scholars;<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Iranians,_The|title=Iranians, The - Banglapedia|website=en.banglapedia.org}}</ref> Turks from upper India who were originally recruited in [[Central Asia]]; and Abyssinians who came via East Africa and arrived in the Bengali port of Chittagong.<ref name="auto1"/> A highly commercialized and monetized economy evolved.
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[[File:Boat and ship heritage of Bengal.png|thumb|[[Shipbuilding in Bangladesh|Shipbuilding]] was a major industry in Islamic Bengal, according to Chinese and European accounts.]]
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The two most prominent dynasties of the Bengal Sultanate were the [[Ilyas Shahi dynasty|Ilyas Shahi]] and [[Hussain Shahi dynasty|Hussain Shahi]] dynasties. The reign of Sultan [[Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah]] saw the opening of diplomatic relations with [[Ming China]]. Ghiyasuddin was also a friend of the Persian poet [[Hafez]]. The reign of the Sultan [[Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah]] saw the development of [[Bengali architecture]]. During the early 15th-century, the [[Restoration of Min Saw Mon]] in [[Arakan]] was aided by the army of the Bengal Sultanate. As a result, Arakan became a tributary state of Bengal. Even though Arakan later became independent, Bengali Muslim influence in Arakan persisted for 300 years due to the settlement of Bengali bureaucrats, poets, military personnel, farmers, artisans and sailors. The kings of Arakan fashioned themselves after Bengali Sultans and adopted Muslim titles.<ref name="Chowdhury2004">{{cite book | author = Mohammed Ali Chowdhury | date = 2004 | title = Bengal-Arakan Relations, 1430-1666 A.D. | publisher = Firma K.L.M. | pages = | isbn = 9788171021185 | url = https://books.google.com/books?id=rohuAAAAMAAJ}}</ref><ref name="ChutintharanonChutintharānonBaker2002">{{cite book | author1 = [[Jacques Leider]] | date = 2002 | title = Recalling Local Pasts: Autonomous History in Southeast Asia | publisher = Silkworm Books | pages = | isbn = 9789747551686 | url = https://books.google.com/books?id=HnluAAAAMAAJ}}</ref> During the reign of Sultan [[Alauddin Hussain Shah]], the Bengal Sultanate dispatched a naval [[flotilla]] and an army of 24,000 soldiers led by [[Shah Ismail Ghazi]] to conquer [[Kamata Kingdom|Assam]].<ref name=r1>Majumdar, R.C. (ed.) (2006). ''The Delhi Sultanate'', Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp.215-20</ref> Bengali forces penetrated deep into the [[Brahmaputra Valley]]. Hussain Shah's forces also conquered Jajnagar in Orissa.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Kamata-Kamatapura|title=Kamata-Kamatapura - Banglapedia|website=en.banglapedia.org}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://en.banglapedia.org/index.php/Husain_Shah|title=Husain Shah - Banglapedia|website=en.banglapedia.org}}</ref> In [[Tripura]], Bengal helped [[Ratna Manikya I]] to assume the throne.<ref name="Eaton1996p64">{{cite book |author=Richard M. Eaton |year=1996 |title=The Rise of Islam and the Bengal Frontier, 1204-1760 |publisher=University of California Press |pages=[https://archive.org/details/riseofislambenga00eato/page/64 64–] |isbn=978-0-520-20507-9 |url=https://archive.org/details/riseofislambenga00eato/page/64 }}.</ref><ref>{{cite book |author=Rila Mukherjee |title=Pelagic Passageways: The Northern Bay of Bengal Before Colonialism |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=7xeqhnYtrKcC&pg=PA34 |year=2011 |publisher=Primus Books |isbn=978-93-80607-20-7 |pages=34– |quote=The ''Sri Rajmala'' indicates that the periodic invasions of Tripura by the Bengal sultans were part of the same strategy [to control the sub-Himalayan routes from the south-eastern delta]. Mines of coarse gold were found in Tripura.}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |author=Perween Hasan |year=2007 |title=Sultans and Mosques: The Early Muslim Architecture of Bangladesh |publisher=I.B.Tauris |page=16 |isbn=978-1-84511-381-0 |quote="[Husayn Shah] reduced the kingdoms of ... Tripura in the east to vassalage."}}</ref> The [[Jaunpur Sultanate]], [[Pratapgarh Kingdom]] and the island of [[Chandradwip]] also came under Bengali control.<ref name="Hasan2007p16-17">{{cite book |author=Perween Hasan |year=2007 |title=Sultans and Mosques: The Early Muslim Architecture of Bangladesh |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Uunyz4qFZwEC&pg=PA16 |publisher=I.B.Tauris |pages=16–17 |isbn=978-1-84511-381-0 |quote="[Husayn Shah pushed] its western frontier past Bihar up to Saran in Jaunpur ... when Sultan Husayn Shah Sharqi of Jaunpur fled to Bengal after being defeated in battle by Sultan Sikandar Lodhi of Delhi, the latter attacked Bengal in pursuit of the Jaunpur ruler. Unable to make any gains, Sikandar Lodhi returned home after concluding a peace treaty with the Bengal sultan."}}</ref><ref>{{cite wikisource |script-title=bn:শ্রীহট্রের ইতিবৃত্ত: উত্তরাংশ |title=Srihattar Itibritta: Uttarrangsho |wslink=পাতা:শ্রীহট্টের_ইতিবৃত্ত_-_উত্তরাংশ.pdf/৪৮৪ |wslanguage=bn |last=Choudhury |first=Achyut Charan |author-link=Achyut Charan Choudhury |year=1917 |location=Calcutta |publisher=Katha |page=484}}</ref><ref>Bangladesh Itihas Samiti, Sylhet: History and Heritage, (1999), p. 715</ref><ref name="Hasan1987">{{cite book |author=Sayed Mahmudul Hasan |title=Muslim monuments of Bangladesh |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=9vdtAAAAMAAJ |year=1987 |publisher=Islamic Foundation Bangladesh}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |title=Population Census of Bangladesh, 1974: District census report |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=cE7C3wpNgX4C |year=1979 |publisher=Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division, Ministry of Planning, Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh}}</ref> By 1500, Gaur became the fifth-most populous city in the world with a population of 200,000.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pMs5xapBewM |archive-url=https://ghostarchive.org/varchive/youtube/20211221/pMs5xapBewM |archive-date=2021-12-21 |url-status=live|title=Bar chart race: the most populous cities through time|via=www.youtube.com}}{{cbignore}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://scroll.in/article/917929/medieval-cities-in-gujarat-were-once-the-biggest-in-the-world-their-culture-deeply-influential|title=Gujarat's medieval cities were once the biggest in the world – as a viral video reminds us|first=Aparna|last=Kapadia|website=Scroll.in}}</ref> The river port of [[Sonargaon]] was used as a base by the Sultans of Bengal during campaigns against Assam, Tripura and Arakan. The Sultans launched many naval raids from Sonargaon.<ref name="dhakatribune.com">{{Cite web|url=https://www.dhakatribune.com/feature/2019/12/22/goaldi-mosque-in-sonargaon|title=Goaldi Mosque in Sonargaon|date=22 December 2019|website=Dhaka Tribune}}</ref> [[João de Barros]] described the sea port of Chittagong as "the most famous and wealthy city of the Kingdom of Bengal".<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.britannica.com/place/Chittagong|title=Chittagong &#124; History, Population, & Facts &#124; Britannica|website=www.britannica.com}}</ref> Maritime trade linked Bengal with [[China]], [[Malacca Sultanate|Malacca]], [[Aceh Sultanate|Sumatra]], [[Bruneian Empire|Brunei]], [[Portuguese India]], [[East Africa]], Arabia, Persia, Mesopotamia, [[Yemen]] and the [[Maldives]]. Bengali ships were among the biggest vessels plying the [[Bay of Bengal]], [[Indian Ocean]] and [[Pacific Ocean]]. A royal vessel from Bengal accommodated three embassies from Bengal, Brunei and Sumatra while en route to China and was the only vessel capable of transporting three embassies.<ref name="auto2">{{cite book |editor1=Tapan Raychaudhuri |editor1-link=Tapan Raychaudhuri |editor2=Irfan Habib |editor2-link=Irfan Habib |year=1982 |title=The Cambridge Economic History of India |volume=I |publisher=Cambridge University Press |page=130 |isbn=978-0-521-22692-9}}</ref> Many wealthy Bengali shipowners and merchants lived in Malacca. The Sultans permitted the opening of the [[Portuguese settlement in Chittagong]]. The disintegration of the Bengal Sultanate began with the intervention of the [[Suri Empire]]. [[Babur]] began invading Bengal after creating the Mughal Empire. The Bengal Sultanate collapsed with the overthrow of the [[Karrani dynasty]] during the reign of Akbar. However, the [[Bhati (region)|Bhati]] region of eastern Bengal continued to be ruled by aristocrats of the former Bengal Sultanate led by [[Isa Khan]]. They formed an independent federation called the [[Baro-Bhuyan|Twelve Bhuiyans]], with their capital in Sonargaon. They defeated the Mughals in several naval battles. The Bhuiyans ultimately succumbed to the Mughals after [[Musa Khan]] was defeated.
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[[File:Bibi Mariam.jpg|thumb|The [[Bibi Mariam Cannon]] (Lady Mary Cannon) was used by the [[Mughal Empire|Mughals]] to defend their bases.]]
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The [[Mughal Empire]] controlled Bengal by the 17th century. During the reign of [[Emperor Akbar]], the Bengali agrarian calendar was reformed to facilitate tax collection. The Mughals established Dhaka as a fort city and commercial metropolis, and it was the capital of [[Bengal Subah]] for 75 years.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.britannica.com/place/Dhaka|title=Dhaka – national capital, Bangladesh|website=Encyclopædia Britannica|access-date=19 September 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171010143325/https://www.britannica.com/place/Dhaka|archive-date=10 October 2017|url-status=live}}</ref> In 1666, the Mughals expelled the [[Kingdom of Mrauk U|Arakanese]] from Chittagong. Mughal Bengal attracted foreign traders for its [[muslin]] and silk goods, and the [[Armenians in Bangladesh|Armenians]] were a notable merchant community. A [[Portuguese settlement in Chittagong]] flourished in the southeast, and a [[Dutch settlement in Rajshahi]] existed in the north. Bengal accounted for 40% of overall [[Dutch East India Company|Dutch]] imports from Asia; including more than 50% of textiles and around 80% of silks.<ref name="Prakash">[[Om Prakash (historian)|Om Prakash]], "[http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/CX3447600139/WHIC?u=seat24826&xid=6b597320 Empire, Mughal]", ''History of World Trade Since 1450'', edited by John J. McCusker, vol. 1, Macmillan Reference USA, 2006, pp. 237–240, ''World History in Context''. Retrieved 3 August 2017</ref> The Bengal Subah, described as the ''Paradise of the Nations'',<ref name=paradise>{{cite news |url=http://archive.dhakatribune.com/heritage/2014/dec/20/paradise-nations |title=The paradise of nations |work=Dhaka Tribune |date=20 December 2014 |access-date=7 November 2016 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171216011429/http://archive.dhakatribune.com/heritage/2014/dec/20/paradise-nations |archive-date=16 December 2017 |url-status=dead}}</ref> was the empire's wealthiest province, and a major global exporter,<ref name="Prakash" /><ref name="richards95">[[John F. Richards]] (1995), [https://books.google.com/books?id=HHyVh29gy4QC&pg=PA202 ''The Mughal Empire'', page 202], [[Cambridge University Press]]</ref><ref name="riello">{{cite book |title=How India Clothed the World: The World of South Asian Textiles, 1500–1850 |author=Giorgio Riello, Tirthankar Roy |publisher=[[Brill Publishers]] | year=2009 |page=174 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=niuwCQAAQBAJ&pg=PA174|isbn=978-90-474-2997-5}}</ref> a notable centre of worldwide industries such as [[Muslin trade in Bengal|muslin]], cotton textiles, silk,<ref name="google5"/> and [[shipbuilding in Bangladesh|shipbuilding]].<ref name="ray174">{{cite book |last=Ray |first=Indrajit |year=2011 |title=Bengal Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757–1857)|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=CHOrAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA174 |publisher=Routledge |page=174 |isbn=978-1-136-82552-1}}</ref> Its citizens also enjoyed one of the world's most superior [[Standard of living|living standards]].<ref name="harrison">{{cite book|title=Developing cultures: case studies|author=[[Lawrence Harrison (academic)|Lawrence E. Harrison]], [[Peter L. Berger]]|publisher=[[Routledge]]|year=2006|page=158|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=RB0oAQAAIAAJ|isbn=978-0-415-95279-8}}</ref><ref name="auto">{{cite book|title=Poverty From The Wealth of Nations: Integration and Polarization in the Global Economy since 1760|author=M. Shahid Alam|publisher=[[Springer Science+Business Media]]|year=2016|page=32 |isbn=978-0-333-98564-9 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=suKKCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA32|author-link=M. Shahid Alam}}</ref>
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During the 18th century, the [[Nawabs of Bengal]] became the region's ''de facto'' rulers. The ruler's title is popularly known as the ''Nawab of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa'', given that the Bengali Nawab's realm encompassed much of the eastern subcontinent. The Nawabs forged alliances with European colonial companies, making the region relatively prosperous early in the century. Bengal accounted for 50% of the gross domestic product of the empire. The Bengali economy relied on [[textile manufacturing]], shipbuilding, [[saltpetre]] production, craftsmanship, and agricultural produce. Bengal was a major hub for international trade – silk and cotton textiles from Bengal were worn in Europe, Japan, Indonesia, and Central Asia.<ref>John F. Richards (1995), The Mughal Empire, p. 202, Cambridge University Press</ref><ref name="google5"/> Annual Bengali shipbuilding output was 223,250 tons, compared to an output of 23,061 tons in the nineteen colonies of North America. Bengali shipbuilding proved to be more advanced than European shipbuilding before the Industrial Revolution. The [[flush deck]] of Bengali rice ships was later replicated in European shipbuilding to replace the stepped deck design for ship [[hull (watercraft)|hulls]].<ref name="auto"/><ref name="star">{{cite news |last=Khandker |first=Hissam |date=31 July 2015 |title=Which India is claiming to have been colonised? |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/op-ed/politics/which-india-claiming-have-been-colonised-119284 |work=The Daily Star |type=Op-ed}}</ref><ref name="books.google.com">[[Angus Maddison|Maddison, Angus]] (2003): ''[https://books.google.com/books?id=rHJGz3HiJbcC&pg=PA259 Development Centre Studies The World Economy Historical Statistics: Historical Statistics]'', [[OECD Publishing]], {{ISBN|92-64-10414-3}}, pages 259–261</ref><ref>Om Prakash, "Empire, Mughal", History of World Trade Since 1450, edited by John J. McCusker, vol. 1, Macmillan Reference US, 2006, pp. 237–240, World History in Context. Retrieved 3 August 2017</ref><ref>Ray, Indrajit (2011). Bengal Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757–1857). Routledge. p. 174. {{ISBN|978-1-136-82552-1}}.</ref><ref>http://www.ucd.ie/t4cms/WP17_11.pdf</ref>
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[[File:Lalbagh fort.jpg|thumb|[[Lalbagh Fort]] was the residence of the Mughal viceroy [[Shaista Khan]].]]
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Eastern Bengal was a thriving [[melting pot]] with strong trade and cultural networks. It was a relatively prosperous part of the subcontinent and the center of the Muslim population in the eastern subcontinent.<ref name="star"/><ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=sxhAtCflwOMC&q=bengal+most+fertile+salma+farooqi&pg=PA366 |title=A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century |author=Farooqui Salma Ahmed |page=366 |access-date=7 November 2016|isbn=9788131732021 |year=2011 }}</ref> The Muslims of eastern Bengal included people of diverse origins from different parts of the world.{{Citation needed|date=January 2022}}
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The [[Bengali Muslim]] population was a product of conversion and religious evolution,<ref name="google5"/> and their pre-Islamic beliefs included elements of Buddhism and Hinduism. The construction of mosques, Islamic academies (madrasas) and Sufi monasteries ([[khanqah]]s) facilitated conversion, and [[Islamic cosmology]] played a significant role in developing Bengali Muslim society. Scholars have theorised that Bengalis were attracted to Islam by its egalitarian social order, which contrasted with the Hindu caste system.<ref name="Roy1999">{{cite book|author=Samaren Roy|title=The Bengalees: Glimpses of History and Culture|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=2e44ZHj_fsQC&pg=PA72|year=1999|publisher=Allied Publishers|isbn=978-81-7023-981-9|page=72|access-date=30 July 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180131225046/https://books.google.com/books?id=2e44ZHj_fsQC&pg=PA72|archive-date=31 January 2018|url-status=live}}</ref> By the 15th century, Muslim poets were widely writing in the Bengali language. [[Syncretic]] cults, such as the [[Baul]] movement, emerged on the fringes of Bengali Muslim society. The [[Persianate]] culture was significant in Bengal, where cities like [[Sonargaon]] became the easternmost centres of Persian influence.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/bengal|title=Bengal|website=Encyclopaedia Iranica|access-date=19 September 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170930180854/http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/bengal|archive-date=30 September 2017|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Persian|title=Persian|work=Banglapedia|access-date=21 September 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170911055911/http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Persian|archive-date=11 September 2017|url-status=live}}</ref>
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The Mughals had aided France during the [[Seven Years' War]] to avoid losing the [[Bengal]] region to the [[British Empire|British]]. However, in the [[Battle of Plassey]] the British [[East India Company]] registered a decisive victory over the Nawab of Bengal and his [[French East India Company|French]]<ref>{{cite book |last1=Campbell |first1=John |author1-link=John Campbell (author) |last2=Watts |first2=William |date=1760 |title=Memoirs of the Revolution in Bengal, Anno Domini 1757 |url={{wdl|2384}} |work=World Digital Library}}</ref> allies on 22 June 1757, under the leadership of [[Robert Clive]]. The battle followed the order of [[Siraj ud-Daulah|Siraj-ud-Daulah]], the last independent Nawab of Bengal, to the English to stop the extension of their fortification. Robert Clive bribed [[Mir Jafar]], the commander-in-chief of the Nawab's army, and also promised him to make him Nawab of Bengal, which helped him to defeat Siraj-ud-Daulah and capture [[Calcutta]].<ref>{{cite web|last1=Robins|first1=Nick|title=This Imperious Company&nbsp;— The East India Company and the Modern Multinational&nbsp;— Nick Robins&nbsp;— Gresham College Lectures|url=http://www.gresham.ac.uk/lectures-and-events/this-imperious-company-the-east-india-company-and-the-modern-multinational|website=Gresham College Lectures|publisher=Gresham College|access-date=19 June 2015}}</ref>
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The battle consolidated the company's presence in Bengal, which later expanded to cover much of [[India]] over the next hundred years. Although they had lost control of Bengal Subah, [[Shah Alam II]] was involved in the [[Bengal War]] which ended once more in their defeat at the [[Battle of Buxar]].<ref>{{cite book |last=Mehra |first=Parshotam |year=1985 |title=A Dictionary of Modern History (1707–1947) |publisher=Oxford University Press |page= |isbn=0-19-561552-2}}</ref>{{page needed|date=October 2021}}
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===Colonial period===
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{{Main|Bengal Presidency|Eastern Bengal and Assam}}
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[[File:Jesuits at Akbar's court.jpg|thumb|right|Portuguese envoys (top left) at the imperial court of emperor [[Akbar]]. The [[Portuguese settlement in Chittagong]] flourished until the Mughals expelled the Portuguese in 1666.]]
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Two decades after [[Vasco Da Gama]]'s landing in [[Calicut]], the Bengal Sultanate permitted the [[Portuguese Empire|Portuguese]] settlement in Chittagong to be established in 1528. It became the first European colonial enclave in Bengal. The Bengal Sultanate lost control of Chittagong in 1531 after Arakan declared independence and the established Kingdom of Mrauk U.
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Portuguese ships from Goa and [[Portuguese Malacca|Malacca]] began frequenting the port city in the 16th century. The ''[[cartaz]]'' system was introduced and required all ships in the area to purchase naval trading licenses from the Portuguese settlement. [[Slave trade]] and piracy flourished. The nearby island of [[Sandwip]] was conquered in 1602. In 1615, the [[Portuguese Navy]] defeated a joint [[Dutch East India Company]] and Arakanese fleet near the coast of Chittagong.
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The Bengal Sultan after 1534 allowed the Portuguese to create several settlements at Chitagoong, Satgaon,<ref>{{cite book |editor1=Taniya Gupta |editor2=Antonia Navarro-Tejero |year=2014 |title=India in Canada: Canada in India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=EmYxBwAAQBAJ&pg=PA22 |publisher=Cambridge Scholars Publishing |pages=22– |isbn=978-1-4438-5571-6}}</ref> Hughli, Bandel, and Dhaka. In 1535, the Portuguese allied with the Bengal sultan and held the Teliagarhi pass {{Convert|280|km|mi}} from [[Patna]] helping to avoid the invasion by the Mughals. By then several of the products came from Patna and the Portuguese send in traders, establishing a factory there since 1580.<ref>{{cite book |last=Thakur |first=Baleshwar |year=1980 |title=Urban Settlements in Eastern India |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=HHVIU-HsMswC&pg=PA117 |location=New Delhi |publisher=Concept Publishing Company |pages=117– |oclc=729123405}}</ref>
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By the time the Portuguese assured military help against Sher Shah, the Mughals already had started to conquer the Sultanate of Ghiyasuddin Mahmud.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Portuguese,_The|title=Portuguese, The |website=Banglapedia}}</ref>
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Bengal was the wealthiest region in the Indian subcontinent, and its [[proto-industrialization|proto-industrial]] economy showed signs of driving an [[Industrial revolution]].<ref name="voss">{{cite book |title=The Ashgate Companion to the History of Textile Workers, 1650–2000 |author1=Lex Heerma van Voss |author2=Els Hiemstra-Kuperus |author3=Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk |chapter=The Long Globalization and Textile Producers in India |publisher=Ashgate Publishing |year=2010 |page=255 |isbn=9780754664284 |chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=f95ljbhfjxIC&pg=PA255}}</ref>
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The region has been described as the "Paradise of Nations",<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://www.dhakatribune.com/uncategorized/2014/12/19/the-paradise-of-nations |title=The paradise of nations |last=Steel |first=Tim |date=2014-12-19 |work=Dhaka Tribune |department=Op-ed |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190517063054/https://www.dhakatribune.com/uncategorized/2014/12/19/the-paradise-of-nations |archive-date=2019-05-17|access-date=2019-05-17}}</ref> and its inhabitants's [[standards of living|living standards]] and [[real wages]] were among the highest in the world.<ref>{{cite book |author=M. Shahid Alam |author-link=M. Shahid Alam |year=2016 |title=Poverty From The Wealth of Nations: Integration and Polarization in the Global Economy since 1760 |publisher=Springer Science+Business Media |page=32 |isbn=978-0-333-98564-9 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=suKKCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA32}}</ref> It alone accounted for 40% of [[Dutch East India Company|Dutch imports]] outside the [[Europe]]an continent.<ref name="Prakash"/><ref name="star"/> The eastern part of Bengal was globally prominent in industries such as [[textile manufacturing]] and [[shipbuilding]],<ref name="ray">{{cite book |author=Indrajit Ray |year=2011 |title=Bengal Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757-1857) |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=CHOrAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA57 |publisher=Routledge |pages=57, 90, 174 |isbn=978-1-136-82552-1}}</ref> and it was a major exporter of [[silk]] and [[cotton]] [[textile]]s, [[steel]], [[saltpeter]], and [[agricultural]] and industrial produce in the world.<ref name="star"/>
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In 1666, the Mughal government of Bengal led by viceroy [[Shaista Khan]] moved to retake Chittagong from Portuguese and Arakanese control. The [[Anglo-Mughal War]] was witnessed in 1686.<ref>{{Cite journal|title=Conflict and Cooperation in Anglo-Mughal Trade Relations during the Reign of Aurangzeb|first=Farhat|last=Hasan|journal=Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient|volume=34|issue=4|date=1991|pages=351–360|doi=10.1163/156852091X00058|jstor=3632456}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|title=John Company Armed: The English East India Company, the Anglo-Mughal War and Absolutist Imperialism, c. 1675–1690|first=James|last=Vaugn|journal=Britain and the World|volume=11|issue=1|date=September 2017}}
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</ref>
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[[File:Clive.jpg|thumb|300px|[[Lord Clive]] meeting with [[Mir Jafar]] after the [[Battle of Plassey]], which led to the overthrow of the last independent [[Nawab of Bengal]]]]
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After the 1757 [[Battle of Plassey]], Bengal was the first region of the Indian subcontinent conquered by the [[British East India Company]]. The company formed the [[Bengal Presidency|Presidency of Fort William]], which administered the region until 1858. A notable aspect of [[Company rule in India|Company rule]] was the [[Permanent Settlement]], which established the feudal [[zamindar]]i system; in addition, Company policies led to the [[deindustrialisation]] of Bengal's textile industry.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://academic.eb.com/levels/collegiate/article/Cornwallis-Code/26365|title=Cornwallis Code|date=4 February 2009|website=Encyclopædia Britannica|access-date=24 February 2017}}</ref> The capital amassed by the East India Company in Bengal was invested in the emerging [[Industrial Revolution]] in [[United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland|Great Britain]], in industries such as [[Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution|textile manufacturing]].<ref>{{cite book |last=Ray |first=Indrajit |year=2011 |title=Bengal Industries and the British Industrial Revolution (1757–1857) |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=CHOrAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA7 |publisher=Routledge |pages=7–10 |isbn=978-1-136-82552-1}}</ref><ref name="sengupta">Shombit Sengupta, [http://www.financialexpress.com/archive/bengals-plunder-gifted-the-british-industrial-revolution/576476/ Bengals plunder gifted the British Industrial Revolution], ''[[The Financial Express (India)|The Financial Express]]'', 8 February 2010</ref> The economic mismanagement directly led to the [[Great Bengal famine of 1770]], which is estimated to have caused the deaths of about 10 million people,<ref>{{cite book|author=Amartya Sen|title=Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation|url=https://archive.org/details/povertyfamineses0000sena|url-access=registration|year=1981|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-828463-5|page=[https://archive.org/details/povertyfamineses0000sena/page/39 39]}}</ref> as a third of the population in the affected region starved to death.<ref name="Jonsson2013p167">{{cite book|author=Fredrik Albritton Jonsson|title=Enlightenment's Frontier: The Scottish Highlands and the Origins of Environmentalism|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d9FUmajYyqgC&pg=PT167|date=18 June 2013|publisher=Yale University Press|isbn=978-0-300-16374-2|pages=167–170}}</ref> Several rebellions broke out during the early 19th century (including one led by [[Titumir]]), as Company rule had displaced the Muslim ruling class from power. A conservative Islamic cleric, [[Haji Shariatullah]], sought to overthrow the British by propagating Islamic revivalism.<ref>Khan, Moin-Ud-Din. "[http://search.proquest.com/docview/1301938794/?pq-origsite=primo Haji Shari’at-Allah]". ''Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society'', vol. 11, no. 2 p. 106 (1 April 1963).</ref> Several towns in Bangladesh participated in the [[Indian Rebellion of 1857]]<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/revisiting-the-great-rebellion-of-1857-33161 |title=Revisiting the Great Rebellion of 1857 |work=The Daily Star |date=13 July 2014}}</ref> and pledged allegiance to the last Mughal emperor, [[Bahadur Shah Zafar]], who was later exiled to neighbouring Burma.
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The challenge posed to company rule by the failed Indian Mutiny led to the creation of the [[British Indian Empire]] as a [[crown colony]]. The British established several schools, colleges, and a university in Bangladesh. [[Syed Ahmed Khan]] and [[Ram Mohan Roy]] promoted modern and [[liberal education]] in the subcontinent, inspiring the [[Aligarh movement]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/history/sir-syed-ahmed-khan-and-the-aligarh-movement/23145/|title=Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and the Aligarh Movement|website=YourArticleLibrary.com: The Next Generation Library|date=4 January 2014|access-date=3 April 2016}}</ref> and the [[Bengal Renaissance]].<ref>{{cite book |author=Nitish Sengupta |author-link=Nitish Sengupta |year=2001 |title=History of the Bengali-speaking People |publisher=UBS Publishers' Distributors |page=211 |isbn=978-81-7476-355-6 |quote=The Bengal Renaissance can be said to have started with Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1775-1833) and ended with Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941), although there were many other stalwarts thereafter embodying particular aspects of the unique intellectual and creative ferment.}}</ref> During the late 19th century, novelists, social reformers and feminists emerged from Muslim Bengali society. [[Electricity]] and municipal water systems were introduced in the 1890s; [[Movie theatre|cinemas]] opened in many towns during the early 20th century. East Bengal's [[plantation economy]] was important to the British Empire, particularly its [[jute]] and [[Tea production in Bangladesh|tea]]. The British established [[free port|tax-free river ports]], such as the [[Port of Narayanganj]], and large seaports like the [[Port of Chittagong]].
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Bengal had the highest gross domestic product in British India.<ref name="daily-sun.com">{{Cite news |url=https://www.daily-sun.com/home/printnews/218795 |title=Reimagining the Colonial Bengal Presidency Template (Part I) |work=Daily Sun}}</ref> Bengal was one of the first regions in Asia to have a railway. The first railway in what is now Bangladesh began operating in 1862.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Railway |title=Railway |website=Banglapedia |access-date=15 August 2019}}</ref> In comparison, [[Japan]] saw its first railway in 1872. The main railway companies in the region were the [[Eastern Bengal Railway]] and [[Assam Bengal Railway]]. Railways competed with waterborne transport to become one of the main mediums of transport.<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/in-focus/news/railways-colonial-bengal-1726765 |title=Railways in colonial Bengal |date=8 April 2019 |work=The Daily Star |access-date=15 August 2019}}</ref>
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Supported by the Muslim aristocracy, the British government created the province of [[Eastern Bengal and Assam]] in 1905; the new province received increased investment in education, transport, and industry.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.theodora.com/encyclopedia/e/eastern_bengal_and_assam.html |title=Eastern Bengal and Assam – Encyclopedia |publisher=Theodora.com |access-date=24 September 2015}}</ref> However, the [[Partition of Bengal (1905)|first partition of Bengal]] created an uproar in [[Kolkata|Calcutta]] and the [[Indian National Congress]]. In response to growing Hindu nationalism, the [[All India Muslim League]] was formed in Dhaka during the 1906 All India Muhammadan Educational Conference. The British government reorganised the provinces in 1912, reuniting East and West Bengal and making [[Assam Province|Assam]] a second province.
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The Raj was slow to allow self-rule in the colonial subcontinent. It established the [[Bengal Legislative Council]] in 1862, and the council's native Bengali representation increased during the early 20th century. The [[Bengal Provincial Muslim League]] was formed in 1913 to advocate [[civil rights]] for Bengali Muslims within a constitutional framework. During the 1920s, the league was divided into factions supporting the [[Khilafat movement]] and favouring co-operation with the British to achieve self-rule. Segments of the Bengali elite supported [[Mustafa Kemal Atatürk]]'s [[Secularism in Turkey|secularist]] forces.<ref>{{cite magazine |last=Kennedy |first=Bernard |date=December 2005 |title=Ambassador Rezaqul Haider: Mediating for commerce |url=http://www.diplomat.com.tr/sayilar/s14/yazilar/s14-3.htm |magazine=Diplomat |location=Ankara, Turkey |quote=After the First World War when the great leader Mustafa Kemal Atatürk started his war of independence, the people of Bengal were very spontaneous in giving all sorts of support. To the extent that there is evidence that the womenfolk donated their own bangles and gold ornaments, and the funds were used for the establishment of a bank, the construction of the parliament building and the purchase of armaments and ammunition to help the war of liberation. As you know, our national poet, Nazrul Islam, was the first foreigner to write an epic poem about Mustafa Kemal. |access-date=30 July 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171010140515/http://www.diplomat.com.tr/sayilar/s14/yazilar/s14-3.htm |archive-date=10 October 2017 |url-status=live}}</ref> In 1929, the [[Praja Party|All Bengal Tenants Association]] was formed in the Bengal Legislative Council to counter the influence of the Hindu landed gentry, and the [[Indian Independence Movement|Indian Independence]] and [[Pakistan Movement]]s strengthened during the early 20th century. After the [[Morley-Minto Reforms]] and the [[Government of India Act 1919|diarchy]] era in the [[legislatures of British India]], the British government promised [[Government of India Act 1935|limited provincial autonomy]] in 1935. The [[Bengal Legislative Assembly]], British India's largest legislature, was established in 1937.
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[[File:All India Muslim league conference 1906 attendees in Dhaka.jpg|thumb|340px|Founding conference of the [[All India Muslim League]] in Dhaka, 1906]]
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Although it won most seats in 1937, the Bengal Congress boycotted the legislature. [[A. K. Fazlul Huq]] of the [[Krishak Sramik Party|Krishak Praja Party]] was elected as the first [[Prime Minister of Bengal]]. In 1940 Huq supported the [[Lahore Resolution]], which envisaged independent states in the subcontinent's northwestern and eastern Muslim-majority regions. The first Huq ministry, a coalition with the Bengal Provincial Muslim League, lasted until 1941; it was followed by a Huq coalition with the [[Hindu Mahasabha]] which lasted until 1943. Huq was succeeded by [[Khawaja Nazimuddin]], who grappled with the effects of the [[Burma Campaign]], the [[Bengal famine of 1943]], which killed up to 3 million people,<ref>{{cite news |title=Churchill's policies contributed to 1943 Bengal famine – study |url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/mar/29/winston-churchill-policies-contributed-to-1943-bengal-famine-study |work=The Guardian |date=29 March 2019}}</ref> and the [[Quit India]] movement. In 1946, the Bengal Provincial Muslim League won the provincial election, taking 113 of the 250-seat assembly (the largest Muslim League mandate in British India). [[H. S. Suhrawardy]], who made a final futile effort for a [[United Bengal]] in 1946, was the last premier of Bengal.
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===Partition of Bengal (1947)===
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{{Main|Partition of Bengal (1947)}}
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[[File:Suhrawardy interview on Partition of India.oga|thumb|British Bengal's last premier [[H. S. Suhrawardy]] speaking about partition]]
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On 3 June 1947, the [[Mountbatten Plan]] outlined the [[partition of British India]]. On 20 June, the Bengal Legislative Assembly met to decide on the partition of Bengal. At the preliminary joint meeting, it was decided (120 votes to 90) that if the province remained united, it should join the [[Constituent Assembly of Pakistan]]. At a separate meeting of legislators from [[West Bengal]], it was decided (58 votes to 21) that the province should be partitioned and West Bengal should join the [[Constituent Assembly of India]]. At another meeting of legislators from [[East Bengal]], it was decided (106 votes to 35) that the province should not be partitioned and (107 votes to 34) that East Bengal should join the Constituent Assembly of [[Pakistan]] if Bengal was partitioned.<ref name="Mukherjee1987">{{cite book|author=Soumyendra Nath Mukherjee|title=Sir William Jones: A Study in Eighteenth-century British Attitudes to India|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Bhd-_1RE04MC&pg=PA230|year=1987|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-86131-581-9|page=230|access-date=30 July 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180131225046/https://books.google.com/books?id=Bhd-_1RE04MC&pg=PA230|archive-date=31 January 2018|url-status=live}}</ref> On 6 July, the [[Sylhet Division|Sylhet region]] of Assam voted in a [[1947 Sylhet referendum|referendum to join East Bengal]].
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[[Cyril Radcliffe]] was tasked with drawing the borders of Pakistan and India, and the [[Radcliffe Line]] established the borders of present-day Bangladesh. The Radcliffe Line awarded two-thirds of Bengal as the eastern wing of Pakistan, although the medieval and early modern Bengali capitals of [[Gauda (city)|Gaur]], [[Pandua, Malda|Pandua]] and [[Murshidabad]] fell on the Indian side close to the border with Pakistan.
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===Union with Pakistan===
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{{Main|East Bengal|East Pakistan}}
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[[File:Dominion of Pakistan & Indian Controlled Kashmir (orthographic projection).svg|thumb|alt=Map of the world, with Pakistan in 1947 highlighted|The [[Dominion of Pakistan]] in 1947, with [[East Bengal]] its eastern part]]
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The [[Dominion of Pakistan]] was created on 14 August 1947. East Bengal, with Dhaka as its capital, was the most populous province of the 1947 [[State of Pakistan|Pakistani federation]] (led by [[Governor General of Pakistan|Governor General]] [[Muhammad Ali Jinnah]], who promised freedom of religion and secular democracy in the new state).<ref name="Ispahani2017">{{cite book|author=Farahnaz Ispahani|title=Purifying the Land of the Pure: A History of Pakistan's Religious Minorities|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=o36uDQAAQBAJ&pg=PA8|year=2017|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-062165-0|page=8|access-date=29 August 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180131225046/https://books.google.com/books?id=o36uDQAAQBAJ&pg=PA8|archive-date=31 January 2018|url-status=live}}</ref><ref name="Saikia2011">{{cite book|author=Yasmin Saikia|title=Women, War, and the Making of Bangladesh: Remembering 1971|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=YdQaz1ddI-wC&pg=PA34|year=2011|publisher=Duke University Press|isbn=978-0-8223-5038-5|page=34}}</ref> East Bengal was also Pakistan's most cosmopolitan province, home to peoples of different faiths, cultures and ethnic groups. Partition gave increased economic opportunity to East Bengalis, producing an urban population during the 1950s.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/16/opinion/bangladesh-bengali-muslims-partition.html|title=Opinion – Why Do Bangladeshis Seem Indifferent to Partition?|first=K. Anis|last=Ahmed|date=16 August 2017|access-date=19 September 2017|work=The New York Times|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170829170711/https://www.nytimes.com/2017/08/16/opinion/bangladesh-bengali-muslims-partition.html|archive-date=29 August 2017|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |author=Abdul Hannan |date=28 August 2017 |title=How Partition helped Muslims |url=http://www.dhakatribune.com/opinion/op-ed/2017/08/28/partition-helped-muslims/ |work=Dhaka Tribune |type=Opinion |access-date=19 September 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171001191421/http://www.dhakatribune.com/opinion/op-ed/2017/08/28/partition-helped-muslims/ |archive-date=1 October 2017 |url-status=live}}</ref>
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[[Khawaja Nazimuddin]] was East Bengal's first [[Chief Minister of East Bengal|chief minister]] with [[Frederick Chalmers Bourne]] its governor. The [[All Pakistan Awami Muslim League]] was formed in 1949. In 1950, the [[East Bengal Legislative Assembly]] enacted [[land reform]], abolishing the Permanent Settlement and the [[zamindar]]i system.<ref>[[#Baxter|Baxter]], p. 72</ref> The 1952 [[Bengali Language Movement]] was the first sign of friction between the country's geographically separated wings. The Awami Muslim League was renamed the more-secular [[Awami League]] in 1953.<ref name="LewisSagar1992">{{cite book|author1=David S. Lewis|author2=Darren J. Sagar|title=Political Parties of Asia and the Pacific: A Reference Guide|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=S4uyAAAAIAAJ|year=1992|publisher=Longman|isbn=978-0-582-09811-4|page=36|access-date=30 July 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180131225046/https://books.google.com/books?id=S4uyAAAAIAAJ|archive-date=31 January 2018|url-status=live}}"ts present name in December 1953"</ref> The first constituent assembly was dissolved in 1954; this was challenged by its East Bengali speaker, [[Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan]]. The [[United Front (East Pakistan)|United Front]] coalition swept aside the Muslim League in a landslide victory in the [[1954 East Bengali legislative election]]. The following year, East Bengal has renamed East Pakistan as part of the [[One Unit]] program, and the province became a vital part of the [[Southeast Asia Treaty Organization]].
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[[File:21 Feb 1953 Dhaka University female students procession.png|thumb|Women students of Dhaka University marching in defiance of the [[Section 144]] prohibition on assembly during the Bengali Language Movement in early 1953]]
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Pakistan adopted its first constitution in 1956. Three Bengalis were its Prime Minister until 1957: Nazimuddin, [[Mohammad Ali of Bogra]] and Suhrawardy. None of the three completed their terms, and resigned from office. The [[Pakistan Army]] imposed [[1958 Pakistani coup d'état|military rule in 1958]], and [[Ayub Khan (general)|Ayub Khan]] was the country's strongman for 11 years. Political repression increased after the coup. Khan introduced a new constitution in 1962, replacing Pakistan's parliamentary system with a presidential and gubernatorial system (based on [[electoral college]] selection) known as Basic Democracy. In 1962 Dhaka became the seat of the [[National Assembly of Pakistan]], a move seen as appeasing increased Bengali nationalism.<ref>{{cite book |last=Vale |first=Lawrence |title=Architecture, Power and National Identity |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=qWx9AwAAQBAJ&pg=PA291 |publisher=Routledge |page=291 |isbn=978-1-134-72921-0 |date=2014 |access-date=14 May 2016 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170106091442/https://books.google.com/books?id=qWx9AwAAQBAJ&pg=PA291 |archive-date=6 January 2017 |url-status=live}}</ref> The Pakistani government built the controversial [[Kaptai Dam]], displacing the [[Chakma people]] from their indigenous homeland in the [[Chittagong Hill Tracts]].<ref>{{cite book |last=Terminski |first=Bogumil |year=2014 |title=Development-Induced Displacement and Resettlement |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=WW8xCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA28 |publisher=Columbia University Press |page=28 |isbn=978-3-8382-6723-4 |access-date=20 January 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170214215710/https://books.google.com/books?id=WW8xCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA28 |archive-date=14 February 2017 |url-status=live}}</ref> During the [[1965 Pakistani presidential election|1965 presidential election]], [[Fatima Jinnah]] lost to Ayub Khan despite support from the Combined Opposition alliance (which included the Awami League).<ref name="Ahmed2004p157">{{cite book|author=Salahuddin Ahmed|title=Bangladesh: Past and Present|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Szfqq7ruqWgC&pg=PA157|year=2004|publisher=APH Publishing|isbn=978-81-7648-469-5|page=157|access-date=29 August 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160504084534/https://books.google.com/books?id=Szfqq7ruqWgC&pg=PA157|archive-date=4 May 2016|url-status=live}}</ref> The [[Indo-Pakistani War of 1965]] blocked cross-border transport links with neighbouring India in what is described as a second partition.<ref>{{cite news |author=Zafar Sobhan |date=17 August 2007 |title=Tragedy of errors |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-318 |work=The Daily Star |type=Editorial |access-date=19 September 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170829180610/http://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-318 |archive-date=29 August 2017 |url-status=live}}</ref> In 1966, Awami League leader [[Sheikh Mujibur Rahman]] announced a [[six point movement|six-point movement]] for a federal parliamentary democracy.
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According to senior [[World Bank]] officials, Pakistan practised extensive [[economic discrimination]] against East Pakistan: greater government spending on West Pakistan, financial transfers from East to West Pakistan, the use of East Pakistan's foreign-exchange surpluses to finance West Pakistani imports, and refusal by the central government to release funds allocated to East Pakistan because the previous spending had been under budget;<ref name="google.co.nz">{{cite book |last=Muscat |first=Robert J. |year=2015 |title=Investing in Peace: How Development Aid Can Prevent or Promote Conflict |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=yZ5zCQAAQBAJ&pg=PT72 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-1-317-46729-8 |access-date=20 January 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170214220121/https://books.google.com/books?id=yZ5zCQAAQBAJ&pg=PT72 |archive-date=14 February 2017 |url-status=live}}</ref> though East Pakistan generated 70 percent of Pakistan's export revenue with its jute and tea.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://countrystudies.us/bangladesh/15.htm|title=Bangladesh – The "Revolution" of Ayub Khan, 1958–66|access-date=11 December 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160306080130/http://countrystudies.us/bangladesh/15.htm|archive-date=6 March 2016|url-status=live}}</ref> Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was arrested for treason in the [[Agartala Conspiracy Case]] and was released during the [[1969 uprising in East Pakistan]] which resulted in Ayub Khan's resignation. General [[Yahya Khan]] assumed power, reintroducing martial law.
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Ethnic and linguistic discrimination was common in Pakistan's civil and military services, in which Bengalis were under-represented. Fifteen percent of Pakistani central-government offices were occupied by East Pakistanis, who formed 10 percent of the military.<ref>{{Cite book |last1=Raic |first1=D |year=2002 |title=Statehood and the Law of Self-Determination |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=L7UOyPGYBkwC&pg=PA336 |publisher=Martinus Nijhoff Publishers |page=336 |isbn=978-90-411-1890-5 |access-date=20 January 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170214215951/https://books.google.com/books?id=L7UOyPGYBkwC&pg=PA336 |archive-date=14 February 2017 |url-status=live}}</ref> Cultural discrimination also prevailed, making East Pakistan forge a distinct political identity.<ref>{{Cite book |last1=Thomas |first1=Raju G.C. |year=2003 |title=Yugoslavia Unraveled |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=9L6ZayN27PAC&pg=PA322 |publisher=Lexington Books |page=322 |isbn=978-0-7391-0757-7}}</ref> Pakistan banned Bengali literature and music in state media, including the works of Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore.<ref>{{cite news |author=Syed Badrul Ahsan |date=2 June 2010 |title=The sky, the mind, the ban culture |url=http://archive.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=140968 |work=The Daily Star |type=Editorial |access-date=11 December 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151222114353/http://archive.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=140968 |archive-date=22 December 2015 |url-status=live}}</ref> A [[1970 Bhola cyclone|cyclone]] devastated the coast of East Pakistan in 1970, killing an estimated 500,000 people,<ref>[http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1483615/Bangladesh-cyclone-of-1991 Bangladesh cyclone of 1991] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090826071713/http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1483615/Bangladesh-cyclone-of-1991 |date=26 August 2009}}. Britannica Online Encyclopedia.</ref> and the central government was criticised for its poor response.<ref name="countrystudies.us1">{{cite web|url=http://countrystudies.us/bangladesh/16.htm|title=Bangladesh – Emerging Discontent, 1966–70|access-date=11 December 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110623150140/http://countrystudies.us/bangladesh/16.htm|archive-date=23 June 2011|url-status=live}}</ref> After the December 1970 elections, calls for the independence of East Bengal became louder; the Bengali-nationalist Awami League won 167 of 169 East Pakistani seats in the National Assembly. The League claimed the right to form a government and develop a new constitution but was strongly opposed by the Pakistani military and the [[Pakistan Peoples Party]] (led by [[Zulfikar Ali Bhutto]]).
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===War of Independence===
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{{Main|Bangladesh Liberation War}}
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The Bengali population was angered when Prime Minister-elect [[Sheikh Mujibur Rahman]] was prevented from taking the office.<ref>[[#Baxter|Baxter]], pp. 78–79</ref> [[Civil disobedience]] erupted across East Pakistan, with calls for independence.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Ray |first1=Jayanta Kumar |year=2013 |title=India's Foreign Relations, 1947–2007 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=zJYCgVkIwAwC&pg=PT116 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-1-136-19714-7}}</ref> Mujib addressed a [[7 March Speech of Bangabandhu|pro-independence rally]] of nearly 2 million people in Dacca (as Dhaka used to be spelled in English) on 7 March 1971, where he said, "This time the struggle is for our freedom. This time the struggle is for our independence." The flag of Bangladesh was raised for the first time on 23 March, Pakistan's Republic Day.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Thorpe |first1=Edgar |year=2012 |title=The Pearson General Knowledge Manual |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=I9OyQ9mEpxkC&pg=SL1-PA125 |publisher=Pearson Education India |page=A.125 |isbn=978-81-317-6190-8}}</ref> Later, on 25 March late evening, the Pakistani military junta led by [[Yahya Khan]] launched a sustained military assault on East Pakistan under the code name of [[Operation Searchlight]].<ref>{{cite book |last=Bass |first=Gary Jonathan |year=2014 |title=The Blood Telegram: Nixon, Kissinger, and a Forgotten Genocide |publisher=Alfred A. Knopf |page=50 |isbn=978-0-307-70020-9|quote=That night [25 March] ... The Pakistani military had launched a devastating assault on the Bengalis.}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author1=Siegfried O. Wolf|author2=Jivanta Schöttli|author3=Dominik Frommherz|author4=Kai Fürstenberg|author5=Marian Gallenkamp|author6=Lion König|author7=Markus Pauli|title=Politics in South Asia: Culture, Rationality and Conceptual Flow|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=BAJNBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA111|year=2014|publisher=Springer|isbn=978-3-319-09087-0|page=111|access-date=20 January 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170214215717/https://books.google.com/books?id=BAJNBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA111|archive-date=14 February 2017|url-status=live}}</ref> The Pakistan Army arrested Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and flew him to Karachi.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Bates |first1=Crispin |year=2013 |title=Subalterns and Raj: South Asia Since 1600 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=fXjdAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA191 |publisher=Routledge |page=191 |isbn=978-1-134-51375-8 |access-date=20 January 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170214215953/https://books.google.com/books?id=fXjdAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA191 |archive-date=14 February 2017 |url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author=Pervez Musharraf|title=In the Line of Fire|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ZBws32j4zwYC&pg=PT70|year=2008|publisher=Simon and Schuster|isbn=978-1-84739-596-2|page=70}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Johnston |first1=Faith |year=2013 |title=Four Miles to Freedom |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=LFYiAgAAQBAJ&pg=PT112 |publisher=Random House India |isbn=978-81-8400-507-3 |access-date=20 January 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170214220250/https://books.google.com/books?id=LFYiAgAAQBAJ&pg=PT112 |archive-date=14 February 2017 |url-status=live}}</ref> However, before his arrest Mujib proclaimed the [[Proclamation of Bangladeshi Independence|Independence of Bangladesh]] at midnight on 26 March which led the [[Bangladesh Liberation War]] to break out within hours.{{citation needed|date=October 2021}} The Pakistan Army and its local supporters continued to massacre Bengalis, in particular [[1971 Dhaka University massacre|students]], [[1971 killing of Bengali intellectuals|intellectuals]], political figures, and Hindus in the [[1971 Bangladesh genocide]]. The [[Mukti Bahini]], a guerrilla resistance force, also violated human rights during the conflict.<ref>{{cite book |last=Debnath |first=Angela |year=2012 |orig-year=First published 2009 |chapter=The Bangladesh Genocide: The Plight of Women |editor-last1=Totten |editor-first1=Samuel |editor-link=Samuel Totten |title=Plight and Fate of Women During and Following Genocide |chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=crJ7ai7GJH0C&pg=PA47 |publisher=Transaction Publishers |page=47 |isbn=978-1-4128-4759-9 |access-date=20 January 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170214220221/https://books.google.com/books?id=crJ7ai7GJH0C&pg=PA47 |archive-date=14 February 2017 |url-status=live}}</ref> During the war, an estimated 0.3 to 3.0 million people were killed and several million people took shelter in neighbouring India.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.aljazeera.com/news/asia/2010/03/2010325151839747356.html|title=Bangladesh sets up war crimes court|work=Al Jazeera |access-date=11 December 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151216183922/http://www.aljazeera.com/news/asia/2010/03/2010325151839747356.html|archive-date=16 December 2015|url-status=live}}</ref>
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[[File:Central Rotunda with Light-infused Water Pillar - Museum of Independence - Suhrawardy Udyan - Dhaka 2015-05-31 2177-2181.tif|300px|thumb|[[Museum of Independence, Dhaka]]]]
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Global public opinion turned against Pakistan as news of the atrocities spread;<ref name="Benvenisti2012">{{cite book |last=Benvenisti |first=Eyal |author-link=Eyal Benvenisti |year=2012 |orig-year=First published 1992 |title=The International Law of Occupation |edition=2nd |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=f19hVb54_s8C&pg=PA190 |publisher=Oxford University Press |page=190 |isbn=978-0-19-163957-9 |quote=The genuine and widely recognized claim for Bangladeshi self-determination as an entity independent of West Pakistan, coupled with the repulsion caused by the Pakistani measures to suppress that claim convinced global public opinion ... By the time its admission for membership in the United Nations came before the Security Council, in August 1972, Bangladesh had already been recognized by eighty-six countries. |access-date=20 January 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170214220204/https://books.google.com/books?id=f19hVb54_s8C&pg=PA190 |archive-date=14 February 2017 |url-status=live}}</ref> the Bangladesh movement was supported by prominent political and cultural figures in the West, including [[Ted Kennedy]], [[George Harrison]], [[Bob Dylan]], [[Joan Baez]], [[Victoria Ocampo]] and [[André Malraux]].<ref>{{cite news |url=http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/08/27/bangladesh.kennedy.impact/|title=In Bangladesh, Ted Kennedy revered|work=CNN|access-date=12 December 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151222112553/http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/08/27/bangladesh.kennedy.impact/|archive-date=22 December 2015|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/bangladesh/9620324/Bangladesh-to-honour-Bob-Dylan-and-George-Harrison.html|title=Bangladesh to honour Bob Dylan and George Harrison|date=19 October 2012|work=The Daily Telegraph|last1=Nelson|first1=Dean|access-date=18 June 2018|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180613042141/https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/bangladesh/9620324/Bangladesh-to-honour-Bob-Dylan-and-George-Harrison.html|archive-date=13 June 2018|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=http://opinion.bdnews24.com/2012/04/10/joan-baez-singing-heroine-of-1971-left-out-of-shommyanona-list/|title=Joan Baez: Singing heroine of 1971 left out of Shommyanona list|work=bdnes24.com |type=Opinion |date=10 April 2012|access-date=12 December 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151222095924/http://opinion.bdnews24.com/2012/04/10/joan-baez-singing-heroine-of-1971-left-out-of-shommyanona-list/|archive-date=22 December 2015|url-status=live}}</ref> [[The Concert for Bangladesh]] was held at [[Madison Square Garden]] in New York City to raise funds for Bangladeshi refugees. The first major benefit concert in history, it was organised by Harrison and Indian Bengali sitarist [[Ravi Shankar]].<ref>{{cite book |last1=Womack |first1=Kenneth |year=2014 |title=Beatles Encyclopedia, The: Everything Fab Four |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=xWRyBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA200 |publisher=ABC-CLIO |page=200 |isbn=978-0-313-39172-9 |access-date=20 January 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170214215922/https://books.google.com/books?id=xWRyBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA200 |archive-date=14 February 2017 |url-status=live}}</ref>
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During the Bangladesh Liberation War, Bengali nationalists declared independence and formed the Mukti Bahini (the Bangladeshi National Liberation Army). The [[Provisional Government of Bangladesh]] was established on 17 April 1971, converting the 469 elected members of the Pakistani national assembly and East Pakistani provincial assembly into the [[Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh]]. The provisional government issued a [[Proclamation of Bangladeshi Independence|proclamation]] that became the country's interim constitution and declared "equality, human dignity, and social justice" as its fundamental principles. Due to Mujib's detention, [[Syed Nazrul Islam]] took over the role of Acting President, while [[Tajuddin Ahmad]] was named Bangladesh's first Prime Minister. The Mukti Bahini and other Bengali guerrilla forces formed the [[Bangladesh Forces]], which became the military wing of the provisional government. Led by General [[M. A. G. Osmani]] and eleven [[List of sectors in Bangladesh Liberation War|sector commanders]], the forces held the countryside during the war. They conducted wide-ranging guerrilla operations against Pakistani forces. As a result, almost the entire country except for the capital Dacca was liberated by [[Bangladesh Forces]] by late November.{{citation needed|date=December 2021}}
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This led the Pakistan Army to attack neighbouring India's western front on 2 December 1971. India retaliated in both the western and eastern fronts. With a joint ground advance by Bangladeshi and Indian forces, coupled with air strikes by both India and the small Bangladeshi air contingent, the capital Dacca was liberated from Pakistani occupation in mid-December. During the last phase of the war, both the Soviet Union and the United States dispatched naval forces to the Bay of Bengal in a Cold War standoff. The nine month long war ended with the [[Surrender of Pakistan|surrender of Pakistani armed forces]] to the Bangladesh-India Allied Forces on 16 December 1971.<ref name="laporte">{{cite journal |doi=10.1525/as.1972.12.2.01p0190a |last=LaPorte |first=R |year=1972 |title=Pakistan in 1971: The Disintegration of a Nation |journal=Asian Survey |volume=12 | issue = 2|pages=97–108}}</ref>{{failed verification|date=December 2021}}<ref name="Rummel-8-2">Rummel, Rudolph J. (1997) [http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/SOD.CHAP8.HTM "Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900"] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160221160013/http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/SOD.CHAP8.HTM |date=21 February 2016}}. Transaction Publishers, Rutgers University. {{ISBN|3-8258-4010-7}}, Chapter 8, [http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/SOD.TAB8.2.GIF Table 8.2 Pakistan Genocide in Bangladesh Estimates, Sources, and Calculations] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120204060822/http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/SOD.TAB8.2.GIF |date=4 February 2012}}</ref>{{failed verification|date=December 2021}} Under international pressure, Pakistan released Rahman from imprisonment on 8 January 1972 and he was flown by the British Royal Air Force to a million-strong homecoming in Dacca.<ref>{{cite book|author=Srinath Raghavan|title=1971|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=u6gQCgAAQBAJ&pg=PT247|year=2013|publisher=Harvard University Press|isbn=978-0-674-73127-1|page=247|access-date=20 January 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170214215926/https://books.google.com/books?id=u6gQCgAAQBAJ&pg=PT247|archive-date=14 February 2017|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite AV media|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PsTOIiJr7so|title=Sheikh Mujib's Return to Bangladesh – January 10, 1972 Monday|date=23 December 2013|publisher=NBC|access-date=21 December 2015|via=Centre for Bangladesh Genocide Research|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160317043314/https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PsTOIiJr7so|archive-date=17 March 2016|url-status=live}}</ref> Remaining Indian troops were withdrawn by 12 March 1972, three months after the war ended.<ref>{{cite book |last=Lyon |first=Peter |year=2008 |title=Conflict Between India and Pakistan: An Encyclopedia |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=vLwOck15eboC&pg=PA192 |publisher=ABC-CLIO |page=193 |isbn=978-1-57607-712-2 |quote="12 March India's armed forces withdraw from Bangladesh at a ceremonial parade in Dacca."}}</ref>
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The cause of Bangladeshi self-determination was recognised around the world. By August 1972, the new state was recognised by 86 countries.<ref name="Benvenisti2012"/> Pakistan recognised Bangladesh in 1974 after pressure from most of the Muslim countries.<ref>{{cite news |author=Syed Muazzem Ali |date=19 February 2006 |title=Bangladesh and the OIC |url=http://archive.thedailystar.net/suppliments/2006/15thanniv/bangladesh&theworld/bd_world21.htm|work=The Daily Star|access-date=21 December 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304065259/http://archive.thedailystar.net/suppliments/2006/15thanniv/bangladesh%26theworld/bd_world21.htm |archive-date=4 March 2016 |url-status=live}}</ref>
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===People's Republic of Bangladesh===
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====First parliamentary era====
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[[File:Sheikh Mujibur Rahman casting ballot 1970 election.jpg|thumb|[[Sheikh Mujibur Rahman]] casting his [[ballot]] during the [[1970 Pakistani general election|1970 general election]], which led to the breakup of East and West Pakistan; and the independence of Bangladesh]]
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The constituent assembly adopted the constitution of Bangladesh on 4 November 1972, establishing a secular, multiparty parliamentary democracy. The new constitution included references to [[socialism]], and Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman [[nationalised]] major industries in 1972.<ref>{{cite journal |last=Umar |first=Badruddin |author-link=Badruddin Umar |year=1972 |title=Bangladesh nationalisation: What does it all mean? |journal=Journal of Contemporary Asia |volume=2 |issue=3 |pages=328–30 |doi=10.1080/00472337285390641}}</ref> A major reconstruction and rehabilitation program was launched. The Awami League won the country's first general election in 1973, securing a large majority in the "[[Jatiyo Sangshad]]", the national parliament. Bangladesh joined the [[Commonwealth of Nations]], the UN, the [[Organisation of Islamic Cooperation|OIC]] and the [[Non-Aligned Movement]], and Rahman strengthened ties with India. Amid growing agitation by the opposition [[National Awami Party]] and [[Jashod]], he became increasingly authoritarian. Rahman amended the constitution, giving himself more emergency powers (including the suspension of fundamental rights). The [[Bangladesh famine of 1974]] also worsened the political situation.<ref name="Lewis2011">{{cite book|author=David Lewis|title=Bangladesh: Politics, Economy and Civil Society|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=5lH40gT7xvYC|year=2011|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-1-139-50257-3|access-date=11 December 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170106064248/https://books.google.com/books?id=5lH40gT7xvYC|archive-date=6 January 2017|url-status=live}}</ref>
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====Presidential era (1975–1991)====
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{{See also|Military coups in Bangladesh}}
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[[File:Statiefoto Koninklijke Familie en President Ziaur Rakm (Bangladesj) en echtgenot, Bestanddeelnr 253-8087.jpg|thumb|[[Ziaur Rahman]] with members of the Dutch royal family in 1978]]
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In January 1975, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman introduced [[One-party state|one-party socialist rule]] under [[Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League|BAKSAL]]. Rahman banned all newspapers except four state-owned publications and amended the constitution to increase his power. He was [[Assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman|assassinated]] during a coup on 15 August 1975. [[Martial law]] was declared, and the presidency passed to the [[usurper]] [[Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad]] for four months. Ahmad is widely regarded as a traitor by Bangladeshis.<ref>{{cite news|title=Mushtaq was the worst traitor: attorney general|url=http://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2009/11/08/mushtaq-was-worst-traitor-attorney-general|work=bdnews24.com|access-date=19 September 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171010140521/https://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2009/11/08/mushtaq-was-worst-traitor-attorney-general|archive-date=10 October 2017|url-status=live}}</ref> Tajuddin Ahmad, the nation's first prime minister, and four other independence leaders were assassinated on 4 November 1975. Chief Justice [[Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem]] was installed as president by the military on 6 November 1975. Bangladesh was governed by a [[military junta]] led by the [[Chief Martial Law Administrator]] for three years. In 1977, the army chief [[Ziaur Rahman]] became president. Rahman reinstated [[multiparty]] politics, [[privatised]] industries and newspapers, established [[Bangladesh Export Processing Zone Authority|BEPZA]] and held the country's second general election in 1979. A [[semi-presidential]] system evolved, with the [[Bangladesh Nationalist Party]] (BNP) governing until 1982. Rahman was assassinated in 1981 and was succeeded by Vice-president [[Abdus Sattar (president)|Abdus Sattar]]. Sattar received 65.5 per cent of the vote in the [[1981 Bangladeshi presidential election|1981 presidential election]].<ref name="Khasru">{{cite book|author=B.Z. Khasru|title=The Bangladesh Military Coup and the CIA Link|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=z8OeAwAAQBAJ|publisher=Rupa Publications India Pvt. Ltd|isbn=978-81-291-3416-5}}</ref>
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After a year in office, Sattar was overthrown in the [[1982 Bangladesh coup d'état]]. Chief Justice [[A. F. M. Ahsanuddin Chowdhury]] was installed as president, but army chief [[Hussain Muhammad Ershad]] became the country's ''de facto'' leader and assumed the presidency in 1983. Ershad lifted martial law in 1986. He governed with four successive prime ministers ([[Ataur Rahman Khan]], [[Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury]], [[Moudud Ahmed]] and [[Kazi Zafar Ahmed]]) and a parliament dominated by his [[Jatiya Party (Ershad)|Jatiyo Party]]. General elections were held in 1986 and 1988, although the opposition BNP and Awami League boycotted the latter. Ershad pursued administrative decentralisation, dividing the country into 64 districts, and pushed Parliament to make Islam the state religion in 1988.<ref>{{cite news |url=https://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-12651483|title=Bangladesh profile|date=13 August 2017|access-date=19 September 2017|work=BBC News|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180711040420/https://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-12651483|archive-date=11 July 2018|url-status=live}}</ref> A [[1990 Mass Uprising in Bangladesh|1990 mass uprising]] forced him to resign, and Chief Justice [[Shahabuddin Ahmed]] led the country's first caretaker government as part of the transition to parliamentary rule.<ref name="Khasru"/>
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====Parliamentary era (1991–present)====
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[[File:Muhammad yunus at weforum.jpg|thumb|right|Nobel laureate Yunus at the 2009 meeting of the [[World Economic Forum]] in [[Davos]], Switzerland]]
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[[File:Rohingya refugees entering Bangladesh after being driven out of Myanmar, 2017.JPG|thumb|[[Rohingya people|Rohingya]] refugees entering Bangladesh from Myanmar]]
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After the 1991 general election, the twelfth amendment to the constitution restored the parliamentary republic and [[Begum Khaleda Zia]] became Bangladesh's first female prime minister. Zia, a former first lady, led a BNP government from 1990 to 1996. In 1991, her finance minister, [[Saifur Rahman (Bangladeshi politician)|Saifur Rahman]], began a major program to liberalise the Bangladeshi economy.<ref name="Lewis2011"/>
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In February 1996, [[February 1996 Bangladeshi general election|a general election]] was held, which was boycotted by all opposition parties giving a 300 (of 300) seat victory for BNP. This election was deemed illegitimate, so a system of a [[caretaker government of Bangladesh|caretaker government]] was introduced to oversee the transfer of power and a new election was held in June 1996, overseen by Justice [[Muhammad Habibur Rahman]], the first [[Chief Adviser of Bangladesh]]. The [[Bangladesh Awami League|Awami League]] won the [[June 1996 Bangladeshi general election|seventh general election]], marking its leader [[Sheikh Hasina|Sheikh Hasina's]] first term as Prime Minister. Hasina's first term was highlighted by the [[Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord]] and a [[Ganges]] water-sharing treaty with India. The second caretaker government, led by Chief Adviser Justice [[Latifur Rahman]], oversaw the [[2001 Bangladeshi general election]] which returned Begum Zia and the BNP to power.
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The second Zia administration saw improved economic growth, but political turmoil gripped the country between 2004 and 2006. A radical Islamist militant group, the [[Jamaat-ul-Mujahideen Bangladesh|JMB]], carried out a series of terror attacks. The evidence of staging these attacks by these extremist groups have been found in the investigation. Hundreds of suspected members were detained in numerous security operations in 2006, including the two chiefs of the JMB, [[Shaykh Abdur Rahman]] and [[Bangla Bhai]], who was executed with other top leaders in March 2007, bringing the militant group to an end.<ref>{{Cite news | url=http://archive.thedailystar.net/2007/03/31/d7033101011.htm | title=The Daily Star Web Edition Vol. 5 Num 1007 |work=The Daily Star | access-date=10 November 2018 | archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180915190630/http://archive.thedailystar.net/2007/03/31/d7033101011.htm | archive-date=15 September 2018 | url-status=live}}</ref>
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In 2006, at the end of the term of the BNP administration, there was widespread political unrest related to the handover of power to a caretaker government.  As such, the Bangladeshi military urged President [[Iajuddin Ahmed]] to impose a [[state of emergency]] and a caretaker government, led by technocrat [[Fakhruddin Ahmed]], was installed.<ref name="Lewis2011"/> Emergency rule lasted for two years, during which time investigations into members of both Awami League and BNP were conducted, including their leaders [[Sheikh Hasina]] and [[Khaleda Zia]].<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://www.abc.net.au/news/2007-07-16/former-bangladeshi-pm-arrested-reports/2503992|title=Former Bangladeshi PM arrested: reports|date=16 July 2007|work=ABC News|access-date=26 December 2018|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180922235154/http://www.abc.net.au/news/2007-07-16/former-bangladeshi-pm-arrested-reports/2503992|archive-date=22 September 2018|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news |url=http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/09/02/asia/AS-GEN-Bangladesh-Ex-Prime-Minister.php|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090212031648/http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/09/02/asia/AS-GEN-Bangladesh-Ex-Prime-Minister.php|url-status=dead|archive-date=12 February 2009|title=Ex-PM sued on corruption charges in Bangladesh |work= International Herald Tribune|date=12 February 2009|access-date=26 December 2018}}</ref> In 2008, the [[2008 Bangladeshi general election|ninth general election]] saw a return to power for Sheikh Hasina and the [[Bangladesh Awami League|Awami League]] led [[Grand Alliance (Bangladesh)|Grand Alliance]] in a landslide victory. In 2010, the [[Supreme Court of Bangladesh|Supreme Court]] ruled martial law illegal and affirmed [[Secularism|secular]] principles in the constitution. The following year, the Awami League abolished the caretaker government system.
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 +
Citing the lack of caretaker government, the [[2014 Bangladeshi general election|2014 general election]] was boycotted by the BNP and other opposition parties, giving the Awami League a decisive victory. The election was controversial with reports of violence and an alleged crackdown on the opposition in the run-up to the election, and 153 seats (of 300) went uncontested in the election. Despite the controversy, Hasina went on to form a government that saw her return for a third term as Prime Minister. Due to strong domestic demand, Bangladesh emerged as one of the [[List of countries by real GDP growth rate|fastest-growing economies in the world]].<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2018/10/02/economic-reforms-can-make-bangladesh-grow-faster |title=Economic Reforms Can Make Bangladesh Grow Faster |access-date=9 April 2019 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190411084103/http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2018/10/02/economic-reforms-can-make-bangladesh-grow-faster |archive-date=11 April 2019 |url-status=live}}</ref> However, [[human rights abuses]] increased under the Hasina administration, particularly [[Forced disappearance in Bangladesh|enforced disappearances]]. Between 2016 and 2017, an estimated 1 million [[Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh|Rohingya refugees]] took shelter in [[Cox's Bazar District|southeastern Bangladesh]] amid a military crackdown in neighbouring [[Rakhine State]], [[Myanmar]].
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 +
In 2018, the country saw major movements for [[2018 Bangladesh quota reform movement|government quota reforms]] and [[2018 Bangladesh road-safety protests|road-safety]]. The [[2018 Bangladeshi general election]] was marred by allegations of widespread [[vote rigging]].<ref>{{cite news |url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/dec/30/bangladesh-election-polls-open-after-campaign-marred-by-violence|title=Bangladesh PM Hasina wins thumping victory in elections opposition reject as 'farcical'|first1=Michael|last1=Safi|first2=Redwan|last2=Ahmed|date=31 December 2018|work=The Guardian}}</ref> The Awami League won 259 out of 300 seats and the main opposition alliance [[Jatiya Oikya Front]] secured only 8 seats, with Sheikh Hasina becoming the longest-serving prime minister in Bangladeshi history.<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/south-asia/hasinas-win-makes-her-the-longest-serving-pm-of-bangladesh/articleshow/67318448.cms |title=Hasina's win makes her the longest serving PM of Bangladesh |work=The Times of India |access-date=9 April 2019 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181231163952/https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/south-asia/hasinas-win-makes-her-the-longest-serving-pm-of-bangladesh/articleshow/67318448.cms |archive-date=31 December 2018 |url-status=live}}</ref> Pro-democracy leader Dr. [[Kamal Hossain]] called for an annulment of the election result and for a new election to be held in a free and fair manner.<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-46716605 |title=Bangladesh election: Opposition demands new vote |work=BBC News |date=30 December 2018 |access-date=9 April 2019 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190411171517/https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-46716605 |archive-date=11 April 2019 |url-status=live}}</ref> The election was also observed by [[European Union]] observers.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-Homepage/56110/statement-spokesperson-parliamentary-elections-bangladesh_en|title=Statement by the Spokesperson on parliamentary elections in Bangladesh|website=EEAS – European External Action Service – European Commission|access-date=15 August 2019}}</ref>
 +
 
 +
==Geography==
 +
{{Main|Geography of Bangladesh}}
 +
[[File:Map of Bangladesh-en.svg|thumb|Physical map of Bangladesh]]
 +
Bangladesh is a small, lush country in [[South Asia]], located on the [[Bay of Bengal]]. It is surrounded almost entirely by neighbouring [[India]]—and shares a small border with [[Myanmar]] to its southeast, though it lies very close to [[Nepal]], [[Bhutan]], and [[China]]. The country is divided into three regions. Most of the country is dominated by the fertile [[Ganges Delta]], the largest river delta in the world.<ref>{{cite web|author1=Aditi Rajagopal|title=How the World's Largest Delta Might Slowly Go Under Water|url=https://www.discovery.com/nature/largest-delta-underwater|website=Discovery|date=8 February 2020|language=en}}</ref> The northwest and central parts of the country are formed by the [[Madhupur tract|Madhupur]] and the [[Barind Tract|Barind]] plateaus. The northeast and southeast are home to [[evergreen]] hill ranges.
 +
 
 +
The Ganges delta is formed by the confluence of the Ganges (local name [[Padma River|Padma]] or ''Pôdda''), [[Brahmaputra River|Brahmaputra]] ([[Jamuna River (Bangladesh)|Jamuna]] or ''Jomuna''), and [[Meghna River|Meghna]] rivers and their respective tributaries. The Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna, finally flowing into the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh is called the "Land of Rivers";<ref>{{cite web|url=https://ejfoundation.org/films/bangladesh-land-of-rivers|title=No Place Like Home - BANGLADESH: LAND OF RIVERS|work=Environmental Justice Foundation|access-date=10 March 2020}}</ref> as it is home to over 57 [[trans-boundary river]]s. However, this resolves water issues politically complicated, in most cases, as the country is a lower [[riparian zone|riparian]] state to India.<ref>{{cite book | last = Suvedī | first = Sūryaprasāda | title = International watercourses law for the 21st century | publisher = Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. | year = 2005 | pages = 154–66 | isbn = 978-0-7546-4527-6}}</ref>
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 +
Bangladesh is predominantly rich fertile flat land. Most of it is less than {{convert|12|m|ft|abbr=on}} above sea level, and it is estimated that about 10% of its land would be flooded if the sea level were to rise by {{convert|1|m|ft|abbr=on}}.<ref name="ali">{{cite journal|last=Ali|first=A. |year=1996 |title=Vulnerability of Bangladesh to climate change and sea level rise through tropical cyclones and storm surges |doi = 10.1007/BF00175563|journal=Water, Air, & Soil Pollution |volume=92 |issue=1–2 |pages=171–79|bibcode=1996WASP...92..171A |s2cid=93611792 |url= https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00175563}}</ref> 17% of the country is covered by forests and 12% is covered by hill systems. The country's [[haor]] wetlands are of significance to global environmental science.
 +
 
 +
With an elevation of {{convert|1064|m|ft|abbr=on}}, [[Saka Haphong]] (also known as Mowdok Mual) near the border with [[Myanmar]], is claimed to be the highest peak of Bangladesh.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.peakbagger.com/list.aspx?lid=1100 |title=World Country High Points |website=peakbagger.com |publisher=peakbagger.com}}</ref> However, it is not yet widely recognised as the highest point of the country, and most sources give the honor to [[Keokradong]].<ref name=CIA/>
 +
 
 +
===Administrative geography===
 +
{{Main|Administrative geography of Bangladesh}}
 +
{{Further|Divisions of Bangladesh|Districts of Bangladesh|Upazilas of Bangladesh}}
 +
{{Bangladesh Divisions Image Map}}
 +
Bangladesh is divided into eight administrative divisions,<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bangladesh.gov.bd/site/view/division-list/List-of-Divisions|publisher=Bangladesh Government|title=National Web Portal of Bangladesh|date=15 September 2015|access-date=23 September 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150923061605/http://www.bangladesh.gov.bd/site/view/division-list/List-of-Divisions|archive-date=23 September 2015|url-status=live}}</ref><ref name=CIA>{{cite web |website=The World Factbook |publisher=Central Intelligence Agency |title=Bangladesh |location=Langley, Virginia |url=https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/bangladesh/ |year=2012 |access-date=15 May 2007 }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=http://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2010/01/25/rangpur-becomes-a-division |title=Rangpur becomes a divivion |work=bdnews24.com |date=25 January 2010 |access-date=6 August 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150903184553/http://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2010/01/25/rangpur-becomes-a-division |archive-date=3 September 2015 |url-status=live}}</ref> each named after their respective divisional headquarters: [[Barisal Division|Barisal]] (officially ''Barishal''<ref name=namechange>{{cite news|url=https://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2018/04/02/bangladesh-changes-english-spellings-of-five-districts|title=Bangladesh changes English spellings of five districts|work=bdnews24.com|date=2 April 2018|access-date=1 October 2019}}</ref>), [[Chittagong Division|Chittagong]] (officially ''Chattogram''<ref name=namechange/>), [[Dhaka Division|Dhaka]], [[Khulna Division|Khulna]], [[Mymensingh Division|Mymensingh]], Rajshahi, Rangpur, and Sylhet.
 +
 
 +
Divisions are subdivided into districts (''zila''). There are 64 districts in Bangladesh, each further subdivided into ''upazila'' (subdistricts) or ''thana''. The area within each police station, except for those in metropolitan areas, is divided into several ''[[Union Councils of Bangladesh|unions]]'', with each union consisting of multiple villages. In the metropolitan areas, police stations are divided into wards, further divided into ''mahallas''.
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 +
There are no elected officials at the divisional or district levels, and the administration is composed only of government officials. Direct elections are held in each union (or ward) for a chairperson and a number of members. In 1997, a parliamentary act was passed to reserve three seats (out of 12) in every union for female candidates.<ref>''Local Government Act'', No. 20, 1997</ref>
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 +
{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align: right"
 +
|+ Administrative Divisions of Bangladesh
 +
|-
 +
! scope="col" | [[Divisions of Bangladesh|Division]]
 +
! scope="col" | [[Capital (political)|Capital]]
 +
! scope="col" data-sort-type="date" | Established
 +
! scope="col" | Area (km<sup>2</sup>)<br /><ref name="ReferenceA">Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics official estimates for 15 March 2021.</ref>{{full citation needed|date=January 2022}}
 +
! scope="col" | 2021 Population <br />(projected)<ref>{{cite web |url=http://203.112.218.65:8008/WebTestApplication/userfiles/Image/PopMonographs/PopulationProjection.pdf |title=Population Projection of Bangladesh: Dynamics and Trends, 2011-2061 |date=November 2015 |website=Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics}}</ref>
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! scope="col" | [[Population density|Density]]<br />2021<ref name="ReferenceA"/>
 +
|-
 +
| style="text-align:left" | [[Barisal Division]]
 +
| style="text-align:left" | [[Barisal]]
 +
| 1 January 1993
 +
| 13,297
 +
| 9,713,000
 +
| 730
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|-
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| style="text-align:left" | [[Chittagong Division]]
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| style="text-align:left" | [[Chittagong]]
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| 1 January 1829
 +
| 33,771
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| 34,747,000
 +
| 1,028
 +
|-
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| style="text-align:left" | [[Dhaka Division]]
 +
| style="text-align:left" | [[Dhaka]]
 +
| 1 January 1829
 +
| 20,551
 +
| 42,607,000
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| 2,073
 +
|-
 +
| style="text-align:left" | [[Khulna Division]]
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| style="text-align:left" | [[Khulna]]
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| 1 October 1960
 +
| 22,272
 +
| 18,217,000
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| 818
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|-
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| style="text-align:left" | [[Mymensingh Division]]
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| style="text-align:left" | [[Mymensingh]]
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| 14 September 2015
 +
| 10,569
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| 13,457,000
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| 1,273
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|-
 +
| style="text-align:left" | [[Rajshahi Division]]
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| style="text-align:left" | [[Rajshahi]]
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| 1 January 1829
 +
| 18,197
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| 21,607,000
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| 1,187
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|-
 +
| style="text-align:left" | [[Rangpur Division]]
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| style="text-align:left" | [[Rangpur City|Rangpur]]
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| 25 January 2010
 +
| 16,317
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| 18,868,000
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| 1,156
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|-
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| style="text-align:left" | [[Sylhet Division]]
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| style="text-align:left" | [[Sylhet]]
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| 1 August 1995
 +
| 12,596
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| 12,463,000
 +
| 989
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
===Climate===
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{{Main|Geography of Bangladesh#Climate|Climate change in Bangladesh}}
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[[File:Koppen-Geiger Map BGD present.svg|thumb|[[Köppen climate classification|Köppen-Geiger climate classification]] map for Bangladesh<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Beck |first1=Hylke E. |last2=Zimmermann |first2=Niklaus E. |last3=McVicar |first3=Tim R. |last4=Vergopolan |first4=Noemi |last5=Berg |first5=Alexis |last6=Wood |first6=Eric F.|author6-link=Eric Franklin Wood |title=Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution |journal=Scientific Data |date=30 October 2018 |volume=5 |page=180214 |doi=10.1038/sdata.2018.214|pmid=30375988 |pmc=6207062 |bibcode=2018NatSD...580214B}}</ref>]]
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[[File:Flooding after 1991 cyclone.jpg|thumb|Flooding after the [[1991 Bangladesh cyclone]], which killed around 140,000&nbsp;people]]
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Straddling the [[Tropic of Cancer]], Bangladesh's climate is tropical, with a mild winter from October to March and a hot, humid summer from March to June. The country has never recorded an air temperature below {{convert|0|°C}}, with a record low of {{convert|1.1|°C}} in the northwest city of [[Dinajpur]] on 3 February 1905.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://kantaji.com/dinajpurmap.html |title=Map of Dinajpur |website=kantaji.com |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110713134542/http://kantaji.com/dinajpurmap.html |archive-date=13 July 2011 |access-date=17 April 2015}}</ref> A warm and humid [[monsoon]] season lasts from June to October and supplies most of the country's rainfall.
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Natural calamities, such as [[Floods in Bangladesh|floods]], [[tropical cyclone]]s, [[tornado]]es, and [[tidal bore]]s occur almost every year,<ref name="NatDis">{{cite book |last=Alexander |first=David E. |title= Natural Disasters |chapter-url= https://books.google.com/books?id=gWHsuGTcF34C&pg=PA532|year= 1999|publisher=Kluwer Academic Publishers|location= Dordrecht |isbn=978-0-412-04751-0 |page=532 |chapter=The Third World |orig-year=1993}}</ref> combined with the effects of [[deforestation]], [[Soils retrogression and degradation|soil degradation]] and [[erosion]]. The [[List of Bangladesh tropical cyclones|cyclones]] of 1970 and 1991 were particularly devastating, the [[1991 Bangladesh cyclone|latter]] killing some 140,000 people.<ref>"[https://articles.latimes.com/2005/feb/27/news/adfg-bangla27 Beset by Bay's Killer Storms, Bangladesh Prepares and Hopes] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110511191252/http://articles.latimes.com/2005/feb/27/news/adfg-bangla27 |date=11 May 2011}}". ''Los Angeles Times''. 27 February 2005</ref>
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In September 1998, Bangladesh saw [[1998 Bangladesh floods|the most severe flooding]] in modern world history. As the Brahmaputra, the Ganges and [[Meghna]] spilt over and swallowed 300,000 houses, {{convert|9700|km|mi|abbr=on}} of road and {{convert|2700|km|mi|abbr=on}} of embankment, 1,000&nbsp;people were killed and 30&nbsp;million more were made homeless; 135,000 cattle were killed; {{convert|50|km2|mi2|abbr=on}} of land were destroyed; and {{convert|11000|km|mi|abbr=on}} of roads were damaged or destroyed. Effectively, two-thirds of the country was underwater.
 +
The severity of the flooding was attributed to unusually high monsoon rains, the shedding of equally unusually large amounts of melt water from the [[Himalayas]], and the widespread cutting down of trees (that would have intercepted rain water) for firewood or animal husbandry.<ref name="EWG">{{cite book |last=Haggett|first=Peter |title= Encyclopedia of World Geography |chapter-url= https://books.google.com/books?id=IROIY4ONOSEC&pg=PA2634|publisher=Marshall Cavendish |year= 2002|location= New York |isbn=978-0-7614-7308-4 |oclc= 46578454|pages=2, 634 |chapter=The Indian Subcontinent |orig-year=2002}}</ref> As a result of various international and national level initiatives in disaster risk reduction, human toll and economic damage from floods and cyclones have come down over the years.<ref>{{cite news|last=Raju |first= M. N. A. |title=Disaster Preparedness for Sustainable Development in Bangladesh |url=https://www.daily-sun.com/arcprint/details/294175/Disaster-Preparedness-for-Sustainable-Development-in-Bangladesh/2018-03-10 |work=Daily Sun|date=10 March 2018 |access-date=26 September 2019}}</ref> A similar country wide flood in 2007, which left five million people displaced, had a death toll around 500.<ref>{{cite news|title=Bangladesh flood death toll nears 500, thousands ill |url=http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/DHA30252.htm |agency=[[Reuters]] |date=15 August 2007 |access-date=15 August 2007}}</ref>
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Bangladesh is recognised to be one of the countries most [[Climate change vulnerability|vulnerable to climate change]].<ref>{{Cite journal|last1=Kulp|first1=Scott A.|last2=Strauss|first2=Benjamin H.|date=29 October 2019|title=New elevation data triple estimates of global vulnerability to sea-level rise and coastal flooding|journal=Nature Communications|volume=10|issue=1|page=4844|bibcode=2019NatCo..10.4844K|doi=10.1038/s41467-019-12808-z|issn=2041-1723|pmc=6820795|pmid=31664024}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|date=29 October 2019|title=Report: Flooded Future: Global vulnerability to sea level rise worse than previously understood|url=https://climatecentral.org/news/report-flooded-future-global-vulnerability-to-sea-level-rise-worse-than-previously-understood|access-date=3 November 2019|website=climatecentral.org}}</ref> Over the course of a century, 508 cyclones have affected the Bay of Bengal region, 17 percent of which are believed to have caused landfall in Bangladesh.<ref>{{Cite book|last=Chaturvedi|first=Sanjay|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=UB1qDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT67|title=Climate Change and the Bay of Bengal|date=29 April 2016|publisher=Flipside Digital Content Company Inc.|isbn=978-981-4762-01-4|language=en}}</ref> Natural hazards that come from increased rainfall, rising sea levels, and tropical cyclones are expected to increase as the climate changes, each seriously affecting agriculture, water and food security, human health, and shelter.<ref>{{cite book|url=http://www.moef.gov.bd/moef.pdf|title=Bangladesh Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan, 2008|publisher=Ministry of Environment and Forests Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh|year=2008|isbn=978-984-8574-25-6|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091007060017/http://www.moef.gov.bd/moef.pdf|archive-date=7 October 2009|url-status=dead}}</ref> It is estimated that by 2050, a 3 feet rise in sea levels will inundate some 20 percent of the land and displace more than 30 million people.<ref>{{cite web|last=Glennon|first=Robert|title=The Unfolding Tragedy of Climate Change in Bangladesh|url=https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/the-unfolding-tragedy-of-climate-change-in-bangladesh/|url-status=live|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171201040750/https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/the-unfolding-tragedy-of-climate-change-in-bangladesh/|archive-date=1 December 2017|access-date=23 November 2017}}</ref> To address the [[sea level rise]] threat in Bangladesh, the Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100 has been launched.<ref name=":2">{{cite web|url=https://www.dutchwatersector.com/news/bangladesh-delta-plan-2100|title=Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100|publisher=The Dutch water sector|access-date=24 September 2019|date=20 May 2019}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.gwp.org/globalassets/global/gwp-sas_images/gwp-sas-in-action/ldai/bdp-2100-ppt.pdf|title=Bangladesh Delta Plan (BDP) 2100}}</ref>
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 +
===Biodiversity===
 +
{{Main|Wildlife of Bangladesh|Fauna of Bangladesh}}
 +
[[File:Bengal Tiger gets down in a shallow canal in Sundarban.jpg|thumb|A [[Bengal tiger]], the national animal, in the Sundarbans]]
 +
Bangladesh ratified the Rio [[Convention on Biological Diversity]] on 3 May 1994.<ref name="cbd.int">{{cite web|url=http://www.cbd.int/countries/profile/default.shtml?country=bd|title=Bangladesh Country Profile|website=cbd.int|access-date=16 February 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150217020013/http://www.cbd.int/countries/profile/default.shtml?country=bd|archive-date=17 February 2015|url-status=live}}</ref> {{As of|2014}}, the country was set to revise its [[Biodiversity action plan|National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan]].<ref name="cbd.int"/>
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Bangladesh is located in the [[Indomalayan realm]], and lies within four terrestrial ecoregions: [[Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests]], [[Mizoram–Manipur–Kachin rain forests]], [[Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests]], and [[Sundarbans mangroves]].<ref name="DinersteinOlson2017">{{cite journal|last1=Dinerstein|first1=Eric|last2=Olson|first2=David|last3=Joshi|first3=Anup|last4=Vynne|first4=Carly|last5=Burgess|first5=Neil D.|last6=Wikramanayake|first6=Eric|last7=Hahn|first7=Nathan|last8=Palminteri|first8=Suzanne|last9=Hedao|first9=Prashant|last10=Noss|first10=Reed|last11=Hansen|first11=Matt|last12=Locke|first12=Harvey|last13=Ellis|first13=Erle C|last14=Jones|first14=Benjamin|last15=Barber|first15=Charles Victor|last16=Hayes|first16=Randy|last17=Kormos|first17=Cyril|last18=Martin|first18=Vance|last19=Crist|first19=Eileen|last20=Sechrest|first20=Wes|last21=Price|first21=Lori|last22=Baillie|first22=Jonathan E. M.|last23=Weeden|first23=Don|last24=Suckling|first24=Kierán|last25=Davis|first25=Crystal|last26=Sizer|first26=Nigel|last27=Moore|first27=Rebecca|last28=Thau|first28=David|last29=Birch|first29=Tanya|last30=Potapov|first30=Peter|last31=Turubanova|first31=Svetlana|last32=Tyukavina|first32=Alexandra|last33=de Souza|first33=Nadia|last34=Pintea|first34=Lilian|last35=Brito|first35=José C.|last36=Llewellyn|first36=Othman A.|last37=Miller|first37=Anthony G.|last38=Patzelt|first38=Annette|last39=Ghazanfar|first39=Shahina A.|last40=Timberlake|first40=Jonathan|last41=Klöser|first41=Heinz|last42=Shennan-Farpón|first42=Yara|last43=Kindt|first43=Roeland|last44=Lillesø|first44=Jens-Peter Barnekow|last45=van Breugel|first45=Paulo|last46=Graudal|first46=Lars|last47=Voge|first47=Maianna|last48=Al-Shammari|first48=Khalaf F.|last49=Saleem|first49=Muhammad|title=An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm|journal=BioScience|volume=67|issue=6|year=2017|pages=534–545|issn=0006-3568|doi=10.1093/biosci/bix014|pmid=28608869|pmc=5451287}}</ref> Its ecology includes a long sea coastline, numerous [[List of rivers in Bangladesh|rivers and tributaries]], lakes, [[wetland]]s, evergreen forests, semi evergreen forests, hill forests, moist [[deciduous forest]]s, freshwater swamp forests and flat land with tall grass. The Bangladesh Plain is famous for its fertile [[alluvial]] soil which supports extensive cultivation. The country is dominated by lush vegetation, with villages often buried in groves of [[mango]], [[jackfruit]], [[bamboo]], [[betel nut]], [[coconut]] and [[date palm]].<ref name="global.britannica.com">[http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/51736/Bangladesh/33426/Plant-and-animal-life Bangladesh | history – geography :: Plant and animal life] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140203195926/http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/51736/Bangladesh/33426/Plant-and-animal-life|date=3 February 2014}}. ''Encyclopædia Britannica''.</ref> The country has up to 6000 species of plant life, including 5000 flowering plants.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.bdhcdelhi.org/index.php/flora-fauna|title=Flora and Fauna – Bangladesh high commission in India |website=Bangladesh High Commission, New Delhi |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130820012655/http://www.bdhcdelhi.org/index.php/flora-fauna |archive-date=20 August 2013}}</ref> Water bodies and wetland systems provide a habitat for many aquatic plants. [[Nymphaeaceae|Water lilies]] and [[Nelumbo nucifera|lotuses]] grow vividly during the monsoon season. The country has [[List of protected areas of Bangladesh|50 wildlife sanctuaries]].
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Bangladesh is home to much of the [[Sundarbans]], the world's largest [[mangrove forest]], covering an area of 6,000&nbsp;km<sup>2</sup> in the southwest littoral region. It is divided into three protected sanctuaries–the [[Sundarbans South Wildlife Sanctuary|South]], [[Sundarbans East Wildlife Sanctuary|East]] and [[Sundarbans West Wildlife Sanctuary|West]] zones. The forest is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The northeastern Sylhet region is home to haor wetlands, a unique ecosystem. It also includes [[tropical and subtropical coniferous forests]], a [[freshwater swamp forest]], and mixed deciduous forests. The southeastern [[Chittagong Division|Chittagong region]] covers evergreen and semi-evergreen hilly jungles. Central Bangladesh includes the plainland Sal forest running along with the districts of Gazipur, [[Tangail]] and [[Mymensingh]]. [[St. Martin's Island]] is the only [[coral reef]] in the country.
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Bangladesh has an abundance of [[Wildlife in Bangladesh|wildlife]] in its forests, marshes, woodlands and hills.<ref name="global.britannica.com"/> The vast majority of animals dwell within a habitat of 150,000&nbsp;km<sup>2</sup> .<ref>{{cite news |author1=Soraya Auer |author2=Anika Hossain |date=7 July 2012 |title=Lost Wards of the State |url=http://archive.thedailystar.net/magazine/2012/07/01/cover.htm|work=The Daily Star|access-date=14 February 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150214120509/http://archive.thedailystar.net/magazine/2012/07/01/cover.htm |archive-date=14 February 2015 |url-status=live}}</ref> The [[Bengal tiger]], [[clouded leopard]], [[saltwater crocodile]], [[black panther]] and [[fishing cat]] are among the chief predators in the Sundarbans.<ref>{{cite book|author=Peter Haggett|title=Encyclopedia of World Geography|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=IROIY4ONOSEC&pg=PA2620|year=2001|publisher=Marshall Cavendish|isbn=978-0-7614-7289-6|page=2620|access-date=20 January 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170214215721/https://books.google.com/books?id=IROIY4ONOSEC&pg=PA2620|archive-date=14 February 2017|url-status=live}}</ref> Northern and eastern Bangladesh is home to the [[Asian elephant]], [[hoolock gibbon]], [[Asian black bear]] and [[oriental pied hornbill]].<ref name="bearprojectbd.weebly.com">{{cite web|url=http://bearprojectbd.weebly.com/bears-in-bangladesh.html|title=Bears in Bangladesh|website=Bangladesh Bear Project|access-date=14 February 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150214061240/http://bearprojectbd.weebly.com/bears-in-bangladesh.html|archive-date=14 February 2015|url-status=live}}</ref>
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The [[Chital]] deer are widely seen in southwestern woodlands. Other animals include the [[black giant squirrel]], [[capped langur]], [[Bengal fox]], [[sambar deer]], [[jungle cat]], [[king cobra]], [[wild boar]], [[mongoose]]s, [[pangolin]]s, [[Python (genus)|pythons]] and [[Asian water monitor|water monitors]]. Bangladesh has one of the largest populations of [[Irrawaddy dolphins]] and [[South Asian river dolphin|Ganges dolphins]]. A 2009 census found 6,000 Irrawaddy dolphins inhabiting the littoral rivers of Bangladesh.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/03/090331-dolphins-found.html|title=6,000 Rare, Large River Dolphins Found in Bangladesh|work=National Geographic|date=March 2009|access-date=13 February 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141012093653/http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/03/090331-dolphins-found.html|archive-date=12 October 2014|url-status=live}}</ref> The country has numerous species of [[amphibian]]s (53), reptiles (139), [[marine reptile]]s (19) and [[marine mammal]]s (5). It also has [[List of birds of Bangladesh|628 species of birds]].<ref>{{cite news |last1=Hossain |first1=Muhammad Selim |date=23 May 2009 |title=Conserving biodiversity must for survival |url=http://archive.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=89375 |work=The Daily Star |access-date=30 May 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150530100603/http://archive.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=89375 |archive-date=30 May 2015 |url-status=live}}</ref>
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Several animals became extinct in Bangladesh during the last century, including the one-horned and two-horned [[rhinoceros]] and common [[peafowl]]. The human population is concentrated in urban areas, limiting deforestation to a certain extent. Rapid urban growth has threatened natural habitats. Although many areas are protected under law, some Bangladeshi wildlife is threatened by this growth. Furthermore, access to [[biocapacity]] in Bangladesh is low. In 2016, Bangladesh had 0.4 global hectares<ref name=GFN>{{cite web|url=http://data.footprintnetwork.org/#/countryTrends?cn=16&type=BCpc,EFCpc|title=Country Trends|publisher=Global Footprint Network|access-date=9 October 2019}}</ref> of biocapacity per person within its territory, or about one fourth of the world average. In contrast, in 2016, they used 0.84 global hectares of biocapacity – their [[ecological footprint]] of consumption. As a result, Bangladesh is running a biocapacity deficit.<ref name=GFN/>
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The [[Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act]] was enacted in 1995. The government has designated several regions as [[Ecologically Critical Area]]s, including wetlands, forests, and rivers. The [[Sundarbans tiger project]] and the Bangladesh Bear Project are among the key initiatives to strengthen conservation.<ref name="bearprojectbd.weebly.com"/>
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==Politics and government==
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{{Main|Politics of Bangladesh|Government of Bangladesh}}
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[[File:Bangabhaban.jpg|thumb|[[Bangabhaban]], the official residence of the [[President of Bangladesh]], was built in 1905 during the [[British Raj]] for use by the [[Viceroy of India]] and the [[List of governors of Bengal Presidency|Governor of Bengal]].]]
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Bangladesh is a ''[[de jure]]'' [[representative democracy]] under its [[Constitution of Bangladesh|constitution]], with a [[Westminster system|Westminster]]-style [[unitary authority|unitary]] [[parliamentary republic]] that has [[universal suffrage]]. The head of government is the Prime Minister, who is invited to form a government every five years. The President invites the leader of the largest party in parliament to become Prime Minister of the world's fifth-largest democracy.<ref>{{Cite news |title=Is Bangladesh becoming an autocracy? |url=https://www.dw.com/en/is-bangladesh-becoming-an-autocracy/a-43151970 |work=Deutsche Welle |date=27 March 2018 |access-date=15 August 2019}}</ref> Bangladesh experienced a [[two party system]] between 1990 and 2014, when the [[Awami League]] and the [[Bangladesh Nationalist Party]] (BNP) alternated in power. During this period, elections were managed by a neutral [[Caretaker government of Bangladesh|caretaker government]]. But the caretaker government was abolished by the Awami League government in 2011. The BNP boycotted the next election in 2014, arguing that it would not be fair without a caretaker government. The BNP-led [[Jatiya Oikya Front]] participated in the 2018 election. The election saw many allegations of irregularities.
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One of the key aspects of Bangladeshi politics is the "spirit of the liberation war", which refers to the ideals of the liberation movement during the [[Bangladesh Liberation War]].<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/spirit-of-liberation-war-17307|title=Spirit of Liberation War|date=26 March 2014|work=The Daily Star|access-date=15 August 2019}}</ref> The Proclamation of Independence enunciated the values of "equality, human dignity and social justice". In 1972, the constitution included a [[bill of rights]] and declared "nationalism, socialism, democracy and [[secularity]]" as the principles of government policy. Socialism was later de-emphasised and neglected by successive governments. Bangladesh has a market-based economy. To many Bangladeshis, especially in the younger generation, the spirit of the liberation war is a vision for a society based on civil liberties, human rights, the rule of law and good governance.<ref>{{Cite news |last=Sobhan|first=Rehman|url=https://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-216327|title=The Spirit of the Liberation War|date=31 December 2011|work=The Daily Star|access-date=7 October 2019}}</ref>
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===Executive branch===
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[[File:The Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi and the Prime Minister of Bangladesh, Ms. Sheikh Hasina at the delegation-level talks, in Dhaka, Bangladesh on June 06, 2015.jpg|thumb|Indian Prime Minister [[Narendra Modi]] during bilateral talks with Bangladeshi Prime Minister [[Sheikh Hasina]] at the [[Prime Minister's Office (Bangladesh)|Prime Minister's Office]] in Dhaka]]
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The [[Government of Bangladesh]] is overseen by a [[Cabinet of Bangladesh|cabinet]] headed by the [[Prime Minister of Bangladesh]]. The tenure of a parliamentary government is five years. The [[Bangladesh Civil Service]] assists the cabinet in running the government. Recruitment for the civil service is based on a public examination. In theory, the civil service should be a meritocracy. But a disputed quota system coupled with politicisation and preference for seniority have allegedly affected the civil service's meritocracy.<ref>{{cite magazine |url= https://thediplomat.com/2013/08/no-meritocracy-bangladeshs-civil-service/|last=Kabir|first=A.|title=No Meritocracy: Bangladesh's Civil Service|magazine=The Diplomat|date=12 August 2013|access-date=9 October 2019}}</ref> The [[President of Bangladesh]] is the ceremonial head of state<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.commonwealthofnations.org/sectors-bangladesh/government/president/|title=President|publisher=The Nexus Commonwealth Network|access-date=10 October 2019}}</ref> whose powers include signing bills passed by parliament into law. The President is elected by the parliament and has a five-year term. Under the constitution, the president acts on the prime minister's advice. The President is the Supreme Commander of the Bangladesh Armed Forces and the chancellor of all universities.
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===Legislative branch===
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[[File:National Assembly of Bangladesh (জাতীয় সংসদ ভবন).jpg|thumb|The [[Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban|National Parliament]] of Bangladesh]]
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The [[Jatiya Sangshad]] (National Parliament) is the [[unicameral]] parliament. It has 350 [[Member of parliament|Members of Parliament]] (MPs), including 300 MPs elected on the [[first past the post]] system and 50 MPs appointed to reserved seats for [[women's empowerment]]. [[Article 70 of the Constitution of Bangladesh]] forbids MPs from voting against their party. However, several laws proposed independently by MPs have been transformed into legislation, including the anti-torture law.<ref>{{Cite news |url=http://www.newagebd.net/article/32228/amendment-to-anti-torture-law-to-hinder-hr-protection-says-ask|title=Amendment to anti-torture law to hinder HR protection, says ASK |work=New Age |access-date=15 August 2019}}</ref> The parliament is presided over by the [[Speaker of the Jatiya Sangsad]], who is second in line to the president as per the constitution. There is also a Deputy Speaker. When a president is incapable of performing duties (i.e. due to illness), the Speaker steps in as [[Acting President]] and the Deputy Speaker becomes Acting Speaker. A recurring proposal suggests that the Deputy Speaker should be an opposition member.<ref>{{cite news|last=Shahid|first=S. A.|url=https://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-71818|title=Deputy speaker from opposition, no chance for war criminals|date=18 January 2019|work=The Daily Star|access-date=14 October 2019}}</ref>
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===Legal system===
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{{Main|Laws in Bangladesh}}
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[[File:Bangladesh Supreme Court.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Long, white, domed building|[[Supreme Court of Bangladesh|The Supreme Court of Bangladesh]]]]
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The [[Supreme Court of Bangladesh]] is the highest court of the land, followed by the [[High Court Division|High Court]] and Appellate Divisions. The head of the judiciary is the [[Chief Justice of Bangladesh]], who sits on the Supreme Court. The courts have wide latitude in [[judicial review in Bangladesh|judicial review]], and judicial [[precedent]] is supported by Article 111 of the constitution. The [[Judiciary of Bangladesh|judiciary]] includes district and metropolitan courts divided into civil and criminal courts. Due to a shortage of judges, the judiciary has a large backlog. The [[Bangladesh Judicial Service Commission]] is responsible for judicial appointments, salaries, and discipline.
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Bangladesh's legal system is based on [[common law]] and its principal source of laws are [[acts of Parliament]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nyulawglobal.org/globalex/Bangladesh.html|first=Omar|last=Sial|title=A Research Guide to the Legal System of the Peoples' Republic of Bangladesh|website=[[GlobaLex]]|date=October 2008|access-date=27 April 2015}}</ref> The [[Bangladesh Code]] includes a list of all laws in force in the country. The code began in 1836, and most of its listed laws were crafted under the [[British Raj]] by the [[Bengal Legislative Council]], the [[Bengal Legislative Assembly]], the [[Eastern Bengal and Assam Legislative Council]], the [[Imperial Legislative Council]] and the [[Parliament of the United Kingdom]]. One example is the [[The Penal Code, 1860 (Bangladesh)|1860 Penal Code]]. From 1947 to 1971, laws were enacted by Pakistan's [[National Assembly of Pakistan|national assembly]] and the [[East Pakistan Provincial Assembly|East Pakistani legislature]]. The [[Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh]] was the country's provisional parliament until 1973 when the first elected Jatiyo Sangshad (National Parliament) was sworn in. Although most of Bangladesh's laws were compiled in English, after a 1987 government directive, laws are now primarily written in [[Bengali language|Bengali]]. While most Bangladeshi law is [[secular]]; marriage, divorce, and inheritance are governed by [[Sharia|Islamic]], [[Hindu law|Hindu]] and Christian [[family law]]. Legal developments often influence the judiciary in the [[Commonwealth of Nations]], such as the [[Legitimate expectation|doctrine of legitimate expectation]]. The constitution includes a list of [[fundamental rights]] inspired by the [[Universal Declaration of Human Rights]] and was drafted by leading lawyer [[Kamal Hossain]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://legal.un.org/avl/ls/Hossain_HR.html|title=Lecture Series – Dr. Kamal Hossain|publisher=United Nations|access-date=15 August 2019}}</ref> In the 1970s, judges invalidated detentions under the [[Special Powers Act, 1974]] through cases such as ''[[Aruna Sen v. Government of Bangladesh]]'' and ''[[Abdul Latif Mirza v. Government of Bangladesh]]''.  In 2008, the Supreme Court paved the way for citizenship for the [[Stranded Pakistanis]], who were an estimated 300,000 stateless people.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.unhcr.org/news/latest/2015/2/54ec22869/bangladesh-court-ruling-changed-lives-300000-stateless-people.html|title=How a Bangladesh court ruling changed the lives of more than 300,000 stateless people|last=Refugees|first=United Nations High Commissioner for|website=UNHCR|access-date=15 August 2019}}</ref> Despite being a non-signatory of the UN Refugee Convention, Bangladesh has taken in [[Rohingya]] refugees since 1978 and the country is now home to a million refugees. Bangladesh is an active member of the [[International Labour Organization]] (ILO) since 1972. It has ratified 33 ILO conventions, including the seven fundamental ILO conventions.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.ilo.org/dhaka/Areasofwork/international-labour-standards/lang--en/index.htm|title=International labour standards in Bangladesh (ILO in Bangladesh)|website=ilo.org|access-date=15 August 2019}}</ref> Bangladesh has ratified the [[International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights]] and the [[International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://treaties.un.org/Pages/ViewDetails.aspx?chapter=4&clang=_en&mtdsg_no=IV-4&src=IND#EndDec|title=United Nations Treaty Collection|publisher=United Nations|access-date=15 August 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://treaties.un.org/pages/ViewDetails.aspx?src=IND&mtdsg_no=IV-3&chapter=4&lang=en|title=United Nations Treaty Collection|publisher=United Nations|access-date=15 August 2019}}</ref> [[Judicial activism]] has often upheld human rights.
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===Military===
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{{Main|Bangladesh Armed Forces}}
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[[File:BangladeshMilitaryUN PeacekeepingForce.jpg|thumb|alt=World map, indicating where the Bangladeshi UN peacekeeping force is stationed|Map of [[Bangladesh UN Peacekeeping Force]] deployments]]
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[[File:BNS *Bangabandhu* (F25) and BNS Umar Farooq (F16) near Saint Martins Island. Photo was Taken by Mohammad Saadman while returning from Saint Martins.jpg|thumb|left|[[BNS Bangabandhu]] and [[BNS Umar Farooq]] near [[St. Martin's Island]]]]
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The Bangladesh Armed Forces have inherited the institutional framework of the [[British military]] and the [[British Indian Army]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://press-files.anu.edu.au/downloads/press/p33231/mobile/ch07.html|title=The Military and Democracy in Bangladesh|website=press-files.anu.edu.au|access-date=19 September 2017}}</ref> It was formed in 1971 from the military regiments of East Pakistan. In 2018, the active personnel strength of the [[Bangladesh Army]] was around 157,500,<ref name="IISS">*{{cite book| title=The Military Balance 2018| author1=International Institute for Strategic Studies| author-link1=International Institute for Strategic Studies| date=14 February 2018| publisher=[[Routledge]]| location=[[London]]| isbn=978-1-85743-955-7| ref=IISS2018}}</ref> excluding the Air Force and the Navy (24,000).<ref>Including service and civilian personnel. See [https://web.archive.org/web/20120112044228/http://www.bangladeshnavy.org/glance.html Bangladesh Navy]. Retrieved 17 July 2007.</ref> In addition to traditional defence roles, the military has supported civil authorities in disaster relief and provided internal security during periods of political unrest. For many years, Bangladesh has been the world's largest contributor to [[United Nations peacekeeping|UN peacekeeping forces]]. In February 2015, the country made major deployments to [[Cote d'Ivoire|Côte d'Ivoire]], [[Cyprus]], [[Darfur]], the [[Democratic Republic of Congo]], the [[Golan Heights]], [[Haiti]], [[Lebanon]], [[Liberia]] and [[South Sudan]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.afd.gov.bd/index.php/un-peacekeeping/ongoing-operations|title=Ongoing Operations|author=Armed Forces Division|website=afd.gov.bd|access-date=16 February 2015|archive-date=30 January 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150130162539/http://www.afd.gov.bd/index.php/un-peacekeeping/ongoing-operations|url-status=dead}}</ref>
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The [[Bangladesh Navy]] is one of the largest navies among the [[countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal]], including a fleet of [[guided-missile frigate]]s, [[submarine]]s, [[Cutter (boat)|cutters]] and aircraft. The [[Bangladesh Air Force]] is equipped with several Russian multi-role fighter jets. Bangladesh cooperates defensively with the [[United States Armed Forces]], participating in the [[Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training]] (CARAT) exercises. Ties between the Bangladeshi and the [[Indian military]] exist with high-level visits by the military chiefs of both countries.<ref>{{cite news |title=New Indian army chief General Bipin Rawat coming to Bangladesh Friday |url=http://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2017/03/29/new-indian-army-chief-general-bipin-rawat-coming-to-bangladesh-friday |work=bdnews24.com |access-date=19 September 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite magazine |url=https://www.outlookindia.com/website/story/what-can-be-expected-from-the-india-bangladesh-defence-deal/298328|title=What Can Be Expected From The India-Bangladesh Defence Deal?|magazine=Outlook India|access-date=19 September 2017}}</ref> Most of Bangladesh's military equipment comes from China.<ref>{{cite news |last=Balachandran |first=P.K. |date=12 April 2017 |title=Rivals India and China woo Bangladesh with aid totalling $46 b |url=http://www.ft.lk/article/609166/Rivals-India-and-China-woo-Bangladesh-with-aid-totalling---46-b |work=[[Daily FT]] |location=Colombo}}</ref> In 2019, Bangladesh ratified the UN [[Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons]].<ref>{{cite news |title=Bangladesh ratifies nuclear weapons prohibition treaty |url=https://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/government-affairs/2019/09/28/bangladesh-ratifies-nuclear-weapons-prohibition-treaty |work=Dhaka Tribune |date=28 September 2020}}</ref>
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===Foreign relations===
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{{Main|Foreign relations of Bangladesh}}
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[[File:1st Saarc summit.jpg|thumb|alt=Leaders seated at a dais|First South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation ([[South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation|SAARC]]) meeting in 1985 in [[Dhaka]] (''l-r, top row'': the presidents of [[Pakistan]] and the [[Maldives]], the king of [[Bhutan]], the president of Bangladesh, the prime minister of [[India]], the king of [[Nepal]] and the president of [[Sri Lanka]])]]
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The first major intergovernmental organisation joined by Bangladesh was the [[Commonwealth of Nations]] in 1972. The country joined the [[United Nations]] in 1974 and has been elected twice to the [[UN Security Council]]. Ambassador [[Humayun Rashid Choudhury]] was elected president of the [[UN General Assembly]] in 1986. Bangladesh relies on [[multilateralism|multilateral]] diplomacy in the [[World Trade Organization]]. It is a major contributor to [[UN peacekeeping]], providing 113,000 personnel to 54 UN missions in the Middle East, the Balkans, Africa and the Caribbean in 2014.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.afd.gov.bd/index.php/un-peacekeeping/bangladesh-in-un-mission|title=Bangladesh in UN Mission|author=Armed Forces Division|publisher=afd.gov.bd|access-date=28 January 2015|archive-date=30 January 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150130122910/http://www.afd.gov.bd/index.php/un-peacekeeping/bangladesh-in-un-mission|url-status=dead}}</ref>
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In addition to membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations, Bangladesh pioneered regional co-operation in South Asia. Bangladesh is a founding member of the [[South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation]] (SAARC), an organisation designed to strengthen relations and promote economic and cultural growth among its members. It has hosted several summits, and two Bangladeshi diplomats were the organisation's secretary-general.
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Bangladesh joined the [[Organisation of Islamic Cooperation]] (OIC) in 1973. It has hosted the summit of OIC foreign ministers, which addresses issues, conflicts and disputes affecting [[Muslim world|Muslim-majority countries]]. Bangladesh is a founding member of the [[Developing 8 Countries]], a bloc of eight Muslim-majority republics.
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[[File:Special Presidential Envoy for Climate John Kerry Visits Bangladesh (51104953309).png|thumb|[[U.S. Special Presidential Envoy for Climate]] [[John Kerry]] meeting Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina at her residence in Dhaka in April 2021]]
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The neighbouring country of [[Myanmar]] (Burma) was one of the first countries to recognise Bangladesh.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Foreign_Policy|title=Foreign Policy|website=Banglapedia|access-date=19 September 2017}}</ref> Despite common regional interests, Bangladesh-Myanmar relations have been strained by the [[Rohingya genocide|Rohingya refugee crisis]] and the isolationist policies of the Myanmar military. In 2012, both countries came to terms at the [[International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea]] over maritime boundaries in the Bay of Bengal.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.internationallawobserver.eu/2012/03/15/judgment-in-bangladesh-myanmar-maritime-boundary-dispute/|title=Judgment in Bangladesh-Myanmar Maritime Boundary Dispute – International Law Observer – A blog dedicated to reports, commentary and the discussion of topical issues of international law|website=internationallawobserver.eu|access-date=19 September 2017|archive-date=6 October 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171006025326/http://www.internationallawobserver.eu/2012/03/15/judgment-in-bangladesh-myanmar-maritime-boundary-dispute/|url-status=dead}}</ref> In 2016 and 2017, relations with Myanmar have strained once again as over 700,000 [[Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh|Rohingya refugees]] illegally entered Bangladesh fleeing persecution, ethnic cleansing, genocide, and other atrocities in Myanmar. The parliament, government, and civil society of Bangladesh have been at the forefront of [[International reaction to the 2016–17 Rohingya exodus|international criticism]] against Myanmar for military operations against the Rohingya, which the [[United Nations]] has described as [[ethnic cleansing]].<ref>{{cite news |last=Alam |first=Julhas |date=16 September 2017 |title=Bangladesh accuses Myanmar of violating its airspace |url=http://www.dailypress.com/news/nationworld/sns-bc-as--myanmar-attacks-20170916-story.html |work=[[Daily Press (Virginia)|Daily Press]] |agency=Associated Press |access-date=19 September 2017 |archive-date=3 October 2017 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171003225209/http://www.dailypress.com/news/nationworld/sns-bc-as--myanmar-attacks-20170916-story.html |url-status=dead }}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/sep/11/un-myanmars-treatment-of-rohingya-textbook-example-of-ethnic-cleansing|title=Myanmar treatment of Rohingya looks like 'textbook ethnic cleansing', says UN|first=Michael|last=Safi|date=11 September 2017|work=The Guardian|access-date=19 September 2017}}</ref>
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Bangladesh's most politically important bilateral relationship is with neighbouring [[India]]. In 2015, major Indian newspapers called Bangladesh a "trusted friend".<ref>{{cite news |date=8 June 2015 |title=Indian papers back strong ties with 'trusted friend' Bangladesh |url=https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-33044181 |work=BBC News}}</ref> Bangladesh and India are South Asia's largest trading partners. The countries are collaborating in regional economic and infrastructure projects, such as a regional motor-vehicle agreement in [[eastern South Asia]] and a coastal shipping agreement in the [[Bay of Bengal]]. [[Bangladesh-India relations|Indo-Bangladesh relations]] often emphasise a shared cultural heritage, democratic values and a history of support for [[Bangladesh Liberation War|Bangladeshi independence]]. Despite political goodwill, [[Deaths along the Bangladesh–India border|border killings of Bangladeshi civilians]] and the lack of a comprehensive water-sharing agreement for 54 transboundary rivers are major issues. In 2017, India joined Russia and China in refusing to condemn Myanmar's atrocities against the [[Rohingya]], which contradicted with Bangladesh's demand for recognising Rohingya human rights.<ref>{{cite news |author=Mahfuz Anam |date=9 September 2017 |title=Rohingya crisis: A concern for the region |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/opinion/asian-editors-circle/rohingya-crisis-concern-the-region-1459393 |work=The Daily Star |type=Opinion |access-date=19 September 2017}}</ref> However, the Indian air force delivered aid shipments for Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh.<ref>{{cite news |title=Rohingya aid from India, Morocco, Indonesia arrives |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/country/morocco-sends-rohingya-aid-indian-relief-arrive-bangladesh-myanmar-1462063 |work=The Daily Star |date=14 September 2017 |access-date=19 September 2017}}</ref> The crackdown against cattle smuggling in India has also affected Bangladesh. The Bangladeshi [[beef]] and [[leather]] industries have seen increased prices due to the Indian [[Bharatiya Janata Party|BJP]] government's campaign against the export of beef and cattle skin.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/us-india-cattle-bangladesh-feature/indias-push-to-save-its-cows-starves-bangladesh-of-beef-idUSKCN0PC2OW20150702|title=India's push to save its cows starves Bangladesh of beef|date=2 July 2015|work=Reuters|access-date=19 September 2017}}</ref>
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Pakistan and Bangladesh have a US$550 million trade relationship,<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.dhakachamber.com/Bilateral/Pakistan-Bangladesh%20Bilateral%20Trade%20Statistics.pdf|title=Bangladesh-Pakistan Bilateral Trade Statistics|website=Dhaka Chamber of Commerce & Industry|access-date=19 September 2017|archive-date=12 March 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170312072450/https://www.dhakachamber.com/Bilateral/Pakistan-Bangladesh%20Bilateral%20Trade%20Statistics.pdf|url-status=dead}}</ref> particularly in Pakistani [[cotton]] imports for the Bangladeshi textile industry. Although Bangladeshi and Pakistani businesses have invested in each other, diplomatic relations are strained because of Pakistani denial of the [[1971 Bangladesh genocide]]. The execution of a [[Jamaat-e-Islami]] leader in 2013 on committing of [[1971 Bangladesh genocide|war crimes]] during the liberation war was opposed in Pakistan and led to further strained ties.<ref>{{cite news |last=Chowdhury |first=Syed Tashfin |date=22 December 2013 |title=Pakistan-Bangladesh relationship strained |url=http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2013/12/pakistan-bangladesh-relationship-strained-2013122210285955448.html |work=Al Jazeera |access-date=29 July 2015}}</ref>
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[[Bangladesh-China relations|Sino-Bangladesh relations]] date to the 1950s and are relatively warm, despite the Chinese leadership siding with Pakistan during Bangladesh's war of independence. China and Bangladesh established bilateral relations in 1976, which have significantly strengthened, and the country is considered a cost-effective source of arms for the Bangladeshi military.<ref>{{cite news |author=Sheikh Shahariar Zaman |date=18 March 2014 |title=China biggest arms supplier to Bangladesh |url=http://archive.dhakatribune.com/foreign-affairs/2014/mar/18/china-biggest-arms-supplier-bangladesh |work=Dhaka Tribune |access-date=19 September 2017 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170919045546/http://archive.dhakatribune.com/foreign-affairs/2014/mar/18/china-biggest-arms-supplier-bangladesh |archive-date=19 September 2017}}</ref> Since the 1980s 80 percent of Bangladesh's military equipment has been supplied by China (often with generous credit terms), and China is Bangladesh's largest trading partner. Both countries are part of the [[BCIM Forum]].
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Japan is Bangladesh's largest economic-aid provider in the form of loans and the countries have common political goals.<ref name="books.google.com.bd"/><ref>Hasib, Nurul Islam (1 February 2015) [http://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2015/02/01/first-bangladesh-japan-foreign-secretary-level-talks-on-feb-5 First Bangladesh-Japan foreign secretary-level talks on Feb 5]. bdnews24.com. Retrieved 27 April 2015.</ref> The [[United Kingdom]] has longstanding [[Bangladesh-United Kingdom relations|economic, cultural and military links]] with Bangladesh. The United States is a major [[Bangladesh-United States relations|economic and security partner]], its largest export market and foreign investor. Seventy-six percent of [[Bangladeshis]] viewed the United States favourably in 2014, one of the highest ratings among [[Asia]]n countries.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pewglobal.org/2014/07/14/chapter-4-how-asians-view-each-other/|title=Chapter 4: How Asians View Each Other|date=14 July 2014|website=pewglobal.org|access-date=19 September 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://2009-2017.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3452.htm|title=Bangladesh|website=state.gov|access-date=19 September 2017}}</ref> The United States views Bangladesh as a key partner in the [[Indo-Pacific]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2019/04/290979.htm|title=Secretary Pompeo's Meeting With Bangladesh Foreign Minister A.K. Abdul Momen|date=2019-04-08|access-date=2021-03-20|website=U.S. Department of State|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190409144246/https://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2019/04/290979.htm|archive-date=2019-04-09|url-status=dead}}</ref> The [[European Union]] is Bangladesh's largest regional market, conducting [[public diplomacy]] and providing development assistance.
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Relations with other countries are generally positive. Shared democratic values ease relations with Western countries and similar economic concerns forge ties to other [[developing countries]]. Despite poor working conditions and war affecting overseas [[Bangladeshis in the Middle East|Bangladeshi workers]], relations with [[Middle East]]ern countries are friendly and bounded by religion and culture. More than a million Bangladeshis are employed in the region. In 2016, the [[king of Saudi Arabia]] called Bangladesh "one of the most important Muslim countries".<ref>{{cite news |author=Rezaul Karim |date=11 June 2016 |title=Saudi wants active role of Bangladesh |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/frontpage/saudi-wants-active-role-bangladesh-1237837 |work=The Daily Star}}</ref> However, Bangladesh has not established diplomatic relationship with [[Bangladesh–Israel relations|Israel]]<ref>{{Cite news |title = B'desh should not establish ties with Israel: Experts|url = http://zeenews.india.com/news/south-asia/bdesh-should-not-establish-ties-with-israel-experts_651483.html |work=Zee News |access-date = 21 June 2015|date = 29 August 2010}}</ref> in support of a sovereign [[Proposals for a Palestinian state|Palestinian state]] and "an end to Israel's illegal occupation of Palestine".<ref name="mofabd">{{cite web|title=Statement by Her Excellency Ms. Dipu Moni, Minister for Foreign Affairs of Bangladesh |url=http://www.mofa.gov.bd/Statement/PRDetails.php?PRid=20 |publisher=Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Dhaka |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131224114515/http://www.mofa.gov.bd/Statement/PRDetails.php?PRid=20 |archive-date=24 December 2013}}</ref>
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Bangladeshi aid agencies work in many developing countries. An example is [[BRAC (NGO)|BRAC]] in [[Afghanistan]], which benefits 12 million people in that country.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.centcom.mil/en/about-centcom-en/coalition-countries-en/bangladesh|title= Bangladesh|publisher=U.S. Central Command |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140814163148/http://www.centcom.mil/en/about-centcom-en/coalition-countries-en/bangladesh |archive-date=14 August 2014}}</ref> Bangladesh has a record of [[nuclear nonproliferation]] as a party to the [[Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty]] (NPT) and the [[Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty]] (CTBT),<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.indepthnews.net/index.php/nuclear-abolition/488-bangladesh-opting-for-peace-rather-than-nuclear-arms|title=Bangladesh Opting for Peace Rather Than Nuclear Arms |first=Naimul|last=Haq|website=IDN-InDepthNews|access-date=19 September 2017}}</ref> and is also a member of [[Non-Aligned Movement]] since 1973. It is a state party to the [[Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court]]. Bangladeshi foreign policy is influenced by the principle of "friendship to all and malice to none", first articulated by Bengali statesman [[H. S. Suhrawardy]] in 1957.<ref name="books.google.com.bd">{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=jSgfLG3Ib9wC&pg=PA520|title=Changing Security Dynamic in Eastern Asia|website=google.com.bd|access-date=3 December 2015|isbn=978-81-86019-52-8|last1=Sisodia|first1=N.S.|last2=Naidu|first2=G.V.C.|year=2005}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author=Shamsul Huda Harun|title=The Making Of The Prime Minister H.S. Suhra Wardy Inan Anagram Polity 1947–1958|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=lf5tAAAAMAAJ|year=2001|publisher=Institute of Liberation Bangabandhu and Bangladesh Studies, National University|isbn=978-984-783-012-4}}</ref> Suhrawardy led East and West Pakistan to join the [[Southeast Asia Treaty Organization]], [[CENTO]] and the [[Regional Cooperation for Development]].
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===Civil society===
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Since the colonial period, Bangladesh has had a prominent [[civil society]]. There are various special interest groups, including [[non-governmental organisations]], human rights organisations, professional associations, [[chamber of commerce|chambers of commerce]], employers' associations and [[trade unions]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.bti-project.org/en/reports/country-reports/detail/itc/BGD/|title=Detail|website=bti-project.org|access-date=15 August 2019}}</ref> The [[National Human Rights Commission of Bangladesh]] was set up in 2007. Notable human rights organisations and initiatives include the [[Centre for Law and Mediation (Bangladesh)|Centre for Law and Mediation]], [[Odhikar]], the [[Alliance for Bangladesh Worker Safety]], the [[Bangladesh Environmental Lawyers Association]], the [[Bangladesh Hindu Buddhist Christian Unity Council]] and the [[War Crimes Fact Finding Committee]]. The world's largest international NGO [[BRAC (organisation)|BRAC]] is based in Bangladesh. There have been concerns regarding the shrinking space for independence civil society in recent years,<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://netra.news/2021/the-rise-and-fade-of-ngos-2357|title=The rise and fade of NGOs?|date=26 October 2021}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/internationaldevelopment/2021/10/25/bangladeshs-ngos-at-50-a-conversation-between-david-lewis-and-naomi-hossain/|title=Bangladesh's NGOs at 50: a conversation between David Lewis and Naomi Hossain|date=25 October 2021}}</ref> with commentators labelling the civil society movement dead under the authoritarianism of the Awami League.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.dhakatribune.com/op-ed/2021/12/30/is-our-civil-society-dead|title=Is our civil society dead?|website=www.dhakatribune.com}}</ref>
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===Human rights===
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{{Main|Human rights in Bangladesh}}
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[[File:Protest against War Crimes at Shahabag Square (8459696133).jpg|thumb|left|[[2013 Shahbag protests]] demanding the death penalty for the war criminals of the [[Bangladesh Liberation War|1971 war]]]]
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[[File:R.A.B.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=Armed men in black uniforms on a street|The [[Rapid Action Battalion]] has been sanctioned by the United States for human rights abuses]]
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[[Torture]] is banned by Article 35 (5) of the [[Constitution of Bangladesh]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/act-367/section-24583.html|title=The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh &#124; 35. Protection in respect of trial and punishment|website=bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd}}</ref> Despite this constitutional ban, torture is rampantly used by Bangladesh's security forces. Bangladesh joined the [[Convention against Torture]] in 1998; but it enacted its first anti-torture law, the [[Torture and Custodial Death (Prevention) Act]], in 2013. The first conviction under this law was announced in 2020.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.thedailystar.net/law-our-rights/news/jonnys-custodial-death-case-lessons-learned-the-verdict-1969413|title=Jonny's custodial death case: Lessons learned from the verdict|first=Ali|last=Mashraf|date=29 September 2020|website=The Daily Star}}</ref> Amnesty International [[Prisoner of conscience|Prisoners of Conscience]] from Bangladesh have included [[Saber Hossain Chowdhury]] and [[Shahidul Alam]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/asa13/9065/2018/en/|title=Bangladesh: Prisoner of conscience faces prolonged detention: Shahidul Alam|website=Amnesty International}}</ref><ref>https://www.amnesty.org/en/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/asa130022003en.pdf</ref>
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The [[Digital Security Act]] of 2018 has greatly reduced [[freedom of expression]] in Bangladesh, particularly on the internet. The Digital Security Act has been used to target critics of the government and bureaucracy. Newspaper editorials have been demanding the repeal of the Digital Security Act.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.dw.com/en/how-is-bangladeshs-digital-security-act-muzzling-free-speech/a-56762799|title=How is Bangladesh's Digital Security Act muzzling free speech? &#124; DW &#124; 03.03.2021|first=Deutsche|last=Welle (www.dw.com)|website=Deutsche Welle}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://carnegieendowment.org/2021/12/09/how-bangladesh-s-digital-security-act-is-creating-culture-of-fear-pub-85951|title=How Bangladesh's Digital Security Act Is Creating a Culture of Fear|first1=Ali|last1=Riaz|website=Carnegie Endowment for International Peace}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/asa13/4514/2021/en/|title=Bangladesh: Repeal the digital security act and end crackdown on freedom of expression online|website=Amnesty International}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.thedailystar.net/opinion/the-third-view/news/column-mahfuz-anam-why-individual-freedom-such-plaything-our-legal-system-2187881|title=Column by Mahfuz Anam: Why is individual freedom such a plaything in our legal system?|first=Mahfuz|last=Anam|date=1 October 2021|website=The Daily Star}}</ref>
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On [[International Human Rights Day]] in December 2021, the United States [[United States Department of the Treasury|Department of Treasury]] announced [[Economic sanctions|sanctions]] on commanders of the [[Rapid Action Battalion]] for extrajudicial killings, torture and other human rights abuses.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://home.treasury.gov/news/press-releases/jy0526|title=Treasury Sanctions Perpetrators of Serious Human Rights Abuse on International Human Rights Day|website=U.S. Department of the Treasury}}</ref> According to [[Freedom House]], "Bangladesh's ruling Awami League (AL) has consolidated political power through sustained harassment of the opposition and those perceived to be allied with it, as well as of critical media and voices in civil society. Corruption is a serious problem, and anticorruption efforts have been weakened by politicized enforcement. Due process guarantees are poorly upheld and security forces carry out a range of human right abuses with near impunity. The threat posed by Islamist extremists has receded since 2016, when the government enacted a harsh crackdown that saw the arrest of some 15,000 people".<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://freedomhouse.org/country/bangladesh|title=Bangladesh: Country Profile|website=Freedom House}}</ref> Bangladesh is ranked "partly free" in [[Freedom House]]'s ''[[Freedom in the World]]'' report,<ref>[https://freedomhouse.org/country/bangladesh Bangladesh]. Freedom House. Retrieved 27 April 2015.</ref> but its [[press freedom]] has deteriorated from "free" to "not free" in recent years due to increasing pressure from the government on the country's diverse, privately owned and once fiercely outspoken media.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/bangladesh|title=Bangladesh – Country report – Freedom in the World – 2016|website=freedomhouse.org|access-date=12 May 2016|date=27 January 2016|archive-date=10 June 2016|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160610020814/https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/bangladesh|url-status=dead}}</ref> According to the British [[Economist Intelligence Unit]], the country has a [[hybrid regime]]: the third of four rankings in its [[Democracy Index]].<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.sudestada.com.uy/Content/Articles/421a313a-d58f-462e-9b24-2504a37f6b56/Democracy-index-2014.pdf |title=Democracy Index 2014: Democracy and its discontents |newspaper=The Economist |via=Sudestada.com.uy}}</ref> Bangladesh was the third-most-peaceful South Asian country in the 2015 [[Global Peace Index]].<ref>{{cite news |title=Bangladesh 98th among 162 countries |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/bangladesh-98th-among-162-countries-37336 |work=The Daily Star |type=Op-ed |date=16 August 2014 |access-date=9 December 2015}}</ref> According to National Human Rights Commission, 70% of alleged human-rights violations are committed by law-enforcement agencies.<ref>{{cite web|url= http://www.dandc.eu/en/article/bangladeshs-crisis-civil-liberties-and-human-rights |title= Clashing ideologies |author= Ridwanul Hoque |publisher=D+C, development and cooperation|access-date=21 December 2015}}</ref> [[LGBT rights in Bangladesh|Homosexuality]] is outlawed by section 377 of the criminal code (a legacy of the colonial period), and is punishable by a maximum of life imprisonment.<ref>{{Cite news |author=Ashif Islam Shaon |date=27 April 2016 |title=Where does Bangladesh stand on homosexuality issue? |url=http://archive.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2016/apr/27/where-does-bangladesh-stand-homosexuality-issue |work=Dhaka Tribune |access-date=30 May 2017 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170605155955/http://archive.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2016/apr/27/where-does-bangladesh-stand-homosexuality-issue |archive-date=5 June 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |url=https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/bangladesh-authorities-arrest-27-men-gay-homosexuality-muslim-country-islam-police-charge-a7744366.html|title=Bangladesh authorities arrest 27 men on suspicion of being gay|work=[[The Independent]]|date=19 May 2017}}</ref> However, Bangladesh recognises the [[third gender]] and accords limited rights for [[transgender]] people.<ref>{{Cite magazine |url=https://thediplomat.com/2018/01/bangladesh-adds-third-gender-option-to-voter-forms/|title=Bangladesh Adds Third Gender Option to Voter Forms|last=Shakil Bin Mushtaq|magazine=The Diplomat|access-date=15 August 2019}}</ref>
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According to the 2016 Global Slavery Index, an estimated 1,531,300 people are enslaved in modern-day Bangladesh, or 0.95% of the population.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Kevin Bales|display-authors=etal|title=Bangladesh|url=https://www.globalslaveryindex.org/country/bangladesh/|website=The Global Slavery Index 2016|publisher=The Minderoo Foundation Pty Ltd|access-date=13 March 2018|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180313231120/https://www.globalslaveryindex.org/country/bangladesh/|archive-date=13 March 2018|url-status=dead}}</ref> A number of slaves in Bangladesh are forced to work in the fish and shrimp industries.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Bales|first1=Kevin|title=Blood and Earth: Modern Slavery, Ecocide, and the Secret to Saving the World|date=2016|publisher=Spiegel & Grau|location=New York|isbn=978-0-8129-9576-3|pages=71–97|edition=First}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|last1=Siddharth|first1=Kara|title=Bonded Labor: Tackling the System of Slavery in South Asia|date=2012|publisher=Columbia University Press|location=New York|pages=104–22}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last1=McGoogan|first1=Cara|last2=Rashid|first2=Muktadir|title=Satellites reveal 'child slave camps' in Unesco-protected park in Bangladesh|url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2016/10/23/satellites-reveal-child-slave-camps-in-unesco-protected-park-in/ |archive-url=https://ghostarchive.org/archive/20220110/https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2016/10/23/satellites-reveal-child-slave-camps-in-unesco-protected-park-in/ |archive-date=10 January 2022 |url-access=subscription |url-status=live|access-date=13 March 2018|work=The Telegraph|date=23 October 2016}}{{cbignore}}</ref>
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===Corruption===
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{{Main|Corruption in Bangladesh}}
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Like for many developing countries, institutional corruption is a serious concern for Bangladesh. Bangladesh was ranked 146th among 180 countries on [[Transparency International]]'s 2018 [[Corruption Perceptions Index]].<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.transparency.org/cpi2018/results|title=Corruption Perceptions Index 2018 – Transparency International|publisher=[[Transparency International]]|access-date=29 January 2017|archive-date=30 January 2019|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190130053429/https://www.transparency.org/cpi2018/results|url-status=dead}}</ref> According to survey conducted by the Bangladesh chapter of TI, in 2015, bribes made up 3.7 percent of the national budget.<ref name=":3">''[https://www.ti-bangladesh.org/beta3/images/2016/es_nhhs_16_en.pdf Corruption in Service Sectors: National Household Survey 2015]'', Transparency International Bangladesh, Dhaka, 2016, p. 1</ref> Land administration was the sector with the most bribery in 2015,<ref name=":3"/> followed by education,<ref>''[https://www.ti-bangladesh.org/beta3/images/2016/es_nhhs_16_en.pdf Corruption in Service Sectors: National Household Survey 2015]'', Transparency International Bangladesh, Dhaka, 2016, p. 12</ref> police<ref>
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''[https://www.ti-bangladesh.org/beta3/images/2016/es_nhhs_16_en.pdf Corruption in Service Sectors: National Household Survey 2015]'', Transparency International Bangladesh, Dhaka, 2016, p. 21</ref>
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and water supply.<ref>
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''[https://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/bribe/2009/08/bangladesh-a-dirty-deal-back-fires.html The Business of Bribes: Bangladesh: The Blowback of Corruption]'', Public Broadcasting Services, Arlington, Virginia, 2009</ref> The [[Anti Corruption Commission Bangladesh|Anti Corruption Commission]] was formed in 2004, and it was active during the [[2006–08 Bangladeshi political crisis]], indicting many leading politicians, bureaucrats and businessmen for [[Graft (politics)|graft]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.u4.no/publications/overview-of-corruption-and-anti-corruption-in-bangladesh/|title=Overview of corruption and anti-corruption in Bangladesh|website=U4|access-date=9 December 2015}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |title=ACC largely ineffective |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/acc-largely-ineffective-25194 |newspaper=The Daily Star |date=21 May 2014 |access-date=1 June 2016}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://govpoliju.com/anti-corruption-commission-and-political-government-an-evaluation-of-awami-league-regime-2009-2012/|title=Anti Corruption Commission and Political Government: An Evaluation of Awami League Regime (2009–2012) {{!}} Government and Politics, JU|website=govpoliju.com|access-date=1 June 2016|archive-date=18 November 2018|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181118035306/http://govpoliju.com/anti-corruption-commission-and-political-government-an-evaluation-of-awami-league-regime-2009-2012/|url-status=dead}}</ref>
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==Economy==
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{{Main|Economy of Bangladesh|List of companies of Bangladesh}}
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[[File:Padma Bridge 06.jpg|thumb|Construction of [[Padma Bridge]], the longest bridge on the Ganges, by [[China Railway Group Limited|China Major Bridge Engineering Co. Ltd]]. The bridge was designed by [[AECOM]].]]
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[[File:Gulshan, Dhaka (26079394923).jpg|thumb|Hotels and office blocks in an upmarket neighborhood of [[Dhaka]]]]
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Bangladesh has the world's [[List of countries by GDP (nominal)|33rd largest economy]] in terms of market [[exchange rates]] and [[List of countries by GDP (PPP)|29th largest]] in terms of [[purchasing power parity]], which ranks second in South Asia after India.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://cebr.com/welt-2019/|title=WELT 2019 {{!}} Centre for Economics and Business Research|website=cebr.com|access-date=15 August 2019}}</ref> Bangladesh is also one of the world's [[List of countries by real GDP growth rate|fastest-growing economies]] and one of the fastest growing middle-income countries.<ref name="worldbank.org">{{cite web | url=https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2018/10/02/economic-reforms-can-make-bangladesh-grow-faster |title = Economic Reforms Can Make Bangladesh Grow Faster}}</ref> The country has a market-based [[mixed economy]]. A [[developing nation]], Bangladesh is one of the [[Next Eleven]] [[emerging markets]]. According to the IMF, its per-capita income was {{US$|1,906|link=yes}} in 2019, with a [[Gross domestic product|GDP]] of $317 billion.<ref>{{cite web | url=https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2019/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=28&pr.y=7&sy=2017&ey=2021&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=513&s=NGDPD%2CPPPGDP%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPPC%2CPCPIPCH&grp=0&a= |title = Report for Selected Countries and Subjects}}</ref> Bangladesh has the second-highest [[List of countries by foreign exchange reserves|foreign-exchange reserves]] in South Asia (after India). The [[Bangladeshi diaspora]] contributed $15.31&nbsp;billion in [[Remittance to Bangladesh|remittances]] in 2015.<ref>{{cite news |title=Remittance hits record $15.31b |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/frontpage/remittance-hits-record-1531b-106567 |work=The Daily Star |date=3 July 2015 |access-date=25 December 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151226162121/http://www.thedailystar.net/frontpage/remittance-hits-record-1531b-106567 |archive-date=26 December 2015 |url-status=live}}</ref> Bangladesh's largest trading partners are the European Union, the United States, Japan, India, Australia, China and ASEAN. Expat workers in the Middle East and Southeast Asia send back a large chunk of remittances. The economy is driven by strong domestic demand.<ref name="worldbank.org"/>
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During its first five years of independence, Bangladesh adopted socialist policies. The subsequent military regime and BNP and Jatiya Party governments restored free markets and promoted the country's private sector. In 1991, finance minister [[Saifur Rahman (Bangladeshi politician)|Saifur Rahman]] introduced a programme of [[economic liberalisation]]. The Bangladeshi private sector has rapidly expanded, with a number of [[List of conglomerates in Bangladesh|conglomerates]] driving the economy. Major industries include textiles, [[pharmaceuticals]], shipbuilding, steel, electronics, energy, construction materials, chemicals, ceramics, food processing, and leather goods. [[Export-oriented industrialisation]] has increased with [[fiscal year]] 2018–19 exports increasing by 10.1% over the previous year to $40 billion.<ref name=bbbop>{{cite web |url=https://www.bb.org.bd/econdata/bop.php |title=Balance of payments [Annual Data] |work=Bangladesh Bank |access-date=5 December 2019}}</ref> Most export earnings are from the [[Bangladesh textile industry|garment-manufacturing industry]].
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However, an insufficient power supply is a significant obstacle to Bangladesh's economic development. According to the [[World Bank]], poor governance, corruption and weak public institutions are also major challenges.<ref name="worldbank-brief">{{cite web|url=http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/BANGLADESHEXTN/0,,menuPK:295769~pagePK:141132~piPK:141107~theSitePK:295760,00.html|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070915042712/http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/BANGLADESHEXTN/0%2C%2CmenuPK%3A295769~pagePK%3A141132~piPK%3A141107~theSitePK%3A295760%2C00.html |title=Bangladesh – Country Brief |archive-date=15 September 2007 |publisher=World Bank |access-date=17 December 2015 |url-status=dead}}</ref> In April 2010, [[Standard & Poor's]] gave Bangladesh a BB- long-term [[credit rating]], below India's but above those of Pakistan and Sri Lanka.<ref>{{cite news |title=Bangladesh Gets first Credit Rating |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-133282 |work=The Daily Star |date=7 April 2010 |access-date=7 April 2010 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160414221529/http://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-133282 |archive-date=14 April 2016 |url-status=live}}</ref>
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Bangladesh is the seventh-largest [[Natural gas in Bangladesh|natural gas producer]] in Asia, ahead of neighbouring Myanmar, and 56 percent of the country's electricity is generated by natural gas. Major gas fields are located in the northeastern (particularly Sylhet) and southern (including Barisal and Chittagong) regions. [[Petrobangla]] is the national energy company. The American multinational corporation [[Chevron Corporation|Chevron]] produces 50 percent of Bangladesh's natural gas.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.chevron.com/documents/pdf/bangladeshfactsheet.pdf|title=Bangladesh|author=Chevron Policy |author2=Government and Public Affairs|website=Chevron|access-date=23 January 2019|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160122101638/http://www.chevron.com/documents/pdf/bangladeshfactsheet.pdf|archive-date=22 January 2016|url-status=dead}}</ref> According to geologists, the Bay of Bengal contains large, untapped gas reserves in Bangladesh's [[exclusive economic zone]].<ref>{{cite magazine |author1=Jack Detsch |author2=The Diplomat |url=http://thediplomat.com/2014/11/bangladesh-asias-new-energy-superpower/ |title=Bangladesh: Asia's New Energy Superpower? |magazine=The Diplomat |access-date=17 December 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161229123448/http://thediplomat.com/2014/11/bangladesh-asias-new-energy-superpower/ |archive-date=29 December 2016 |url-status=live}}</ref> Bangladesh has substantial coal reserves, with several coal mines operating in the northwest.
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Jute exports remain significant, although the global jute trade has shrunk considerably since its World War II peak. Bangladesh has one of the world's oldest tea industries and is a major exporter of fish and seafood.
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Bangladesh's textile and [[Bangladeshi RMG Sector|ready-made garment]] industries are the country's largest manufacturing sector, with 2017 exports of $34.1 billion.<ref name=bbbop /> Leather-goods manufacturing, particularly footwear, is the second-largest export sector. The [[pharmaceutical industry in Bangladesh|pharmaceutical industry]] meets 97 percent of domestic demand, and exports to many countries.<ref>{{cite news |last=Hassan |first=Nazmul |date=26 March 2005 |title=Pharmaceutical Sector Growing Fast |url=http://www.arabnews.com/node/264387 |work=Arab News |access-date=30 September 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151001184603/http://www.arabnews.com/node/264387 |archive-date=1 October 2015 |url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.fiercepharmaasia.com/story/bangladeshs-drug-industry-meets-nearly-all-domestic-demand-eyes-exports/2015-02-13 |title=Bangladesh's drug industry meets nearly all domestic demand, eyes exports |last=Lane |first=EJ |date=13 February 2015 |website=Fierce Pharma Asia |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151001085409/http://www.fiercepharmaasia.com/story/bangladeshs-drug-industry-meets-nearly-all-domestic-demand-eyes-exports/2015-02-13 |archive-date=1 October 2015}}</ref> [[Shipbuilding in Bangladesh|Shipbuilding]] has grown rapidly, with exports to Europe.<ref>{{cite web |last=Lakshmi |first=Aiswarya |url=http://www.marinelink.com/news/shipbuilding-investments387313.aspx |title=Bangladesh Mulls Investments in Shipbuilding |publisher=Marinelink.com |date=10 March 2015 |access-date=17 December 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151222080308/http://www.marinelink.com/news/shipbuilding-investments387313.aspx |archive-date=22 December 2015 |url-status=live}}</ref>
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[[Steel industry in Bangladesh|Steel]] is concentrated in the port city of Chittagong, and the [[ceramics industry in Bangladesh|ceramics industry]] is prominent in international trade. In 2005 Bangladesh was the world's 20th-largest [[List of countries by cement production|cement]] producer, an industry dependent on [[limestone]] imports from [[northeast India]]. [[Food processing]] is a major sector, with local brands such as [[PRAN]] increasing their international presence. The [[Electronics industry in Bangladesh|electronics industry]] is growing rapidly with contributions from companies like the [[Walton Group]].<ref>{{cite news |title=Palak: Once Walton may turn into private Hi-Tech Park |url=http://www.dhakatribune.com/business/2015/10/15/palak-once-walton-may-turn-into-private-hi-tech-park/ |work=Dhaka Tribune |date=16 October 2015 |access-date=17 December 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171108202514/http://www.dhakatribune.com/business/2015/10/15/palak-once-walton-may-turn-into-private-hi-tech-park/ |archive-date=8 November 2017 |url-status=live}}</ref> Bangladesh's defense industry includes the [[Bangladesh Ordnance Factories]] and the [[Khulna Shipyard]].
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The service sector accounts for 51 percent of the country's GDP. Bangladesh ranks with Pakistan as South Asia's second-largest banking sector.<ref>{{cite news |author=Sajjadur Rahman |date=4 April 2014 |title=Bank assets go up on steady economic growth |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/bank-assets-go-up-on-steady-economic-growth-18701 |work=The Daily Star |access-date=17 December 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151222083459/http://www.thedailystar.net/bank-assets-go-up-on-steady-economic-growth-18701 |archive-date=22 December 2015 |url-status=live}}</ref> The [[Dhaka Stock Exchange|Dhaka]] and [[Chittagong Stock Exchange]]s are the country's twin financial markets. Bangladesh's [[Telecommunications in Bangladesh|telecommunications industry]] is one of the world's fastest-growing, with 171.854 million cellphone subscribers in January 2021,<ref>{{cite web|title=Mobile Phone Subscribers in Bangladesh January, 2021 {{!}} BTRC|url=http://www.btrc.gov.bd/content/mobile-phone-subscribers-bangladesh-january-2021|access-date=2021-12-24|website=www.btrc.gov.bd}}</ref> and [[Grameenphone]], [[Robi (company)|Robi]], [[Banglalink]] and [[TeleTalk]] respectively are major companies. [[Tourism in Bangladesh|Tourism]] is developing, with the beach resort of [[Cox's Bazar]] at the centre of the industry. The Sylhet region, home to Bangladesh's tea gardens, also hosts a large number of visitors. The country has [[List of World Heritage Sites in Bangladesh|three UNESCO World Heritage Sites]]<!-- I think the 3 are worth mentioning here. --> ([[Historic Mosque City of Bagerhat|the Mosque City]], [[Ruins of the Buddhist Vihara at Paharpur|the Buddhist Vihara]] and the [[Sundarbans]]) and five [[World Heritage Site#Nominating process|tentative-list]] sites.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/state=bd|title=Tentative Lists|access-date=6 September 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120806231331/https://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/state=bd|archive-date=6 August 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>
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Following the pioneering work of [[Akhter Hameed Khan]] on rural development at [[Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development]], several [[non-governmental organisation|NGOs]] in Bangladesh including [[BRAC (NGO)|BRAC]] (the world's largest NGO),<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.economist.com/node/15546464|title=BRAC in business|access-date=6 September 2017|date=18 February 2010|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170907075301/http://www.economist.com/node/15546464|archive-date=7 September 2017|url-status=live}}</ref> and [[Grameen Bank]], focused on rural development and poverty alleviation in the country. [[Muhammad Yunus]] successfully pioneered [[microfinance]] as a sustainable tool for poverty alleviation and others followed suit. As of 2015, the country had over 35&nbsp;million [[microcredit]] borrowers.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.inm.org.bd/statistics/2010/content_pre.pdf |title=Bangladesh Microfinance Statistics 2010 |access-date=14 December 2015 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151222154734/http://www.inm.org.bd/statistics/2010/content_pre.pdf |archive-date=22 December 2015}}</ref> In recognition of their tangible contribution to poverty alleviation, [[Muhammad Yunus]] and [[Grameen Bank]] were jointly awarded the [[Nobel Peace Prize]] in 2006.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2006/press.html|title=The Nobel Peace Prize for 2006|access-date=6 September 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061019130920/https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2006/press.html|archive-date=19 October 2006|url-status=live}}</ref>
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[[File:Picture of growing rice.jpg|thumb|Paddy fields dominate the country's farmland. Bangladesh is a top global producer of rice (3rd), potatoes (7th), tropical fruits (6th), jute (2nd), and farmed fish (5th).]]
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=== Agriculture ===
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{{Excerpt|Agriculture in Bangladesh|file=no|paragraphs=1,2}}
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===Transport===
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{{main|Transport in Bangladesh}}
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[[File:Boeing 777-3E9ER S2-AFO Bangladesh Biman Airlines (10497235545).jpg|thumb|A [[Boeing 777]] of the national [[flag carrier]] [[Biman Bangladesh Airlines]]]]
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Transport is a major sector of the economy. Aviation has grown rapidly and is dominated by the [[flag carrier]] [[Biman Bangladesh Airlines]] and other [[List of airlines of Bangladesh|privately owned airlines]]. Bangladesh has a [[List of airports in Bangladesh|number of airports]] including three international and several domestic [[STOL]] (short takeoff and landing) airports. The busiest, [[Shahjalal International Airport]] connects Dhaka with major destinations.
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Bangladesh has a {{convert|2706|km|mi|adj=on|abbr=off}} long rail network operated by the state-owned [[Bangladesh Railway]]. The total length of the country's [[List of roads in Bangladesh|road and highway network]] is nearly 21,000 kilometers (13,000 miles).
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With {{convert|8046|km|mi|abbr=off}} of navigable waters, Bangladesh has one of the largest inland [[waterway]] networks in the world.<ref>[http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/EXTSARREGTOPTRANSPORT/0,,contentMDK:20674801~menuPK:868784~pagePK:34004173~piPK:34003707~theSitePK:579598,00.html Transport – Bangladesh Transport Sector] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150107232728/http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/EXTSARREGTOPTRANSPORT/0,,contentMDK:20674801~menuPK:868784~pagePK:34004173~piPK:34003707~theSitePK:579598,00.html |date=7 January 2015}}. World Bank. Retrieved 27 April 2015.</ref> The southeastern port of Chittagong is its busiest seaport, handling over $60 billion in annual trade (more than 80 percent of the country's export-import commerce).<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.bbc.com/news/business-19462142|title=Bangladesh pins hope on Chittagong port|work=BBC News|date=4 September 2012|last1=Ethirajan|first1=Anbarasan|access-date=21 June 2018|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181015005709/https://www.bbc.com/news/business-19462142|archive-date=15 October 2018|url-status=live}}</ref> The second-busiest seaport is [[Port of Mongla|Mongla]]. Bangladesh has three [[seaport]]s and 22 [[river port]]s.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=River_Port|title=River Port |website=Banglapedia|access-date=19 September 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170907213902/http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=River_Port|archive-date=7 September 2017|url-status=live}}</ref>
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=== Energy and infrastructure ===
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{{Main|Energy in Bangladesh|Natural gas and petroleum in Bangladesh|Telecommunications in Bangladesh|Water supply and sanitation in Bangladesh}}{{Update section|date=December 2020}}[[File:বাংলাদেশের কয়লা ও গ্যাস ফিল্ড.png|thumb|alt=Map of Bangladesh, illustrating coal and gas deposits|Coal and natural-gas fields in Bangladesh, 2011]]
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Bangladesh had an installed electrical capacity of 20,000 megawatts in 2018, reaching 23,548 MW in 2020.<ref>{{cite news |url=https://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/2018/09/08/in-pictures-celebrating-20-000mw-of-power|title=In pictures: Celebrating 20,000MW of power|date=8 September 2018|work=Dhaka Tribune|access-date=4 January 2019}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|date=18 July 2020|title=Inept distribution turns surplus power useless|work=The Business Standard|url=https://tbsnews.net/bangladesh/energy/inept-distribution-turns-surplus-power-useless-107800}}</ref> About 56 percent of the country's commercial energy is generated by natural gas, followed by oil, [[hydropower]] and coal. Bangladesh has planned to import hydropower from [[Energy in Bhutan|Bhutan]] and [[Energy in Nepal|Nepal]].<ref>{{cite book |last=Lall |first=Marie |date=2009 |title=The Geopolitics of Energy in South Asia |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=x19tadW4iyAC&pg=PA143 |publisher=Institute of Southeast Asian Studies |page=143 |isbn=978-981-230-827-6 |access-date=14 May 2016 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170106064527/https://books.google.com/books?id=x19tadW4iyAC&pg=PA143 |archive-date=6 January 2017 |url-status=live}}</ref> A nuclear power plant is under construction with Russian support in the [[Ruppur Nuclear Power Plant]] project which will add 2160 MW when fully operational.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://www.themoscowtimes.com/business/article/rosatom-to-build-bangladeshs-first-nuclear-power-plant/487015.html |title=Rosatom to Build Bangladesh's First Nuclear Power Plant &#124; Business |work=The Moscow Times |date=3 October 2013 |access-date=17 December 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160219060839/http://www.themoscowtimes.com/business/article/rosatom-to-build-bangladeshs-first-nuclear-power-plant/487015.html |archive-date=19 February 2016 |url-status=live}}</ref> The country ranks fifth worldwide in the number of [[renewable energy]] [[green job]]s, and solar panels are increasingly used to power urban and off-grid rural areas.<ref>{{cite magazine |url=https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2014/05/why-a-green-jobs-boom-is-under-way-in-bangladesh/362087/|title=Why Green Jobs Are Booming in Bangladesh|author=Woody, Todd|date=12 May 2014|magazine=The Atlantic|access-date=5 March 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170206220058/https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2014/05/why-a-green-jobs-boom-is-under-way-in-bangladesh/362087/|archive-date=6 February 2017|url-status=live}}</ref>
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An estimated 98 percent of the country's population had access to [[improved water source]]s by 2004<ref name="JMP">* {{cite web|last1=World Health Organization |author-link1=World_Health_Organization |last2=UNICEF |title=Joint Monitoring Program |url=http://www.wssinfo.org |access-date=20 October 2010 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080216075751/http://www.wssinfo.org/ |archive-date=16 February 2008}}<br />Data are based on {{cite book|author = National Institute of Population Research and Training (Bangladesh) |author2=Mitra and Associates (Dhaka) |author3=ORC Macro. Measure/DHS+ (Programme) |title = Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, 2004|year= 2005|location = Dhaka}}</ref> (a high percentage for a low-income country), achieved largely through the construction of [[hand pump]]s with support from external donors. However, in 1993 it was discovered that much of Bangladesh's groundwater (the source of drinking water for 97 percent of the rural population and a significant share of the urban population) is naturally contaminated with arsenic.
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Another challenge is low cost recovery due to low tariffs and poor [[economic efficiency]], especially in urban areas (where water revenue does not cover operating costs). An estimated 56 percent of the population had access to adequate sanitation facilities in 2010.<ref name=CIA/> [[Community-led total sanitation]], addressing the problem of [[open defecation]] in rural areas, is credited with improving public health since its introduction in 2000.<ref>{{cite book |last=Kar |first=Kamal |author2=Bongartz, Petra |title=Update on Some Recent Developments in Community-Led Total Sanitation |publisher=University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies |location=Brighton |date=April 2006 |url=http://www.livelihoods.org/hot_topics/docs/CLTS_update06.pdf |isbn=1-85864-614-6 |access-date=28 April 2008 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080528063755/http://www.livelihoods.org/hot_topics/docs/CLTS_update06.pdf |archive-date=28 May 2008}}</ref>
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===Science and technology===
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{{Main|Science and technology in Bangladesh}}
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{{See also|Information technology in Bangladesh|Biotechnology and genetic engineering in Bangladesh}}
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[[File:Bangabandhu Satellite-1 Mission (42025498972).jpg|thumb|left|In 2018, the first payload of [[SpaceX]]'s [[Falcon 9 Block 5]] rocket was the [[Bangabandhu-1]] satellite built by [[Thales Alenia Space]]]]
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The [[Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research]], founded in 1973, traces its roots to the East Pakistan Regional Laboratories established in Dhaka (1955), [[Rajshahi]] (1965) and Chittagong (1967). Bangladesh's [[space agency]], [[SPARRSO]], was founded in 1983 with assistance from the United States.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X6SeyyuuiEs |title=Dhaka, Bangladesh. 1985 |via=YouTube |access-date=17 December 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160311051654/https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X6SeyyuuiEs |archive-date=11 March 2016 |url-status=live}}</ref> The country's first communications satellite, [[Bangabandhu-1]], was launched from the United States in 2018.<ref>{{cite news |title=Bangladesh launches its first satellite Bangabandhu-1 |url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/world/south-asia/bangladesh-launches-its-first-satellite-bangabandhu-1/articleshow/64144484.cms |work=The Times of India |date=13 May 2018 |access-date=15 May 2018}}</ref> The [[Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission]] operates a [[TRIGA]] research reactor at its atomic-energy facility in [[Savar]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.baec.org.bd/instRNPD.php |title=Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission |publisher=Baec.org.bd |date=22 June 2014 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304084032/http://www.baec.org.bd/instRNPD.php |archive-date=4 March 2016 |access-date=17 December 2015}}</ref> In 2015, Bangladesh was ranked the 26th global IT outsourcing destination.<ref>{{cite news |title=Bangladesh Best Destination for IT outsourcing |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/bangladesh-26th-best-destination-for-it-outsourcing-42306 |work=The Daily Star |date=8 March 2015 |access-date=15 August 2016 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160816060716/http://www.thedailystar.net/bangladesh-26th-best-destination-for-it-outsourcing-42306 |archive-date=16 August 2016 |url-status=live}}</ref>
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===Tourism===
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{{main|Tourism in Bangladesh}}
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Bangladesh's tourist attractions include historical sites and monuments, resorts, beaches, picnic spots, forests and wildlife of various species. Activities for tourists include [[angling]], [[water skiing]], river cruising, hiking, [[rowing (sport)|rowing]], [[yachting]], and [[sea bathing]].<ref name=lp>{{cite book |title=Lonely Planet's Best in Travel |year=2011 |publisher=Lonely Planet |url=http://www.lonelyplanet.com/ |isbn=978-1-74220-090-3 |access-date=11 April 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/19990224000651/http://www.lonelyplanet.com/ |archive-date=24 February 1999 |url-status=live}}</ref><ref name=lp_web>{{cite web |url=http://www.lonelyplanet.com/usa/travel-tips-and-articles/76216 |title=Top 10 best value destinations for 2011 |website=Lonely Planet |year=2011 |access-date=11 April 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170116145605/https://www.lonelyplanet.com/usa/travel-tips-and-articles/76216 |archive-date=16 January 2017 |url-status=live}}</ref>
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The [[World Travel and Tourism Council]] (WTTC) reported in 2019 that the travel and tourism industry in Bangladesh directly generated 1,180,500 jobs in 2018 or 1.9 percent of the country's total employment.<ref name="2019 report">{{cite web |url=http://reports.weforum.org/pdf/ttci-2019/WEF_TTCI_2019_Profile_BGD.pdf |title=Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index 2019 edition: Bangladesh |website=World Travel and Tourism Council|access-date=18 December 2019}}</ref> According to the same report, Bangladesh experiences around 125,000 international tourist arrivals per year.<ref name="2019 report"/> Domestic spending generated 97.7 percent of direct travel and tourism gross domestic product (GDP) in 2012.<ref name="2013 report">{{cite web |url=http://www.wttc.org/site_media/uploads/downloads/bangladesh2013.pdf |title=Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2013: Bangladesh |website=World Travel and Tourism Council |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131007183403/http://www.wttc.org/site_media/uploads/downloads/bangladesh2013.pdf |archive-date=7 October 2013}}</ref> Bangladesh's world ranking in 2012 for travel and tourism's direct contribution to GDP, as a percentage of GDP, was 120 out of 140.<ref name="2013 report"/>
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==Demographics==
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{{Main|Demographics of Bangladesh|Bengalis}}
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{{Historical populations
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|source = OECD/World Bank<ref name=IEApop2011>[https://web.archive.org/web/20111021013446/http://www.iea.org/co2highlights/co2Highlights.XLS CO<sub>2</sub> Emissions from Fuel Combustion] Population 1971–2009 IEA ([https://web.archive.org/web/20120202035728/http://www.iea.org/co2highlights/co2highlights.pdf pdf]. pp. 87–89)</ref>
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|title = Population (millions)
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|percentages = pagr
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|1971 |67.8
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|1980 |80.6
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|1990 |105.3
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|2000 |129.6
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|2010|148.7
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|2012|161.1
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}}
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Estimates of the Bangladeshi population vary, but UN data suggests {{UN_Population|Bangladesh}} (162.9 million) in 2017.{{UN_Population|ref}} The 2011 census estimated 142.3 million,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://english.cri.cn/6966/2011/07/24/2821s650100.htm |title=Bangladesh's Population to Exceed 160 Mln after Final Census Report |publisher=English.cri.cn |access-date=6 August 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120114145232/http://english.cri.cn/6966/2011/07/24/2821s650100.htm |archive-date=14 January 2012 |url-status=live}}</ref> much less than 2007–2010 estimates of Bangladesh's population (150–170&nbsp;million). Bangladesh is the world's [[List of countries by population|eighth-most-populous]] nation and the most densely-populated large country in the world, ranking 7th in population density even when small countries and city-states are included.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.photius.com/rankings/geography/population_density_persons_per_sq_km_2010_0.html |title=Population density&nbsp;– Persons per sq km 2010 Country Ranks |access-date=2 October 2010| archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20101024225201/http://www.photius.com/rankings/geography/population_density_persons_per_sq_km_2010_0.html| archive-date=24 October 2010 | url-status=live}}</ref>
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The country's population-growth rate was among the highest in the world in the 1960s and 1970s, when its population grew from 65 to 110&nbsp;million. With the promotion of [[birth control]] in the 1980s, Bangladesh's growth rate began to slow. Its [[total fertility rate]] is now 2.05,<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://mof.gov.bd/site/page/44e399b3-d378-41aa-86ff-8c4277eb0990/BangladeshEconomicReview|title=Bangladesh Economic Review 2018|publisher=Ministry of Finance, Bangladesh|year=2018|chapter=Socio-Economic Indicators of Bangladesh|access-date=26 April 2019|chapter-url=https://mof.portal.gov.bd/sites/default/files/files/mof.portal.gov.bd/page/e8bc0eaa_463d_4cf9_b3be_26ab70a32a47/06.%20Socio-Economic%20Indicators.pdf}}</ref> lower than India's (2.58) and Pakistan's (3.07). The population is relatively young, with 34 percent aged 15 or younger and five percent 65 or older. Life expectancy at birth was estimated at 72.49 years in 2016.<ref name=CIA /> According to the World Bank, {{as of|2016|lc=y}} 14.8% of the country lives below the [[international poverty line]] on less than $1.90 per day.<ref>{{cite web |title=Poverty & Equity Data Portal |url=http://povertydata.worldbank.org/poverty/country/BGD |publisher=world bank |access-date=26 December 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181227040801/http://povertydata.worldbank.org/poverty/country/BGD |archive-date=27 December 2018 |url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |title=The World Bank in Bangladesh |url=http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/bangladesh/overview |publisher=world bank |access-date=26 December 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181217110847/https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/bangladesh/overview |archive-date=17 December 2018 |url-status=live}}</ref>
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[[Bengali people|Bengalis]] are 98 percent of the population.<ref name=bn>[https://2009-2017.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3452.htm "Background Note: Bangladesh"] . Retrieved 11 June 2008.</ref> Of Bengalis, [[Bengali Muslims|Muslims]] are the majority, followed by [[Bengali Hindus|Hindus]], [[Bengali Christians|Christians]] and [[Bengali Buddhists|Buddhists]].
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The [[Adivasi]] population includes the [[Chakma people|Chakma]], [[Marma people|Marma]], [[Tanchangya people|Tanchangya]], [[Tripuri people|Tripuri]], [[Kuki people|Kuki]], Khiang, Khumi, [[Murang people|Murang]], [[Mru people (Mrucha)|Mru]], [[Chak people|Chak]], [[Lushei]], [[Bawm people|Bawm]], [[Bisnupriya Manipuri Society|Bishnupriya Manipuri]], [[Khasi people|Khasi]], [[Synteng|Jaintia]], [[Garo people|Garo]], [[Santal]], [[Munda people|Munda]] and [[Oraon]] tribes. The Chittagong Hill Tracts region experienced unrest and an [[Chittagong Hill Tracts conflict|insurgency]] from 1975 to 1997 in an autonomy movement by its indigenous people. Although a peace accord was signed in 1997, the region remains militarised.<ref name="rashiduzzaman">{{cite journal |last=Rashiduzzaman |first=M |year=1998 |title=Bangladesh's Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord: Institutional Features and Strategic Concerns |journal=Asian Survey |volume=38 |issue=7 |pages=653–70 |doi=10.1525/as.1998.38.7.01p0370e |jstor=2645754}}</ref>
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Bangladesh is home to a significant [[Ismaili]] community.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.theismaili.org/heritage-expressions/new-dhaka-jamatkhana-seen-symbol-confidence-bangladesh|title=New Dhaka Jamatkhana seen as a symbol of confidence in Bangladesh – The Ismaili|website=theismaili.org|date=10 October 2012|access-date=22 February 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150222201331/http://www.theismaili.org/heritage-expressions/new-dhaka-jamatkhana-seen-symbol-confidence-bangladesh|archive-date=22 February 2015|url-status=dead}}</ref> It hosts many [[Urdu]]-speaking immigrants, who migrated there after the partition of India. [[Stranded Pakistanis]] were given citizenship by the Supreme Court in 2008.<ref>[https://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/1226_1261574665_4b2b90c32.pdf Note on the nationality status of the Urdu-speaking community in Bangladesh] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150222201246/https://www.ecoi.net/file_upload/1226_1261574665_4b2b90c32.pdf |date=22 February 2015}}. UNHCR – The UN Refugee Agency.</ref>
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[[Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh]] number at around 1 million, making Bangladesh one of the countries with the largest refugee populations in the world.
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===Urban centres===
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{{Further|List of cities and towns in Bangladesh}}
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Dhaka is Bangladesh's capital and largest city and is overseen by two city corporations who manage between them the northern and southern part of the city. There are 12 [[List of City Corporations of Bangladesh|city corporations]] which hold mayoral elections: Dhaka South, Dhaka North, Chittagong, [[Comilla]], [[Khulna]], [[Mymensingh]], [[Sylhet]], [[Rajshahi]], [[Barisal]], [[Rangpur, Bangladesh|Rangpur]], [[Gazipur, Dhaka Division|Gazipur]] and [[Narayanganj]]. Mayors are elected for five-year terms. Altogether there are 506 urban centres in Bangladesh among which 43 cities have a population of more than 100,000.<ref>{{Citation |title=Population and Housing Census 2011 – Volume 3: Urban Area Report |url=http://203.112.218.65:8008/WebTestApplication/userfiles/Image/National%20Reports/Population%20%20Housing%20Census%202011.pdf |publisher=Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics |date=Aug 2014 |access-date=29 September 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190411211113/http://203.112.218.65:8008/WebTestApplication/userfiles/Image/National%20Reports/Population%20%20Housing%20Census%202011.pdf |archive-date=11 April 2019 |url-status=live}}</ref>
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{{Largest cities of Bangladesh|class=info}}
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===Language===
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{{Main|Languages of Bangladesh}}
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[[File:Rajshahi College Library Inside 02.JPG|thumb|left|The ''[[Charyapada]]'' scrolls are the oldest surviving text of the Bengali language. The photograph was taken at the [[Rajshahi College]] Library]]
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[[File:Chakma Letter-Biplob Rahman.jpg|thumb|[[Chakma script|Chakma alphabets]] are indigenous to the Chittagong Hill Tracts]]
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[[File:HakimHabiburRahman.jpg|thumb|[[Hakim Habibur Rahman]] was a poet of [[Dhakaiya Urdu]], a dialect of Urdu spoken by a tiny minority in Bangladesh]]
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The predominant language of Bangladesh is [[Bengali language|Bengali]] (also known as Bangla). Bengali is one of the easternmost branches of the [[Indo-European language]] family. It is a part of the [[Eastern Indo-Aryan languages]], which developed between the 10th and 13th centuries. Bengali is written using the [[Bengali alphabet|Bengali script]]. In ancient Bengal, [[Sanskrit]] was the language of written communication, especially by priests. During the Islamic period, Bengali replaced Sanskrit as the [[vernacular language]]. The Sultans of Bengal promoted the production of Bengali literature instead of Sanskrit. Bengali also received [[Persian language|Persian]] and [[Arabic]] loanwords during the [[Sultanate of Bengal]]. Under [[Bengal Presidency|British rule]], Bengali was significantly modernised by Europeans. Modern Standard Bengali emerged as the ''[[lingua franca]]'' of the region. Hindu scholars employed a heavily Sanskritised version of Bengali during the [[Bengali Renaissance]]. Muslim writers such as [[Kazi Nazrul Islam]] gave attention to the Persian and Arabic vocabulary of the language.
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Today, the Bengali language standard is prescribed by the [[Bangla Academy]] in Bangladesh. More than 98 percent of people in Bangladesh speak Bengali as their native language.<ref>{{cite web|title=Condition of English in Bangladesh|url=http://www.eslteachersboard.com/cgi-bin/asia/index.pl?noframes;read=158|publisher=ESL Teachers Board|access-date=21 October 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130115144121/http://www.eslteachersboard.com/cgi-bin/asia/index.pl?noframes;read=158|archive-date=15 January 2013|url-status=dead}}</ref><ref name="constitution-I-5">[https://web.archive.org/web/20130115144123/http://www.parliament.gov.bd/Constitution_English/index.htm Constitution of Bangladesh] (As modified up to 17 May 2004), Part I, Article 5.</ref> Bengali is described as a [[dialect continuum]] where there are various [[Bengali dialects|dialects]] spoken throughout the country. Currently there is a [[diglossia]] in which much of the population are able to understand or speak Standard Colloquial Bengali and in their regional dialect, such as [[Chittagonian language|Chittagonian]] or [[Sylheti language|Sylheti]], which some linguists consider as separate languages.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.thedailystar.net/supplements/amar-ekushey-2018/amago-bhasha-1537534|title=Amago Bhasha|website=[[The Daily Star (Bangladesh)|The Daily Star]]|first=Sameer Ud Dowla|last=Khan|date=21 February 2018|access-date=17 June 2020}}</ref> The [[Bangla Bhasha Prachalan Ain, 1987|Bengali Language Implementation Act, 1987]] made it mandatory to use Bengali in all government affairs in Bangladesh.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/bangla_pdf_part.php?id=705|title=Bangla Bhasha Prachalan Ain, 1987|website=bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd|script-title=bn:বাংলা ভাষা প্রচলন আইন, ১৯৮৭ (Bengali Language Implementation Act, 1987)|access-date=22 April 2019}}</ref> Although laws were historically written in English, they were not translated into Bengali until the act. All subsequent acts, ordinances and laws have been promulgated in Bengali since 1987.<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://www.daily-sun.com/post/294179|title=Bangla Rules in All Domains of National Life|work=[[Daily Sun (Bangladesh)|Daily Sun]]|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190425232223/https://www.daily-sun.com/post/294179/Bangla-Rules-in-All-Domains-of-National-Life|archive-date=25 April 2019|url-status=live|access-date=25 April 2019}}</ref> English is often used in the verdicts delivered by the Supreme Court of Bangladesh, and is also used in higher education.
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The [[Chakma language]] is another native Eastern Indo-Aryan language of Bangladesh. It is written using the [[Chakma script]]. The unique aspect of the language is that it is used by the Chakma people, who are a population with similarities to the people of East Asia, rather than the Indian subcontinent. The Chakma language is endangered due to its decreasing use in schools and institutions.
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Other tribal languages include [[Garo language|Garo]], [[Meitei language|Meitei]], [[Kokborok]] and [[Rakhine language|Rakhine]]. Among the [[Austroasiatic languages]], the [[Santali language]] is spoken by the Santali tribe. Many of these languages are written in the Bengali script, while some usage of the Latin script is also used.
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[[Urdu]] has a significant heritage in Bangladesh, in particular [[Old Dhaka]]. The language was introduced to Bengal in the 17th-century. Traders and migrants from North India often spoke the language in Bengal, as did sections of the Bengali upper class. Urdu poets lived in many parts of Bangladesh. The use of Urdu became controversial during the [[Bengali Language Movement]] when the people of East Bengal resisted attempts to impose Urdu as the main official language. In modern Bangladesh, the Urdu-speaking community is restricted to the country's [[Biharis in Bangladesh|Bihari]] community (formerly Stranded Pakistanis); and some sections of the [[Dhakaiyas|Old Dhakaiya]] population.<ref>{{cite web | url=http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Urdu |title = Urdu |website=Banglapedia}}</ref>
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===Religion===
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{{Main|Religion in Bangladesh}}
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{{bar box
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|width=250px
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|barwidth=100px
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|title=Religions in Bangladesh  (2011)
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<ref name=census2011>{{cite web|url=http://203.112.218.65:8008/WebTestApplication/userfiles/Image/National%20Reports/Union%20Statistics.pdf|title=Population & Housing Census |date=2011 |author=[[Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics]] |publisher=Bangladesh Government |access-date=17 April 2015 |quote="Population By Religion (%) Muslim 90.39 Hindu 8.54 Buddhist 0.60 Christian 0.37 Others 0.14" |quote-page=xxiii |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170903181037/http://203.112.218.65:8008/WebTestApplication/userfiles/Image/National%20Reports/Union%20Statistics.pdf |archive-date=3 September 2017 |url-status=dead}}</ref>
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|titlebar=#ddd
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|left1=Religion
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|right1=Percent
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|float=right
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|bars=
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{{bar percent|[[Islam in Bangladesh|Islam]]|MediumSeaGreen|90.4}}
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{{bar percent|[[Hinduism in Bangladesh|Hinduism]]|DarkOrange|8.5}}
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{{bar percent|[[Buddhism in Bangladesh|Buddhism]]|Gold|0.6}}
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{{bar percent|[[Christianity in Bangladesh|Christianity]]|blue|0.4}}
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{{bar percent|Others|black|0.1}}
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}}
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[[File:Eid Prayers at Barashalghar, Debidwar, Comilla.jpg|thumb|left|[[Eid prayers]] for Muslims at Barashalghar, [[Debidwar Upazila|Debidwar]], [[Comilla]]]]
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[[File:Bangladeshi children with Pohela Boishakh placard at Pohela Boishakh celebration (04).jpg|thumb|Bangladeshis celebrating [[Pahela Baishakh]] as a mark of the beginning of Bengali new year]]
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The constitution grants [[freedom of religion]] and officially makes Bangladesh a [[secular state]], while establishing Islam as the "[[state religion]] of the Republic".<ref name="Secularism">{{cite book|title=The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh|quote=Article 2A. – The state religion and Article 12. – Secularism and freedom of religion|url=http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/act-367.html|website=bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd|publisher=Ministry of Law, The People's Republic of Bangladesh|access-date=17 May 2019}}</ref><ref name="constituteproject">{{cite web|url=https://constituteproject.org/constitution/Bangladesh_2014.pdf?lang=en|title=Bangladesh's Constitution of 1972, Reinstated in 1986, with Amendments through 2014|website=constituteproject.org|access-date=29 October 2017}}</ref><ref name="aljazeera:1">{{cite news |url=https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/03/bangladesh-court-upholds-islam-religion-state-160328112919301.html|title=Bangladesh court upholds Islam as religion of the state|last=Bergman|first=David|date=28 March 2016|publisher=[[Al Jazeera]]}}</ref> [[Islam in Bangladesh|Islam]] is followed by 90 percent of the population.<ref name=kbrs>{{cite web |title=Know Bangladesh |url=https://bangladesh.gov.bd/site/page/812d94a8-0376-4579-a8f1-a1f66fa5df5d/Know--Bangladesh |website=Government of Bangladesh |publisher=Government of Bangladesh |access-date=10 October 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181009183830/http://www.bangladesh.gov.bd/site/page/812d94a8-0376-4579-a8f1-a1f66fa5df5d/Know--Bangladesh |archive-date=9 October 2018 |url-status=live}}</ref> Most Bangladeshis are [[Bengali Muslims]], who form the largest Muslim ethnoreligious group in South Asia and the second largest in the world after the Arabs. There is also a minority of non-Bengali Muslims. The vast majority of Bangladeshi Muslims are [[Sunni]], followed by minorities of [[Shia]] and [[Ahmadiya]]. About four percent are [[non-denominational Muslims]].<ref>[http://www.pewforum.org/2012/08/09/the-worlds-muslims-unity-and-diversity-1-religious-affiliation/#identity Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161226113158/http://www.pewforum.org/2012/08/09/the-worlds-muslims-unity-and-diversity-1-religious-affiliation/#identity |date=26 December 2016}}. Retrieved 4 September 2013</ref> Bangladesh has the fourth-largest Muslim population in the world, and is the third-largest Muslim-majority country (after Indonesia and Pakistan).<ref>{{cite web |url=http://features.pewforum.org/muslim-population/?sort=Pop2010 |title=Muslim Population by Country |publisher=Pew Research |date=27 January 2011 |access-date=23 October 2013 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130726201620/http://features.pewforum.org/muslim-population/?sort=Pop2010 |archive-date=26 July 2013 |url-status=live}}</ref> [[Sufism]] has an extensive heritage in the region.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.sufismjournal.org/community/community.html |title=Community: Sufism in Bangladesh |website=Sufism Journal |access-date=3 July 2010 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110729164936/http://www.sufismjournal.org/community/community.html |archive-date=29 July 2011 |url-status=live}}</ref> Liberal Bengali Islam sometimes clashes with orthodox movements. The largest gathering of Muslims in Bangladesh is the apolitical [[Bishwa Ijtema]], held annually by the orthodox [[Tablighi Jamaat]]. The Ijtema is the second-largest Muslim congregation in the world, after the [[Hajj]]. The [[Islamic Foundation Bangladesh|Islamic Foundation]] is an autonomous government agency responsible for some religious matters under state guidance, including monitoring of sighting of the moon in accordance with the lunar [[Islamic calendar]] in order to set festival dates; as well as the charitable tradition of ''[[zakat]]''. Public holidays include the Islamic observances of Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-al-Adha, the Prophet's Birthday, Ashura and Shab-e-Barat.
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[[Hinduism in Bangladesh|Hinduism]] is followed by 8.5 per cent of the population;<ref name=kbrs/> most are [[Bengali Hindu]]s, and some are members of [[Ethnic groups in Bangladesh|ethnic minority groups]]. Bangladeshi Hindus are the country's second-largest religious group and the third-largest Hindu community globally, after those in India and Nepal. Hindus in Bangladesh are evenly distributed, with concentrations in [[Gopalganj District, Bangladesh|Gopalganj]], [[Dinajpur District (Bangladesh)|Dinajpur]], Sylhet, [[Sunamganj]], Mymensingh, Khulna, Jessore, Chittagong and parts of the Chittagong Hill Tracts. The festivals of Durga's Return and Krishna's Birthday are public holidays.
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[[Buddhism in Bangladesh|Buddhism]] is the third-largest religion, at 0.6 per cent. Bangladeshi Buddhists are concentrated among ethnic groups in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (particularly the Chakma, Marma and Tanchangya peoples). At the same time, coastal Chittagong is home to many [[Bengali Buddhist]]s. Although Mahayana Buddhism was historically prevalent in the region, Bangladeshi Buddhists today adhere to the Theravada school. Buddha's Birthday is a public holiday. The chief Buddhist priests are based at a monastery in Chittagong.
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Christianity is the fourth-largest religion, at 0.4 per cent.<ref>{{cite news |url=http://archive.prothom-alo.com/detail/date/2012-09-22/news/291536|script-title=bn:১০ বছরে ৯ লাখ হিন্দু কমেছে|work=Prothom Alo |language=bn |access-date=3 December 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141224032117/http://archive.prothom-alo.com/detail/date/2012-09-22/news/291536|archive-date=24 December 2014|url-status=live}}</ref> Roman Catholicism is the largest denomination among Bangladeshi Christians. [[Bengali Christians]] are spread across the country. At the same time, there are many Christians among minority ethnic groups in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (southeastern Bangladesh) and within the Garo tribe of Mymensingh (north-central Bangladesh). The country also has Protestant, Baptist, and Oriental Orthodox churches. Christmas is a public holiday.
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The Constitution of Bangladesh declares Islam the state religion but bans religion-based politics. It proclaims equal recognition of Hindus, Buddhists, Christians and people of all faiths.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://2009-2017.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/2013/sca/222325.htm|title=Report on International Religious Freedom|website=U.S. Department of State|access-date=24 June 2017}}</ref> In 1972, Bangladesh was South Asia's first constitutionally-secular country.<ref>[http://tonyblairfaithfoundation.org/religion-geopolitics/commentaries/opinion/struggle-soul-bangladesh Struggle for the Soul of Bangladesh] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150402060731/http://tonyblairfaithfoundation.org/religion-geopolitics/commentaries/opinion/struggle-soul-bangladesh |date=2 April 2015}}. Tony Blair Faith Foundation (5 December 2014). Retrieved 27 April 2015.</ref> Article 12 of the constitution continues to call for secularism, the elimination of interfaith tensions and prohibits the abuse of religion for political purposes and any discrimination against, or persecution of, persons practising a particular religion.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/sections_detail.php?id=367&sections_id=24560 |title=12. Secularism and freedom of religion |publisher=Bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd |access-date=11 July 2017}}</ref> Article 41 of the constitution subjects religious freedom to public order, law and morality; it gives every citizen the right to profess, practise or propagate any religion; every religious community or denomination the right to establish, maintain and manage its religious institutions; and states that no person attending any educational institution shall be required to receive religious instruction, or to take part in or to attend any religious ceremony or worship if that instruction, ceremony or worship relates to a religion other than his own.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/sections_detail.php?id=367&sections_id=24589 |title=41. Freedom of religion |publisher=Bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd |access-date=11 July 2017}}</ref>
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==Education==
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{{Main|Education in Bangladesh}}
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[[File:Literacy rate Bangladesh.png|thumb|right|Literacy rates in Bangladesh districts]]
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[[File:Department of chemistry, University of Dhaka .jpg|thumb|left|[[Dhaka University]] Science Faculty building]]
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Bangladesh has a heavily flawed education system;<ref>{{cite web|last=Haider|first=Abu Afsarul|url=https://www.thedailystar.net/problems-with-our-education-sector-23954|title=Problems with our education sector|work=[[The Daily Star (Bangladesh)|The Daily Star]]|date=14 May 2014|access-date=24 November 2021}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|last=Hassan|first=Rakib|url=https://www.dhakatribune.com/magazine/2018/03/03/bugs-education-system|title=Bugs in our education system|work=[[Dhaka Tribune]]|date=3 March 2018|access-date=24 November 2021}}</ref> with a low [[literacy rate]] of 74.7% percent as of 2019: 77.4% for males and 71.9% for females.<ref>{{cite news|date=8 September 2020 |title=state minister: Literacy rate now 74.7% |url=https://www.dhakatribune.com/bangladesh/education/2020/09/08/state-minister-literacy-rate-now-74-7|newspaper=dhakatribune}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=Bangladesh|date=27 November 2016|url=http://uis.unesco.org/en/country/bd|publisher=UNESCO Institute for Statistics|access-date=30 March 2021}}</ref> The country's educational system is three-tiered and heavily subsidised, with the government operating many schools at the primary, secondary and higher secondary levels and subsidising many private schools. In the tertiary education sector, the Bangladeshi government funds over 45 state universities<ref name="ugc-universities.gov.bd">{{cite web|url=http://www.ugc-universities.gov.bd/public-universities|title=List of Public Universities &#124; University Grants Commission of Bangladesh|first=University Grants Commission of Bangladesh|[email protected]|website=List of Public Universities &#124; University Grants Commission of Bangladesh}}</ref> through the [[University Grants Commission of Bangladesh|University Grants Commission]]. Despite, the government does not grant free education, and education is not declared a fundamental right in the constitution.<ref>{{cite web|last=Hossain|first=Delawar|url=https://www.dhakatribune.com/opinion/op-ed/2020/02/12/the-right-to-education|title=The right to education|work=[[Dhaka Tribune]]|date=12 February 2020|access-date=24 November 2021}}</ref>
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The education system is divided into five levels: primary (first to fifth grade), junior secondary (sixth to eighth grade), secondary (ninth and tenth grade), higher secondary (11th and 12th grade), and tertiary.<ref name=CompEd>{{cite book|author=T. Neville Postlethwaite|title=The Encyclopedia of Comparative Education and National Systems of Education|page=130|publisher=Pergamon Press|year=1988|isbn=978-0-08-030853-1}}</ref> Five years of secondary education (including junior secondary) ends with a [[Secondary School Certificate]] (SSC) examination. Since 2009, the Primary Education Closing (PEC) examination has also been introduced. Students who pass the PEC examination proceed to secondary or matriculation training, culminating in the SSC examination.<ref name=CompEd/>
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Students who pass the PEC examination proceed to three years of junior secondary education, culminating in the [[Junior School Certificate]] (JSC) examination. Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of secondary education, culminating in the SSC examination. Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of higher secondary education, culminating in the [[Higher Secondary School Certificate]] (HSC) examination.<ref name=CompEd/>
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[[Universities in Bangladesh]] are of three general types: public (government-owned and subsidised), private (privately owned universities) and international (operated and funded by international organisations). They are accredited by and affiliated with the [[University Grants Commission (Bangladesh)|University Grants Commission]] (UGC), created by Presidential Order 10 in 1973.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.moedu.gov.bd/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=318&Itemid=229 |title=University Grant Commission (UGC) |access-date=29 March 2008 |website=Ministry of Education, Government of Bangladesh |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121201205902/http://www.moedu.gov.bd/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=318&Itemid=229 |archive-date=1 December 2012 |url-status=live}}</ref> The country has 47 public,<ref name="ugc-universities.gov.bd"/> 105 private<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.ugc-universities.gov.bd/private-universities|title=List of Private Universities &#124; University Grants Commission of Bangladesh|first=University Grants Commission of Bangladesh|[email protected]|website=List of Private Universities &#124; University Grants Commission of Bangladesh}}</ref> and two international [[List of universities in Bangladesh|universities]]; [[Bangladesh National University]] has the largest enrollment, and the [[University of Dhaka]] (established in 1921) is the oldest. [[University of Chittagong]] (established in 1966) is the largest University (Campus: Rural, 2,100 acres (8.5 km2)).{{citation needed|date=December 2021}}
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Medical education is provided by 29 government and private [[List of medical colleges in Bangladesh|medical colleges]]. All medical colleges are affiliated with the [[Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (Bangladesh)|Ministry of Health and Family Welfare]].
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==Health==
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{{Main|Health in Bangladesh}}
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[[File:A Bangladeshi nurse helps treat a patient suspected of suffering from diphtheria in the Kutupalong Rohingya refugee camp near Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, January 2018 (28246596039).jpg|thumb|A Bangladeshi nurse in [[Kutupalong Refugee Camp]]]]
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Healthcare facilities in Bangladesh are considered less than adequate, although they have improved as poverty levels have decreased significantly. Findings from a recent study in [[Chakaria Upazila|Chakaria]] (a rural [[upazila]] under [[Cox's Bazar District]]) revealed that the "village doctors", practicing allopathic medicine without formal training, were reported to have provided 65% of the healthcare sought for illness episodes occurring within 14 days prior to the survey. Formally-trained providers made up only four percent of the total health workforce. The Future Health Systems survey indicated significant deficiencies in the treatment practices of village doctors, with widespread harmful and inappropriate drug prescribing.<ref name="FHS Research Brief 2">{{cite journal|last=Bhuiya|first=Abbas|title=Costs of utilizing healthcare services in Chakaria, a rural area in Bangladesh|journal=FHS Research Brief|date=June 2009|issue=2|url=http://www.futurehealthsystems.org/publications/fhs-bangladesh-research-brief-2-costs-of-utilizing-healthcar.html|access-date=18 May 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121116060704/http://www.futurehealthsystems.org/publications/fhs-bangladesh-research-brief-2-costs-of-utilizing-healthcar.html|archive-date=16 November 2012|url-status=live}}</ref> Receiving health care from informal providers is encouraged.<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Bloom |first1=G |last2=Standing |first2=H. |last3=Lucas |first3=H |last4=Bhuiya |first4=A |last5=Oladepo |first5=O |last6=Peters |first6=DH |display-authors=5 |year=2011 |title=Making Health Markets Work Better for Poor People: The Case of Informal Providers |journal=Health Policy and Planning |volume=26 |issue=Suppl 1 |pages=i45–i52 |url=http://www.futurehealthsystems.org/publications/making-health-markets-work-better-for-poor-people-the-case-o.html |access-date=26 May 2012 |doi=10.1093/heapol/czr025 |pmid=21729917 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121116060648/http://www.futurehealthsystems.org/publications/making-health-markets-work-better-for-poor-people-the-case-o.html |archive-date=16 November 2012 |url-status=live |doi-access=free}}</ref>
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A 2007 study of 1,000 households in rural Bangladesh found that direct payments to formal and informal healthcare providers and indirect costs (loss of earnings because of illness) associated with illness were deterrents to accessing healthcare from qualified providers.<ref name="FHS Research Brief 2"/> A community survey of 6,183 individuals in rural Bangladesh found a gender difference in treatment-seeking behaviour, with women less likely to seek treatment than to men.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Bhuiya|first=Abbas|title=Health Seeking Behaviour in Chakaria|journal=FHS Research Brief|date=September 2008|issue=1|url=http://www.futurehealthsystems.org/publications/fhs-bangladesh-research-brief-1-health-seeking-behaviour-in.html|access-date=18 May 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121116060653/http://www.futurehealthsystems.org/publications/fhs-bangladesh-research-brief-1-health-seeking-behaviour-in.html|archive-date=16 November 2012|url-status=live}}</ref> The use of skilled birth attendant (SBA) services, however, rose from 2005 to 2007 among women from all socioeconomic [[Quantile|quintiles]] except the highest.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Bhuiya|first=Abbas|title=Three methods to monitor utilization of healthcare services by the poor|journal=International Journal for Equity in Health|year=2009|volume=8|issue=1|page=29|url=http://www.futurehealthsystems.org/publications/three-methods-to-monitor-utilization-of-healthcare-services.html|access-date=26 May 2012|doi=10.1186/1475-9276-8-29|pmid=19650938|pmc=2729304|display-authors=etal|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121116060658/http://www.futurehealthsystems.org/publications/three-methods-to-monitor-utilization-of-healthcare-services.html|archive-date=16 November 2012|url-status=live}}</ref> A health watch, a pilot community-empowerment tool, was successfully developed and implemented in south-eastern Bangladesh to improve the uptake and monitoring of public-health services.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Aziz|first=Rumesa|title=A community health watch to establish accountability and improve performance of the health system|journal=FHS Research Brief|date=November 2009|issue=3|url=http://www.futurehealthsystems.org/publications/fhs-bangladesh-research-brief-3-a-community-health-watch-to.html|access-date=18 May 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121116061040/http://www.futurehealthsystems.org/publications/fhs-bangladesh-research-brief-3-a-community-health-watch-to.html|archive-date=16 November 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>
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Bangladesh's poor health conditions are attributed to the lack of healthcare provision by the government. According to a 2010 World Bank report, 2009 healthcare spending was 3.35 percent of the country's GDP.<ref name="apps.who.int">{{cite web |website=Global Health Observatory Data Repository, WHO |title=Bangladesh statistics summary (2002–present) |url=http://apps.who.int/ghodata/?vid=4200&theme=country |access-date=14 February 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110415080237/http://apps.who.int/ghodata/?vid=4200&theme=country |archive-date=15 April 2011 |url-status=live}}</ref> Government spending on healthcare that year was 7.9 percent of the total budget; out-of-pocket expenditures totalled 96.5 percent.<ref name="apps.who.int"/> According to the government sources, the number of hospital beds is 8 per 10,000 population (as of 2015).<ref>{{cite web |url=http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.country.country-BGD?lang=en |title=Global Health Observatory country views: Bangladesh statistics summary (2002 – present) |year=2019 |website=GHO |publisher=World Health Organization |access-date=22 December 2019}}</ref>
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[[Malnutrition]] has been a persistent problem in Bangladesh, with the World Bank ranking the country first in the number of malnourished children worldwide.<ref>{{cite web|title=Child and Maternal Nutrition in Bangladesh|url=http://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/Child_and_Maternal_Nutrition(1).pdf|publisher=UNICEF|access-date=24 February 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120906061153/http://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/Child_and_Maternal_Nutrition(1).pdf|archive-date=6 September 2012|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|title=Bangladesh has world's highest malnutrition rate|journal=Owsa|url=http://southasia.oneworld.net/todaysheadlines/bangladesh-has-highest-rate-of-malnutrition-in-the-world|publisher=oneworld.net|date=24 November 2008|access-date=14 February 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120115171815/http://southasia.oneworld.net/todaysheadlines/bangladesh-has-highest-rate-of-malnutrition-in-the-world|archive-date=15 January 2012|url-status=dead}}</ref> More than 54% of preschool-age children are stunted, 56% are underweight and more than 17% are wasted.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/nutrition/bgd_en.stm |title=Nutrition Country Profiles: Bangladesh Summary |year=2019 |publisher=FAO.ORG |access-date=22 December 2019}}</ref> More than 45 percent of rural families and 76 percent of urban families were below the acceptable caloric-intake level.<ref>{{cite web|title=Bangladesh&nbsp;– Health|url=http://countrystudies.us/bangladesh/48.htm|publisher=countrystudies.us|access-date=14 February 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111011171625/http://countrystudies.us/bangladesh/48.htm|archive-date=11 October 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>
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==Culture==
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{{Main|Culture of Bangladesh|Culture of Bengal|Bengali Renaissance}}
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===Visual arts===
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{{Main|Bangladeshi art}}
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[[File:Freedom Fighter.jpg|thumb|A painting by [[Shahabuddin Ahmed (artist)|Shahabuddin]]]]
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[[File:Victoria Memorial Kolkata - Muslin.jpg|thumb|left|A preserved cloth of historic [[muslin trade in Bengal|Bengali fine muslin]], which is now extinct]]
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The recorded history of art in Bangladesh can be traced to the 3rd century BCE, when [[terracotta]] sculptures were made in the region. In classical antiquity, a notable sculptural Hindu, Jain and Buddhist art developed in the Pala Empire and the Sena dynasty. Islamic art has evolved since the 14th century. The architecture of the Bengal Sultanate saw a distinct style of domed mosques with complex niche pillars that had no minarets. [[Mughal Bengal]]'s most celebrated artistic tradition was the weaving of [[Jamdani]] [[Motif (textile arts)|motifs]] on fine muslin, which is now classified by UNESCO as an [[intangible cultural heritage]]. Jamdani motifs were similar to Iranian textile art (buta motifs) and Western textile art ([[Paisley (design)|paisley]]). The Jamdani weavers in Dhaka received imperial patronage.<ref name="star"/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.metmuseum.org/blogs/ruminations/2015/bangladeshi-islamic-art|title=In Search of Bangladeshi Islamic Art|website=The Metropolitan Museum of Art, i.e. The Met Museum|access-date=19 September 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160812083629/http://www.metmuseum.org/blogs/ruminations/2015/bangladeshi-islamic-art|archive-date=12 August 2016|url-status=live}}</ref> [[Ivory]] and [[brass]] were also widely used in Mughal art. [[Pottery]] is widely used in Bengali culture.
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The [[modern art]] movement in Bangladesh took shape during the 1950s, particularly with the pioneering works of [[Zainul Abedin]]. East Bengal developed its own modernist painting and sculpture traditions, which were distinct from the art movements in West Bengal. The [[Art Institute Dhaka]] has been an important centre for visual art in the region. Its annual [[Mangal Shobhajatra|Bengali New Year parade]] was enlisted as an intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in 2016.
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Modern Bangladesh has produced many of South Asia's leading painters, including [[SM Sultan]], [[Mohammad Kibria]], [[Shahabuddin Ahmed (artist)|Shahabuddin Ahmed]], [[Kanak Chanpa Chakma]], [[Kafil Ahmed]], [[Saifuddin Ahmed]], [[Qayyum Chowdhury]], [[Rashid Choudhury]], [[Quamrul Hassan]], [[Rafiqun Nabi]] and [[Syed Jahangir]], among others. [[Novera Ahmed]] and [[Nitun Kundu]] were the country's pioneers of modernist sculpture.
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In recent times, photography as a medium of art has become popular. Biennial [[Chobi Mela]] is considered the largest photography festival in Asia.<ref>{{cite news |date=19 December 2014 |title=Chobi Mela kicks off next month |url=http://www.observerbd.com/2014/12/19/61610.php |location=Dhaka |newspaper=The Daily Observer}}</ref>
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===Literature===
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{{See also|Bangladeshi literature}}
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[[File:Syed Mujtaba Ali.jpg|thumb|[[Syed Mujtaba Ali]]]]
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The oldest evidence of writing in Bangladesh is the Mahasthan [[Brahmi]] Inscription, which dates back to the 3rd century BCE.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Mahasthan_Brahmi_Inscription|title=Mahasthan Brahmi Inscription|work=Banglapedia|access-date=17 December 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151222134342/http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Mahasthan_Brahmi_Inscription|archive-date=22 December 2015|url-status=live}}</ref> In the Gupta Empire, Sanskrit literature thrived in the region. Bengali developed from [[Sanskrit]] and [[Magadhi Prakrit]] in the 8th to 10th century. Bengali literature is a millennium-old tradition; the [[Charyapada]]s are the earliest examples of Bengali poetry. Sufi spiritualism inspired many [[Bengali Muslim]] writers. During the Bengal Sultanate, medieval Bengali writers were influenced by [[Arabic literature|Arabic]] and [[Persian literature|Persian works]]. The [[Chandidas]] are the notable lyric poets from the early Medieval Age. [[Alaol|Syed Alaol]] was the bard of middle Bengali literature. The Bengal Renaissance shaped modern Bengali literature, including novels, short stories and [[Bengali science fiction|science fiction]]. Rabindranath Tagore was the first non-European laureate of the [[Nobel Prize in Literature]] and is described as the Bengali Shakespeare.<ref>{{cite news |author=Junaidul Haque |date=7 May 2011 |title=Rabindranath: He belonged to the world |url=http://archive.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=184548 |work=The Daily Star |access-date=17 December 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304092524/http://archive.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=184548 |archive-date=4 March 2016 |url-status=live}}</ref> [[Kazi Nazrul Islam]] was a revolutionary poet who espoused political rebellion against colonialism and fascism. [[Begum Rokeya]] is regarded as the pioneer feminist writer of Bangladesh.<ref name="Rubaiyat">{{cite news|url=https://rubaiyat-hossain.com/2011/05/26/begum-rokeya-the-pioneer-feminist-of-bangladesh/|title=Begum Rokeya : The Pioneer Feminist of Bangladesh|last1=Rubaiyat|first1=Hossain|work=The Daily Star|access-date=25 June 2016|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160815113311/https://rubaiyat-hossain.com/2011/05/26/begum-rokeya-the-pioneer-feminist-of-bangladesh/|archive-date=15 August 2016|url-status=live}}</ref> Other renaissance icons included Michael Madhusudan Dutt and [[Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay]].
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The writer [[Syed Mujtaba Ali]] is noted for his cosmopolitan Bengali worldview.<ref>{{cite news |title=Syed Mujtaba Ali |url=http://archive.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=106359 |work=The Daily Star |date=18 September 2009 |access-date=17 December 2015 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151222125956/http://archive.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=106359 |archive-date=22 December 2015 |url-status=live}}</ref> [[Jasimuddin]] was a renowned pastoral poet. [[Shamsur Rahman (poet)|Shamsur Rahman]] and [[Al Mahmud]] are considered two of the greatest Bengali poets to have emerged in the 20th century. [[Farrukh Ahmad]], [[Sufia Kamal]], [[Syed Ali Ahsan]], [[Ahsan Habib]], [[Abul Hussain]], [[Shahid Qadri]], [[Fazal Shahabuddin]], [[Abu Zafar Obaidullah]], [[Omar Ali (poet)|Omar Ali]], [[Al Mujahidi]], [[Syed Shamsul Huq]], [[Nirmalendu Goon]], [[Abid Azad]], [[Hasan Hafizur Rahman]] and [[Abdul Hye Sikder]] are important figures of modern Bangladeshi poetry. [[Ahmed Sofa]] is regarded as the most important Bangladeshi intellectual in the post-independence era. [[Humayun Ahmed]] was a popular writer of modern Bangladeshi [[magical realism]] and science fiction. Notable writers of Bangladeshi fictions include Mir Mosharraf Hossain, [[Akhteruzzaman Elias]], [[Alauddin Al Azad]], [[Shahidul Zahir]], [[Rashid Karim]], [[Mahmudul Haque]], [[Syed Waliullah]], [[Shahidullah Kaiser]], [[Shawkat Osman]], [[Selina Hossain]], [[Shahed Ali]], [[Razia Khan]], [[Anisul Hoque]], and [[Abdul Mannan Syed]].
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The annual [[Ekushey Book Fair]] and [[Hay Festival Dhaka|Dhaka Literature Festival]], organised by the [[Bangla Academy]], are among the largest literary festivals in South Asia.
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===Women in Bangladesh===
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[[File:BegumRokeyaWithHusband.jpg|thumb|Muslim feminist [[Begum Rokeya]] and her husband in 1898]]
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{{Main|Women in Bangladesh}}{{See also|Gender inequality in Bangladesh}}{{Further|Child marriage in Bangladesh}}
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Although {{as of|2015|lc=y}}, several women occupied major political office in Bangladesh. Its women continue to live under a patriarchal social regime where violence is common.<ref name=whispers>[http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2008/03/25/000334955_20080325105524/Rendered/PDF/430450NWP0BD0gender0Box0327344B01PUBLIC1.pdf Whispers to Voices: Gender and Social Transformation in Bangladesh] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160303214942/http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2008/03/25/000334955_20080325105524/Rendered/PDF/430450NWP0BD0gender0Box0327344B01PUBLIC1.pdf |date=3 March 2016}} World Bank.org 2008</ref> Whereas in India and Pakistan women participate less in the workforce as their education increases, the reverse is the case in Bangladesh.<ref name=whispers/>
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Bengal has a long history of [[feminist activism]] dating back to the 19th century. [[Begum Rokeya]] and [[Nawab Faizunnesa|Faizunnessa Chowdhurani]] played an important role in emancipating Bengali Muslim women from [[purdah]], before the country's division, as well as promoting girls' education. Several women were elected to the Bengal Legislative Assembly in the British Raj. The first women's magazine, ''[[Begum (magazine)|Begum]]'', was published in 1948.
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In 2008, Bangladeshi female workforce participation stood at 26%.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2008/03/25/000334955_20080325105524/Rendered/PDF/430450NWP0BD0gender0Box0327344B01PUBLIC1.pdf|title=World Bank Document|publisher=World Bank|access-date=19 September 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160303214942/http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2008/03/25/000334955_20080325105524/Rendered/PDF/430450NWP0BD0gender0Box0327344B01PUBLIC1.pdf|archive-date=3 March 2016|url-status=live}}</ref> Women dominate [[blue collar]] jobs in the Bangladeshi garment industry. Agriculture, social services, healthcare and education are also major occupations for Bangladeshi women, while their employment in [[White-collar worker|white collar]] positions has steadily increased.
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===Architecture===
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{{Main|Architecture of Bangladesh}}
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[[File:Gulshan Society Jame Masjid 04.jpg|thumb|left|A modernist 21st century Bangladeshi mosque in the shape of a skyscraper]]
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[[File:Dinajpur KantanagarMondir 11Oct12 IMG 3579.jpg|thumb|The 18th century [[terracotta]] [[Hindu]] [[Kantanagar Temple]] in [[Dinajpur]]]]
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The architectural traditions of Bangladesh have a 2,500-year-old heritage.<ref>{{cite book |last=Rahman |first=Mahbubur |year=2012 |chapter=Architecture |chapter-url=http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Architecture |editor1-last=Islam |editor1-first=Sirajul |editor1-link=Sirajul Islam |editor2-last=Jamal |editor2-first=Ahmed A. |title=Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh |edition=Second |publisher=[[Asiatic Society of Bangladesh]]}}</ref> Terracotta architecture is a distinct feature of Bengal. Pre-Islamic Bengali architecture reached its pinnacle in the Pala Empire, when the Pala School of Sculptural Art established grand structures such as the Somapura Mahavihara. [[Islamic architecture]] began developing under the Bengal Sultanate, when local terracotta styles influenced medieval mosque construction.
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The [[Sixty Dome Mosque]] was the largest medieval mosque built in Bangladesh and is a fine example of Turkic-Bengali architecture. The [[Mughal architecture|Mughal style]] replaced indigenous architecture when Bengal became a province of the Mughal Empire and influenced urban housing development. The [[Kantajew Temple]] and [[Dhakeshwari Temple]] are excellent examples of late medieval [[Hindu temple architecture]]. [[Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture]], based on Indo-Islamic styles, flourished during the British period. The zamindar gentry in Bangladesh built numerous Indo-Saracenic palaces and country mansions, such as the [[Ahsan Manzil]], [[Tajhat Palace]], [[Uttara Gonobhaban|Dighapatia Palace]], [[Puthia Rajbari]] and [[Natore Rajbari]].
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Bengali [[vernacular architecture]] is noted for pioneering the [[bungalow]]. Bangladeshi villages consist of [[thatch]]ed roofed houses made of natural materials like [[mud]], [[straw]], wood and bamboo. In modern times, village bungalows are increasingly made of [[tin]].
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[[Muzharul Islam]] was the pioneer of Bangladeshi modern architecture. His varied works set the course of modern architectural practice in the country. Islam brought leading global architects, including [[Louis Kahn]], [[Richard Neutra]], [[Stanley Tigerman]], [[Paul Rudolph (architect)|Paul Rudolph]], [[Robert Boughey]] and [[Konstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis|Konstantinos Doxiadis]], to work in erstwhile East Pakistan. Louis Kahn was chosen to design the National Parliament Complex in [[Sher-e-Bangla Nagar]]. Kahn's monumental designs, combining regional red brick aesthetics, his own concrete and marble [[brutalism]] and the use of lakes to represent Bengali geography, are regarded as one of the masterpieces of the 20th century. In more recent times, award-winning architects like [[Rafiq Azam]] have set the course of contemporary architecture by adopting influences from the works of Islam and Kahn.
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===Performing arts===
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[[File:Ektara player.jpg|alt=|thumb|160px|A Baul from [[Lalon|Lalon Shah's]] shrine in [[Kushtia District|Kushtia]]]]
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[[Theatre in Bangladesh]] includes various forms with a history dating back to the 4th century CE.<ref name="Ahmed, Syed Jamil 2000 p. 396">{{cite book |last=Ahmed |first=Syed Jamil |date=2000 |title=Achinpakhi Infinity: Indigenous Theatre of Bangladesh |location=Dhaka |publisher=University Press Ltd. |page=396 |isbn=978-984-05-1462-5}}</ref> It includes narrative forms, song and dance forms, supra-personae forms, performances with scroll paintings, puppet theatre and processional forms.<ref name="Ahmed, Syed Jamil 2000 p. 396"/> The [[Jatra (theatre)|Jatra]] is the most popular form of Bengali folk theatre.
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The dance traditions of Bangladesh include indigenous tribal and Bengali dance forms, as well as [[classical Indian dance]]s, including the [[Kathak]], [[Odissi]] and [[Manipuri dance]]s.
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The [[music of Bangladesh]] features the [[Baul]] [[Mysticism|mystical]] tradition, listed by UNESCO as a [[Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity|Masterpiece of Intangible Cultural Heritage]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=30973&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html|title=UNESCO – The Samba of Roda and the Ramlila proclaimed Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity|publisher=UNESCO|access-date=17 December 2015|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160303211111/http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID%3D30973%26URL_DO%3DDO_TOPIC%26URL_SECTION%3D201.html|archive-date=3 March 2016|url-status=live}}</ref> [[Lalon|Fakir Lalon Shah]] popularised [[Baul]] music in the country in the 18th century and it has since been one of the most popular music genera in the country since then. Most modern [[Bauls]] are devoted to Lalon Shah.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/3623345.stm|title=Listeners name 'greatest Bengali'|date=14 April 2004|via=news.bbc.co.uk}}</ref> Numerous lyric-based musical traditions, varying from one region to the next, exist, including [[Gombhira]], [[Bhatiali]] and [[Bhawaiya]]. Folk music is accompanied by a one-stringed instrument known as the [[ektara]]. Other instruments include the [[dotara]], [[dhol]], flute, and [[tabla]]. Bengali classical music includes [[Tagore songs]] and [[Nazrul geeti|Nazrul Sangeet]]. Bangladesh has a rich tradition of [[Indian classical music]], which uses instruments like the [[sitar]], tabla, [[sarod]] and [[santoor]].<ref>London, Ellen (2004). Bangladesh. Gareth Stevens Pub. p. 29. {{ISBN|0-8368-3107-1}}.</ref> [[Sabina Yasmin]] and [[Runa Laila]] are considered the leading playback singers in the modern time, while musician [[Ayub Bachchu]] is credited with popularising Bengali rock music in Bangladesh.<ref>{{Cite news| url=https://www.thedailystar.net/arts-entertainment/news/ayub-bachchu-passes-away-1648585| title=Rock's leading light goes out|work=The Daily Star| date=18 October 2018| access-date=10 November 2018| archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181020110810/https://www.thedailystar.net/arts-entertainment/news/ayub-bachchu-passes-away-1648585| archive-date=20 October 2018| url-status=live| df=dmy-all}}</ref>
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===Textiles===
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{{See also|Textile arts of Bangladesh|Muslin trade in Bengal}}
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[[File:Kantha (Quilt) LACMA AC1994.131.1.jpg|thumb|left|Embroidery on [[Nakshi kantha]] (embroidered [[quilt]]), centuries-old Bengali art tradition]]
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The [[Nakshi Kantha]] is a centuries-old [[embroidery]] tradition for [[quilt]]s, said to be indigenous to eastern Bengal (i.e. Bangladesh). The sari is the national dress for Bangladeshi women. Mughal Dhaka was renowned for producing the finest [[Muslin]] saris, as well as the famed [[Dhakai]] and [[Jamdani]], the weaving of which is listed by UNESCO as one of the masterpieces of humanity's intangible cultural heritage.<ref>{{cite web|title=Traditional art of Jamdani weaving – intangible heritage – Culture Sector – UNESCO|url=http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/en/RL/traditional-art-of-jamdani-weaving-00879|publisher=UNESCO|access-date=2 January 2016|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151209021720/http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/en/RL/traditional-art-of-jamdani-weaving-00879|archive-date=9 December 2015|url-status=live}}</ref> Bangladesh also produces the [[Rajshahi silk]]. The [[shalwar kameez]] is also widely worn by Bangladeshi women. In urban areas, some women can be seen in western clothing. The [[kurta]] and [[sherwani]] are the national dress of Bangladeshi men; the [[lungi]] and [[dhoti]] are worn by them in informal settings. Aside from ethnic wear, domestically [[tailored]] [[suit (clothing)|suits]] and [[neckties]] are customarily worn by the country's men in offices, in schools and at social events.
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The handloom industry supplies 60–65% of the country's clothing demand.<ref>Ahmad, Shamsuddin (2012). "Textiles". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.</ref> The Bengali ethnic [[fashion industry]] has flourished in the changing environment of the fashion world. The retailer [[Aarong]] is one of South Asia's most successful ethnic wear brands. The development of the Bangladesh textile industry, which supplies leading international brands, has promoted the local production and retail of modern Western attire. The country now has a number of expanding local brands like Westecs and Yellow. Bangladesh is the world's second-largest garments exporter. Among Bangladesh's fashion designers, [[Bibi Russell]] has received international acclaim for her "Fashion for Development" shows.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.culture-and-development.info/issues/morebibi.htm|title=more Bibi Russell|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150722064606/http://www.culture-and-development.info/issues/morebibi.htm|archive-date=22 July 2015}}</ref>
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===Cuisine===
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{{Main|Bengali cuisine|Bangladeshi cuisine}}
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[[File:Bangladeshi cuisine.png|thumb|Traditional Bangladeshi Meal: [[Mustard seed]] [[Ilish]] [[Curry]], Dhakai [[Biryani]] and [[Pitha]]]]
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[[White rice]] is the staple of Bangladeshi cuisine, along with many vegetables and [[lentil]]s. Rice preparations also include Bengali [[biryani]]s, [[pilaf|pulaos]], and [[khichuri]]s. [[Mustard (condiment)|Mustard]] sauce, [[ghee]], [[sunflower oil]] and fruit [[chutney]]s are widely used in Bangladeshi cooking. Fish is the main source of protein in Bengali cuisine. The [[Hilsa]] is the national fish and immensely popular across Bangladesh. Other kinds of fish eaten include [[rohu]], [[butterfish]], catfish, [[tilapia]] and [[barramundi]]. [[Fish egg]]s are a gourmet delicacy. Seafood holds an important place in Bengali cuisine, especially [[lobster]]s, [[shrimp]]s and [[dried fish]]. Meat consumption includes chicken, beef, [[mutton]], [[venison]], [[duck]] and [[squab (food)|squab]]. In Chittagong, ''Mezban'' feasts are a popular tradition featuring the serving of hot beef [[curry]]. In Sylhet, the ''[[shatkora]]'' lemons are used to marinate dishes. In the tribal Hill Tracts, bamboo shoot cooking is prevalent. Bangladesh has a vast spread of desserts, including distinctive [[sweets]] like ''[[Rasgulla|Rôshogolla]]'', ''Rôshomalai'', ''[[Chomchom]]'', ''Mishti Doi'' and ''Kalojaam''. [[Pitha]]s are traditional boiled desserts made with rice or fruits. [[Halwa]] is served during religious festivities. [[Naan]], [[paratha]], [[luchi]] and [[bakarkhani]] are the main local breads. [[Milk tea]] is offered to guests as a gesture of welcome and is the most common hot beverage in the country. [[Kebab]]s are widely popular across Bangladesh, particularly [[seekh kebab]]s, [[chicken tikka]] and [[shashlik]]s.
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Bangladesh shares its culinary heritage with the neighbouring Indian state of [[West Bengal]]. The two regions have several differences, however. In Muslim-majority Bangladesh, meat consumption is greater, whereas vegetarianism is more prevalent in Hindu-majority West Bengal. The Bangladeshi diaspora dominates the South Asian restaurant industry in many Western countries, particularly in the United Kingdom.
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===Festivals===
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{{Main|Public holidays in Bangladesh|List of festivals in Bangladesh}}
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[[File:Nouka Baich (Boat Race) (9903944955).jpg|thumb|300px|A [[Nouka Baich]] boat race]]
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''[[Pahela Baishakh]]'', the Bengali new year, is the major festival of [[Culture of Bengal|Bengali culture]] and sees widespread festivities. Of the major holidays celebrated in Bangladesh, only Pahela Baishakh comes without any pre-existing expectations (specific religious identity, culture of gift-giving, etc.) and has become an occasion for celebrating the simpler, rural roots of the Bengal. Other cultural festivals include [[Nabanna|Nabonno]] and Poush Parbon, Bengali harvest festivals.
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The Muslim festivals of Eid al-Fitr, [[Eid al-Adha]], [[Milad un Nabi]], [[Muharram]], [[Chand Raat]], [[Barat Night|Shab-e-Barat]]; the Hindu festivals of [[Durga Puja]], [[Janmashtami]] and [[Rath Yatra]]; the Buddhist festival of [[Vesak|Buddha Purnima]], which marks the birth of [[Gautama Buddha]], and the Christian festival of Christmas are [[Public holidays in Bangladesh|national holidays]] in Bangladesh and see the most widespread celebrations in the country. The two Eids are celebrated with a long streak of public holidays and give the city-dwellers opportunity to celebrate the festivals with their families outside the city.
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Alongside are national days like the remembrance of 21 February 1952 [[Language Movement Day]] (declared as [[International Mother Language Day]] by [[UNESCO]] in 1999),<ref name="UNESCO">{{cite web |url=https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000117961.page=38|title=The General Conference proclaim"International Mother Language Day" to be observed on 21 February|publisher=UNESCO |date=16 November 1999 |access-date=21 April 2019}}</ref> [[Independence Day (Bangladesh)|Independence Day]] and [[Victory day of Bangladesh|Victory Day]]. On Language Movement Day, people congregate at the [[Shaheed Minar, Dhaka|Shaheed Minar]] in Dhaka to remember the national heroes of the Bengali Language Movement. Similar gatherings are observed at the [[National Martyrs’ Memorial]] on Independence Day and Victory Day to remember the national heroes of the [[Bangladesh Liberation War]]. These occasions are celebrated with public ceremonies, parades, rallies by citizens, political speeches, fairs, concerts, and various other public and private events, celebrating the history and traditions of Bangladesh. TV and radio stations broadcast special programs and patriotic songs. Many schools and colleges organise fairs, festivals, and concerts that draw the participation of citizens from all levels of Bangladeshi society.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Pahela_Baishakh|title=Pahela Baisakh |website=Banglapedia|access-date=12 July 2019}}</ref>
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===Sports===
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{{Main|Sports in Bangladesh}}
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[[File:Bangladesh team on practice session at Sher-e-Bangla National Cricket Stadium (4).jpg|thumb|250px|Bangladesh team on practice session at Sher-e-Bangla National Cricket Stadium]]
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In rural Bangladesh, several traditional indigenous sports such as [[Kabaddi]], [[Boli Khela]], [[Lathi Khela]] and [[Nouka Baich]] remain fairly popular. While [[Kabaddi]] is the national sport<ref>{{cite book |last=Faroqi |first=Gofran |year=2012 |chapter=Kabadi |chapter-url=http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Kabadi |editor1-last=Islam |editor1-first=Sirajul |editor1-link=Sirajul Islam |editor2-last=Jamal |editor2-first=Ahmed A. |title=Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh |edition=Second |publisher=[[Asiatic Society of Bangladesh]]}}</ref> [[cricket]] is the most popular sport in the country followed by [[association football|football]]. The [[Bangladesh national cricket team|national cricket team]] participated in their first [[Cricket World Cup]] in 1999 and the following year was granted [[Test cricket]] status. Bangladesh reached the quarter-final of the [[2015 Cricket World Cup]], the semi-final of the [[2017 ICC Champions Trophy]] and they reached the final of the [[Asia Cup]] 3 times – in 2012, 2016 and 2018. In February 2020, the Bangladesh youth national cricket team won the men's [[2020 Under-19 Cricket World Cup|Under-19 Cricket World Cup]], held in South Africa. This was Bangladesh's first World Cup victory.<ref>{{cite news|title=U19s Cricket World Cup: Bangladesh beat India in final to win first title|url=https://www.bbc.com/sport/cricket/51437334|work=BBC Sport|date=9 February 2020|access-date=9 February 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|author1=Minhaz Uddin Khan|title=Young Tigers become World Champions|url=https://www.dhakatribune.com/sport/cricket/2020/02/09/u19wc-final-tilak-out-india-103-2-after-29-overs|work=Dhaka Tribune|date=9 February 2020|access-date=9 February 2020}}</ref>
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Women's sports saw significant progress in the 2010s decade in Bangladesh. In 2018, the [[Bangladesh women's national cricket team]] won the [[2018 Women's Twenty20 Asia Cup]] defeating [[India women's national cricket team]] in the final.<ref>{{cite news |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/star-live/women-asia-cup-t20-champions-2018-bangladesh-womens-cricket-team-got-victory-1590118 |title=Champions of Asia T20 Cup 2018: Bangladesh Women's Cricket Team |work=The Daily Star |date=12 June 2018 |access-date=14 August 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180829153434/https://www.thedailystar.net/star-live/women-asia-cup-t20-champions-2018-bangladesh-womens-cricket-team-got-victory-1590118 |archive-date=29 August 2018 |url-status=live}}</ref> [[Bangladesh women's national football team]] has also registered some success at regional level, especially the Under-15 and Under-18 teams.
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Football is a popular sport in Bangladesh, alongside cricket,<ref>{{cite news |last=Melik |first=James |url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-13158011 |title=Bangladesh football vies with cricket for sponsorship |work=BBC News |date=28 April 2011 |access-date=1 November 2012}}</ref> and is governed by the [[Bangladesh Football Federation]] (BFF). Football tournaments are regularly organised in and outside [[Dhaka District|Dhaka]] and football fever grips the nation during every [[FIFA World Cup]]. On 4 November 2018, [[Bangladesh national under-17 football team|Bangladesh national under-15 football team]] won the [[2018 SAFF U-15 Championship]], defeating [[Pakistan national under-17 football team|Pakistan national under-15 football team]] in the final.<ref>{{Cite news | url=https://www.samaa.tv/sports/2018/11/bangladesh-defeat-pakistan-to-win-2018-u15-saff-championships/ | title=Bangladesh defeat Pakistan to win 2018 U15 SAFF Championships |work=Samaa TV | access-date=10 November 2018 | archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181105205159/https://www.samaa.tv/sports/2018/11/bangladesh-defeat-pakistan-to-win-2018-u15-saff-championships/ | archive-date=5 November 2018 | url-status=live}}</ref> Bangladesh archers Ety Khatun and Roman Sana won several gold medals winning all the 10 [[archery]] events (both individual, and team events) in the [[2019 South Asian Games]].<ref>{{Cite news |url=https://www.thedailystar.net/sports/athletics/bangladesh-win-all-10-golds-in-archery-sa-games-2019-1837909 |title=Ety, Sana complete Bangladesh's clean sweep in archery |date=9 December 2019 |work=The Daily Star}}</ref>
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The [[National Sports Council]] regulates 42 sporting federations.<ref>{{cite web|title=All Affiliated National Federation/Association |url=http://nsc.gov.bd/n/?cat=11 |publisher=[[National Sports Council]] |access-date=25 January 2013 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130121160742/http://nsc.gov.bd/n/?cat=11 |archive-date=21 January 2013}}</ref> Athletics, swimming, archery, boxing, volleyball, weight-lifting and wrestling and different forms of martial arts remain popular. [[Chess]] is very popular in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has five grandmasters in chess. Among them, [[Niaz Murshed]] was the first grandmaster in South Asia.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://bdchessfed.com/grand-masters|title=Bangladesh Chess Federation|website=bdchessfed.com}}</ref> In 2010, mountain climber [[Musa Ibrahim]] became the first Bangladeshi climber to conquer [[Mount Everest]].<ref name="dailystardetail">{{cite news |title=Musa conquers Everest |url=http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=139787 |work=The Daily Star |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171027015045/https://www.thedailystar.net/news-detail-139787 |archive-date=27 October 2017 |date=24 May 2010}}</ref> He climbed the top of the summit of Mount Everest.<ref>{{cite news |title=Musa's feat enters the books |url=https://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2010/05/26/musa-s-feat-enters-the-books |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140716143614/https://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2010/05/26/musa-s-feat-enters-the-books |archive-date=16 July 2014 |date=26 May 2010 |newspaper=BdNews24}}</ref> [[Wasfia Nazreen]] is the first Bangladeshi climber to climb the [[Seven Summits]], which are the highest mountains of each of the seven continents of the world.<ref>{{cite web |author1=Mary Anne Potts |title=Bangladeshi Climber Shares Her Spiritual Journey for the Women of Her Country |url=https://www.nationalgeographic.com/adventure/adventure-blog/2016/05/27/bangadeshi-climber-wasfia-nazreen-shares-her-spiritual-journey-for-the-women-of-her-country/ |website=National Geographic |date=27 May 2016}}</ref>
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Bangladesh hosts a number of international tournaments. [[Bangabandhu Cup]] is an international football tournament hosted in the country. Bangladesh hosted the South Asian Games several times. In 2011, Bangladesh co-hosted the [[ICC Cricket World Cup 2011]] with India and Sri Lanka. Bangladesh solely hosted the [[2014 ICC World Twenty20]] championship. Bangladesh hosted the [[Asia Cup]] Cricket Tournament in 2000, 2012, 2014 and 2016.
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===Media and cinema===
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{{Main|Media of Bangladesh|Cinema of Bangladesh}}
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[[File:Anwar Hossain in the film "Nawab Sirajuddoulah" (1967).jpg|thumb|[[Anwar Hossain (actor)|Anwar Hossain]] playing [[Siraj-ud-Daulah]], the last independent [[Nawab of Bengal]], in the 1967 film ''[[Nawab Sirajuddaula (film)|Nawab Sirajuddaulah]]'']]
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The Bangladeshi press is diverse, outspoken and privately owned. Over 200 newspapers are published in the country. [[Bangladesh Betar]] is the state-run radio service.<ref>{{cite news |title=Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra's Rashidul Hossain passes away |url=http://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2015/12/22/swadhin-bangla-betar-kendras-rashidul-hossain-passes-away |work=bdnews24.com |access-date=2 January 2016 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20151229065132/http://bdnews24.com/bangladesh/2015/12/22/swadhin-bangla-betar-kendras-rashidul-hossain-passes-away |archive-date=29 December 2015 |url-status=live}}</ref> The [[British Broadcasting Corporation]] operates the popular [[BBC Bangla]] news and current affairs service. Bengali broadcasts from [[Voice of America]] are also very popular. [[Bangladesh Television]] (BTV) is a state-owned television network. More than 20 privately owned television networks, including several [[news channel]]s. [[Freedom of the media]] remains a major concern due to government attempts at censorship and the harassment of journalists.
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The [[cinema of Bangladesh]] dates back to 1898 when films began screening at the Crown Theatre in Dhaka. The first bioscope on the subcontinent was established in Dhaka that year. The [[Dhaka Nawab Family]] patronised the production of several [[silent film]]s in the 1920s and 30s. In 1931, the East Bengal Cinematograph Society released the first full-length feature film in Bangladesh, titled the ''Last Kiss''. The first feature film in East Pakistan, ''[[Mukh O Mukhosh]]'', was released in 1956. During the 1960s, 25–30 films were produced annually in Dhaka. By the 2000s, Bangladesh produced 80–100 films a year. While the Bangladeshi film industry has achieved limited commercial success, the country has produced notable independent filmmakers. [[Zahir Raihan]] was a prominent documentary-maker assassinated in 1971. The late [[Tareque Masud]] is regarded as one of Bangladesh's outstanding directors for his critically acclaimed films on social issues.<ref>{{Cite news |title=Tareque Masud, filmmaker extraordinaire|url=https://www.thedailystar.net/tareque-masud-filmmaker-extraordinaire-36845|date=13 August 2014|work=The Daily Star|language=en|access-date=28 May 2020}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news |title=Tareque Masud's 63rd birth anniversary observed|url=https://www.unb.com.bd/category/Lifestyle/tareque-masuds-63rd-birth-anniversary-observed/37230|website=UNB|language=en|access-date=28 May 2020}}</ref> Masud was honoured by [[FIPRESCI]] at the 2002 [[Cannes Film Festival]] for his film ''[[Matir Moina|The Clay Bird]]''. [[Tanvir Mokammel]], [[Mostofa Sarwar Farooki]], [[Humayun Ahmed]], [[Alamgir Kabir (filmmaker)|Alamgir Kabir]], and [[Chashi Nazrul Islam]] are some of the prominent directors of Bangladeshi cinema. Bangladesh has a very active film society culture. It started in 1963 in Dhaka. Now around 40 Film Societies are active all over Bangladesh. [[Federation of Film Societies of Bangladesh]] is the parent organisation of the film society movement of Bangladesh. Active film societies include the Rainbow Film Society, [[Children's Film Society]], [[Moviyana Film Society]] and [[Dhaka University Film Society]].
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===Museums and libraries===
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{{Main|Museums in Bangladesh|List of libraries in Bangladesh}}
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[[File:A 10 feet high ancient bed in National Museum of Bangladesh collected from Lohagara,Narail.jpg|thumb|Beds of [[zamindar]]s kept at the [[Bangladesh National Museum]]]]
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The [[Varendra Research Museum]] is the oldest museum in Bangladesh. It houses important collections from both the pre-Islamic and Islamic periods, including the sculptures of the Pala-Sena School of Art and the Indus Valley Civilisation and Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian manuscripts and inscriptions. The Ahsan Manzil, the former residence of the Nawab of Dhaka, is a national museum housing collections from the British Raj. It was the site of the founding conference of the All India Muslim League and hosted many British Viceroys in Dhaka.
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The [[Tajhat Palace]] Museum preserves artefacts of the rich cultural heritage of North Bengal, including Hindu-Buddhist sculptures and Islamic manuscripts. The [[Mymensingh Museum]] houses the personal antique collections of Bengali aristocrats in central Bengal. The [[Ethnological Museum of Chittagong]] showcases the lifestyle of various tribes in Bangladesh. The [[Bangladesh National Museum]] is located in [[Ramna]], Dhaka and has a rich collection of antiquities. The [[Liberation War Museum]] documents the Bangladeshi struggle for independence and the 1971 genocide.
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In ancient times, manuscripts were written on palm leaves, tree barks, parchment vellum and terracotta plates and preserved at monasteries known as ''[[vihara]]s''. The Hussain Shahi dynasty established royal libraries during the Bengal Sultanate. Libraries were established in each district of Bengal by the zamindar gentry during the Bengal Renaissance in the 19th century. The trend of establishing libraries continued until the beginning of World War II. In 1854, four major public libraries were opened, including the Bogra Woodburn Library, the Rangpur Public Library, the Jessore Institute Public Library and the Barisal Public Library.
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The [[Northbrook Hall|Northbrook Hall Public Library]] was established in Dhaka in 1882 in honour of [[Lord Northbrook]], the Governor-General. Other libraries established in the British period included the Victoria Public Library, Natore (1901), the Sirajganj Public Library (1882), the [[Rajshahi Public Library]] (1884), the Comilla Birchandra Library (1885), the Shah Makhdum Institute Public Library, Rajshahi (1891), the Noakhali Town Hall Public Library (1896), the Prize Memorial Library, Sylhet (1897), the Chittagong Municipality Public Library (1904) and the Varendra Research Library (1910). The Great Bengal Library Association was formed in 1925.<ref>{{cite book |last=Rahman |first=Md Zillur |year=2012 |chapter=Library |chapter-url=http://en.banglapedia.org/index.php?title=Library |editor1-last=Islam |editor1-first=Sirajul |editor1-link=Sirajul Islam |editor2-last=Jamal |editor2-first=Ahmed A. |title=Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh |edition=Second |publisher=[[Asiatic Society of Bangladesh]]}}</ref> The [[Central Public Library (Dhaka)|Central Public Library of Dhaka]] was established in 1959. The [[National Library of Bangladesh]] was established in 1972. The [[Bishwo Shahitto Kendro|World Literature Centre]], founded by [[Ramon Magsaysay Award]] winner [[Abdullah Abu Sayeed]], is noted for operating numerous [[mobile library|mobile libraries]] across Bangladesh and was awarded the UNESCO Jon, Amos Comenius Medal.
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==See also==
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{{Portal|Bangladesh|Asia}}
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* [[Index of Bangladesh-related articles]]
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* [[Outline of Bangladesh]]{{clear}}
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==References==
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{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}
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==Cited sources==
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* {{cite book |last=Ahmed |first=Salahuddin |year=2004 |title=Bangladesh: Past and Present |publisher=APH Publishing |isbn=978-81-7648-469-5}}
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* {{cite book|ref=Baxter
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|last=Baxter |first=Craig|author-link = Craig Baxter |year=1997 |title=Bangladesh, from a Nation to a State |publisher=Westview Press |isbn=978-0-8133-3632-9
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|oclc=47885632}}
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* {{cite book |last=Lewis |first=David |year=2011 |title=Bangladesh: Politics, Economy and Civil Society |publisher=Cambridge University Press |isbn=978-1-139-50257-3}}
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==Further reading==
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{{Refbegin|30em}}
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* Ahmed, Nizam. ''The Parliament of Bangladesh'' (Routledge, 2018).
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* {{cite book |last=Ali |first=S. Mahmud |date=2010|title=Understanding Bangladesh |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=FD2KzBG1ejwC|publisher=Columbia University Press |isbn=978-0-231-70143-3}}
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* {{cite book |title= Bangladesh War: Report from Ground Zero |last=  Ghosh |first= Manash |year= 2021 |publisher= Niyogi Books |isbn= 9789391125370}}
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* Baxter, Craig. ''Bangladesh: From a nation to a state'' (Routledge, 2018).
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* {{cite book |last=Bose |first=Neilesh |date=2014 |title=Recasting the Region: Language, Culture, and Islam in Colonial Bengal |publisher=Oxford University Press |isbn=978-0-19-809728-0 }}
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* {{cite book |last=Bose |first=Sarmila |date=2012 |title=Dead Reckoning Memories of the 1971 Bangladesh War |publisher=Hachette UK |isbn=978-93-5009-426-6 }}
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* {{cite book |last=Cardozo |first= Maj Gen Ian |title=In Quest of Freedom: The War of 1971 – Personal Accounts by Soldiers from India and Bangladesh  |date=4 January 2016 |publisher=Bloomsbury India |isbn=978-93-85936-00-5 }}
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* {{cite book |last=Chakrabarty |first=Bidyut | date=2004 |title=The Partition of Bengal and Assam, 1932-1947: Contour of Freedom |publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-1-134-33274-8 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=in1_AgAAQBAJ}}
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* {{cite book |last=Grover |first=Verinder |date=2000 |title=Bangladesh: Government and Politics |publisher=Deep and Deep Publications |isbn=978-81-7100-928-2 }}
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* Guhathakurta, Meghna & Willem van Schendel, eds. (2013) ''The Bangladesh Reader: History, Culture, Politics'' (Duke University Press) {{ISBN|0-8223-5304-0}}
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* Hasnat, GN Tanjina, Md Alamgir Kabir, and Md Akhter Hossain. "Major environmental issues and problems of South Asia, particularly Bangladesh." ''Handbook of environmental materials management'' (2018): 1-40. [https://www.researchgate.net/profile/G_N_Hasnat/publication/323264078_Major_Environmental_Issues_and_Problems_of_South_Asia_Particularly_Bangladesh/links/5e7c678fa6fdcc139c04692f/Major-Environmental-Issues-and-Problems-of-South-Asia-Particularly-Bangladesh.pdf online]
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* Iftekhar Iqbal (2010) ''The Bengal Delta: Ecology, State and Social Change, 1840–1943'' (Palgrave Macmillan) {{ISBN|0-230-23183-7}}
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* Islam, Saiful, and Md Ziaur Rahman Khan. "A review of the energy sector of Bangladesh." ''Energy Procedia'' 110 (2017): 611–618. [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876610217302230/pdf?md5=762df35a45d6d280234429fc79ec79bd&pid=1-s2.0-S1876610217302230-main.pdf online]
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* Jannuzi, F. Tomasson, and James T. Peach. ''The agrarian structure of Bangladesh: An impediment to development'' (Routledge, 2019).
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* {{cite book |last=Katoch |first=Dhruv C |title=Liberation : Bangladesh – 1971 |publisher=Bloomsbury India |isbn=978-93-84898-56-4 |year=2015 }}
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* {{cite book |last=Mookherjee |first=Nayanika |date=2015 |title=The Spectral Wound: Sexual Violence, Public Memories, and the Bangladesh War of 1971 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=JjUWrgEACAAJ|publisher=Duke University Press |isbn=978-0-8223-5949-4}}
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* {{cite book |last=Mohan |first=P.V.S. Jagan |title=Eagles Over Bangladesh: The Indian Air Force in the 1971 Liberation War |date=23 December 2013 |publisher=Harper Collins |isbn=978-93-5136-163-3 }}
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* M. Mufakharul Islam (edited) (2004) Socio-Economic History of Bangladesh: essays in memory of Professor Shafiqur Rahman, 1st Edition, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, {{oclc|156800811}}
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* M. Mufakharul Islam (2007) ''Bengal Agriculture 1920–1946: A Quantitative Study'' (Cambridge University Press), {{ISBN|0-521-04985-7}}
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* {{cite book |last=Openshaw |first=Jeanne |date=2002 |title=Seeking Bauls of Bengal |publisher=Cambridge University Press |isbn=978-0-521-81125-5 }}
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* Prodhan, Mohit. "The educational system in Bangladesh and scope for improvement." ''Journal of International Social Issues'' 4.1 (2016): 11–23. [https://www.winona.edu/socialwork/Media/Prodhan%20The%20Educational%20System%20in%20Bangladesh%20and%20Scope%20for%20Improvement.pdf online]
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* * Srinath Raghavan (2013) ''1971: A Global History of the Creation of Bangladesh'', Harvard University Press, {{ISBN|0-674-72864-5}}
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* {{cite book |last=Rashid |first=Haroun Er |year=1977 |title=Geography of Bangladesh |location=Dhaka |publisher=University Press Ltd. |oclc=4638928}}
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* Riaz, Ali. ''Bangladesh: A political history since independence'' (Bloomsbury Publishing, 2016).
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* {{cite book |last=Riaz |first=Ali |date=2010 |title=Political Islam and Governance in Bangladesh |publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-1-136-92624-2 }}
 +
* {{cite book |last1=Riaz |first1= Ali|last2=Rahman |first2= Mohammad Sajjadur |date=2016 |title=Routledge Handbook of Contemporary Bangladesh |publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-1-317-30877-5 }}
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* {{cite book |last=Schendel |first=Willem van |year=2009 |title=A History of Bangladesh |publisher=Cambridge University Press |isbn=978-0-521-86174-8 }}
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* Shelley, Israt J., et al. "Rice cultivation in Bangladesh: present scenario, problems, and prospects." ''Journal of International Cooperation for Agricultural Development'' 14.4 (2016): 20–29. [http://icrea.agr.nagoya-u.ac.jp/jpn/journal/Vol14_20-29-Review-Shelley.pdf online]
 +
* Sirajul Islam (edited) (1997) History of Bangladesh 1704–1971(Three Volumes: Vol 1: Political History, Vol 2: Economic History Vol 3: Social and Cultural History), 2nd Edition (Revised New Edition), The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh,  {{ISBN|984-512-337-6}}
 +
* Sirajul Islam (Chief Editor) (2003) Banglapedia: A National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh.(10 Vols. Set), (written by 1300 scholars & 22 editors) The Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, {{ISBN|984-32-0585-5}}
 +
* {{cite book |last1=Sisson |first1=Richard |last2=Rose |first2= Leo E|date=1991|title=War and Secession: Pakistan, India, and the Creation of Bangladesh |publisher=University of California Press |isbn= 978-0-520-07665-5}}
 +
* {{cite book |last=Mojlum Khan |first=Muhammad |title=The Muslim Heritage of Bengal: The Lives, Thoughts and Achievements of Great Muslim Scholars, Writers and Reformers of Bangladesh and West Bengal  |publisher=Kube Publishing Ltd |isbn=978-1-84774-052-6 |year=2013 }}
 +
* {{cite book |date=2001|title=Religion, identity & politics: essays on Bangladesh |publisher=International Academic Publishers |isbn=978-1-58868-081-5 }}
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* {{cite book |last= Sogra|first= Khair Jahan|date=2014 |title=The Impact of Gender Differences on the Conflict Management Styles of Managers in Bangladesh: An Analysis |publisher=Cambridge Scholars Publishing |isbn= 978-1-4438-6854-9}}
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* {{cite book |last= Umar|first=Badruddin |date=2006 |title=The Emergence of Bangladesh: Rise of Bengali nationalism, 1958–1971|publisher=Oxford University Press |isbn= 978-0-19-597908-4}}
 +
* Van Schendel, Willem. ''A history of Bangladesh'' (Cambridge University Press, 2020).
 +
* {{cite book |last=Uddin |first=Sufia M. |date=2006|title=Constructing Bangladesh: Religion, Ethnicity, and Language in an Islamic Nation |publisher=University of North Carolina Press |isbn=978-0-8078-7733-3 }}
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* {{cite book |last1=Wahid |first1=Abu N.M.. |last2=Weis |first2= Charles E |date=1996 |title=The Economy of Bangladesh: Problems and Prospects |publisher=Praeger |isbn=978-0-275-95347-8 }}
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{{Refend}}
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==External links==
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{{Sister project links|voy=Bangladesh}}
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'''Government'''
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* {{Official website|http://www.bangladesh.gov.bd}}
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* [http://bida.portal.gov.bd/ Official Site of Bangladesh Investment Development Authority]
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'''General information'''
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* [https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/bangladesh/ Bangladesh]. ''[[The World Factbook]]''. [[Central Intelligence Agency]].
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* {{Curlie|Regional/Asia/Bangladesh}}
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* [https://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-12650940 Bangladesh] from the [[BBC News]]
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* [https://web.archive.org/web/20081026124922/http://ucblibraries.colorado.edu/govpubs/for/bangladesh.htm Bangladesh] from ''UCB Libraries GovPubs''
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* {{osmrelation-inline|184640}}
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* {{wikiatlas|Bangladesh}}
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* [http://www.ifs.du.edu/ifs/frm_CountryProfile.aspx?Country=BD Key Development Forecasts for Bangladesh] from [[International Futures]]
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{{Bangladesh topics}}
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{{South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation|state=collapsed}}
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{{Anchor|Related information}}
  
After the decline of the British [[Bengal Presidency]], the borders of modern Bangladesh were established with the [[Partition of Bengal (1947)|partition of Bengal]] in August 1947 at the time of [[partition of India]], when the region became [[East Pakistan]] as a part of the newly formed [[Dominion of Pakistan]].<ref name=NYT>
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{{Authority control}}
{{cite web |title=Peacocks at Sunset |url=http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/07/03/peacocks-at-sunset/|work=The New York Times |last=Jacobs |first=Frank |date=6 January 2013 |access-date=15 July 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120714183923/http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/07/03/peacocks-at-sunset/ |archive-date=14 July 2012 |url-status=live}}</ref> Later the rise of a pro-democracy movement thrived on [[Bengali nationalism]] and self-determination, leading to the [[Bangladesh Liberation War|Liberation War]] and eventually resulted in the emergence of Bangladesh as a sovereign and independent nation in 1971.
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The [[Bengalis]] make up 98% of the total population of Bangladesh.<ref name="bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd" /><ref name="বাংলাদেশকে জানুন"/> The large [[Muslims|Muslim]] population of Bangladesh makes it the [[Islam by country|third-largest Muslim-majority country]].<ref>{{cite web |title=Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population |work=[[Pew Research Center]] |date=7 October 2009 |access-date=30 November 2019 |url=http://www.pewforum.org/2009/10/07/mapping-the-global-muslim-population/}}</ref> The constitution declares Bangladesh a [[secular state]], while establishing Islam as a [[state religion]].<ref name="Secularism">{{cite book|title=The Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh|quote=Article 2A. – The state religion and Article 12. – Secularism and freedom of religion|url=http://bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd/act-367.html|website=bdlaws.minlaw.gov.bd|publisher=Ministry of Law, The People's Republic of Bangladesh|access-date=17 May 2019}}</ref> As a [[middle power]] in [[Global politics|world politics]],<ref name=balancing>{{cite web|url=https://www.clingendael.org/pub/2018/strategic-monitor-2018-2019/a-balancing-act/|title=A Balancing Act: The Role of Middle Powers in Contemporary Diplomacy |first1=Willem |last1=Oosterveld |first2=Bianca |last2=Torossian |work=Strategic Monitor 2018–2019 |publisher=[[Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael|Clingendael Institute]] |access-date=25 May 2019}}</ref> Bangladesh is a [[Unitary state|unitary]] [[parliamentary democracy]] and [[constitutional republic]] following the [[Westminster system]] of governance. The country is divided into [[Divisions of Bangladesh|eight administrative divisions]] and [[Districts of Bangladesh|64 districts]]. Although the country continues to face the challenges of the [[Rohingya genocide|Rohingya refugee crisis]],<ref>{{cite news |author1=Lisa Schlein |title=Rohingya Refugee Crisis Has Bangladesh, UN Calling for Help {{!}} Voice of America – English |url=https://www.voanews.com/south-central-asia/rohingya-refugee-crisis-has-bangladesh-un-calling-help |work=VOA News |date=3 March 2020 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200305052026/https://www.voanews.com/south-central-asia/rohingya-refugee-crisis-has-bangladesh-un-calling-help |archive-date=5 March 2020 |language=en}}</ref> [[Corruption in Bangladesh|corruption]],<ref>{{Cite journal|last1=Zafarullah|first1=Habib|last2=Siddiquee|first2=Noore Alam|date=1 December 2001|title=Dissecting Public Sector Corruption in Bangladesh: Issues and Problems of Control|journal=Public Organization Review|language=en|volume=1|issue=4|pages=465–486|doi=10.1023/A:1013740000213|s2cid=150815945|issn=1566-7170}}</ref> and the adverse [[effects of climate change]],<ref name="Braun-2010">{{cite news|url=http://voices.nationalgeographic.com/2010/10/20/bangladesh_india_at_risk_from_climate_change/|title=Bangladesh, India Most Threatened by Climate Change, Risk Study Finds|last1=Braun|first1=David Maxwell|date=20 October 2010|work=National Geographic|access-date=14 July 2017|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160503045634/http://voices.nationalgeographic.com/2010/10/20/bangladesh_india_at_risk_from_climate_change/|archive-date=3 May 2016|url-status=dead}}</ref> Bangladesh is one of the [[emerging and growth-leading economies]] of the world, and is also one of the [[Jim O'Neill, Baron O'Neill of Gatley#Next Eleven|Next Eleven]] countries, having Asia's [[List of countries by real GDP growth rate|fastest real GDP growth rate]].<ref name="IMF">{{cite web |url=https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2020/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=49&pr.y=8&sy=2019&ey=2019&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=512%2C668%2C914%2C672%2C612%2C946%2C614%2C137%2C311%2C546%2C213%2C674%2C911%2C676%2C314%2C548%2C193%2C556%2C122%2C678%2C912%2C181%2C313%2C867%2C419%2C682%2C513%2C684%2C316%2C273%2C913%2C868%2C124%2C921%2C339%2C948%2C638%2C943%2C514%2C686%2C218%2C688%2C963%2C518%2C616%2C728%2C223%2C836%2C516%2C558%2C918%2C138%2C748%2C196%2C618%2C278%2C624%2C692%2C522%2C694%2C622%2C962%2C156%2C142%2C626%2C449%2C628%2C564%2C228%2C565%2C924%2C283%2C233%2C853%2C632%2C288%2C636%2C293%2C634%2C566%2C238%2C964%2C662%2C182%2C960%2C359%2C423%2C453%2C935%2C968%2C128%2C922%2C611%2C714%2C321%2C862%2C243%2C135%2C248%2C716%2C469%2C456%2C253%2C722%2C642%2C942%2C643%2C718%2C939%2C724%2C734%2C576%2C644%2C936%2C819%2C961%2C172%2C813%2C132%2C726%2C646%2C199%2C648%2C733%2C915%2C184%2C134%2C524%2C652%2C361%2C174%2C362%2C328%2C364%2C258%2C732%2C656%2C366%2C654%2C144%2C336%2C146%2C263%2C463%2C268%2C528%2C532%2C923%2C944%2C738%2C176%2C578%2C534%2C537%2C536%2C742%2C429%2C866%2C433%2C369%2C178%2C744%2C436%2C186%2C136%2C925%2C343%2C869%2C158%2C746%2C439%2C926%2C916%2C466%2C664%2C112%2C826%2C111%2C542%2C298%2C967%2C927%2C443%2C846%2C917%2C299%2C544%2C582%2C941%2C474%2C446%2C754%2C666%2C698&s=NGDP_RPCH&grp=0&a=  |title=World Economic Outlook Database, April 2020 |website=IMF.org|publisher=[[International Monetary Fund]]|access-date=23 May 2020}}</ref> The [[Economy of Bangladesh|Bangladeshi economy]] is the [[List of countries by GDP (nominal)|39th-largest in the world by nominal GDP]], and the [[List of countries by GDP (PPP)|29th-largest by PPP]].
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Latest revision as of 15:29, 25 January 2022

Template:Use Bangladeshi English

Coordinates: Template:Coord/dec2dms/dN Template:Coord/dec2dms/dE / 24°N 90°E / 24; 90{{#coordinates:24|N|90|E|type:country_region:BD|||| |primary |name= }}

People's Republic of Bangladesh
  • গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ  (language?)
  • Gônoprojatontrī Bangladesh
Flag of Bangladesh Emblem of Bangladesh
Flag Emblem
Anthem: Template:Native phrase
"My Golden Bengal"
March: "Notuner Gaan"
"The Song of Youth"[1]
National Slogan: "Joy Bangla"
"Victory to Bengal"[2][3]
Official Seal of the Government of Bangladesh
Capital
and largest city
Dhaka
Official language
and national language
Bengali[4]
Ethnic groups (2011[5]) Template:Vunblist
Religion Template:Ublist
Demonym Bangladeshi
Government Unitary dominant-party parliamentary republic
 •  President Abdul Hamid
 •  Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina
 •  House Speaker Shirin Sharmin Chaudhury
 •  Chief Justice Hasan Foez Siddique
Legislature Jatiya Sangsad
 •  Declared 26 March 1971 
 •  V-Day 16 December 1971 
 •  Current constitution 16 December 1972 
Area
 •  Total 148,460 [6] km2 (94nd[6])
57,320 sq mi
 •  Water (%) 6.4
 •  Land area 130,170 sq Km[6]
 •  Water area 18,290 sq km[6]
Population
 •  Template:UN Population estimate Template:IncreaseNeutral Template:UN PopulationTemplate:UN Population (8th)
 •  2011 census 149,772,364[7] (8th)
 •  Density 1,106/km2 (7th)
2,864.5/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2021 estimate
 •  Total Increase $1.070 trillion[8] (27th)
 •  Per capita Increase $6,630 (125th)
GDP (nominal) 2021 estimate
 •  Total Increase $411 billion[9] (33rd)
 •  Per capita Increase $2,554 [8] (149th)
Gini (2018)Template:IncreaseNegative 39.5[10]
Template:Color
HDI (2019)Increase 0.632[11]
Template:Color · 133rd
Currency Taka () (BDT)
Time zone BST (UTC+6)
Date format dd-mm-yyyy (CE)
Drives on the left
Calling code +880
Internet TLD .bd
.বাংলা

Template:Contains special characters Bangladesh (/bæŋləˈdɛʃ/;[12] Template:Lang-bn, Template:IPA-bn), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the eighth-most populous country in the world, with a population exceeding 163 million people in an area of either 148,460 square kilometres (57,320 sq mi) or 147,570 square kilometres (56,980 sq mi),[6][13] making it one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Bangladesh shares land borders with India to the west, north, and east, Myanmar to the southeast, and the Bay of Bengal to the south. It is narrowly separated from Nepal and Bhutan by the Siliguri Corridor; and from China by 100 km of the Indian state of Sikkim in the north.[14] Dhaka, the capital and largest city, is the nation's economic, political, and cultural hub. Chittagong, the largest seaport, is the second-largest city.

Bangladesh forms the sovereign part of the historic and ethnolinguistic region of Bengal, which was divided during the Partition of British India in 1947.[15] The country has a Bengali Muslim majority. Ancient Bengal was an important cultural center in the Indian subcontinent as the home of the states of Vanga, Pundra, Gangaridai, Gauda, Samatata, and Harikela. The Mauryan, Gupta, Pala, Sena, Chandra and Deva dynasties were the last pre-Islamic rulers of Bengal. The Muslim conquest of Bengal began in 1204 when Bakhtiar Khalji overran northern Bengal and invaded Tibet. Becoming part of the Delhi Sultanate, three city-states emerged in the 14th century with much of eastern Bengal being ruled from Sonargaon. Sufi missionary leaders like Sultan Balkhi, Shah Jalal and Shah Makhdum Rupos helped in spreading Muslim rule. The region was unified into an independent, unitary Bengal Sultanate. Under Mughal rule, eastern Bengal continued to prosper as the melting pot of Muslims in the eastern subcontinent and attracted traders from around the world. Mughal Bengal became increasingly assertive and independent under the Nawabs of Bengal in the 18th century. In 1757, the betrayal of Mir Jafar resulted in the defeat of Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah to the British East India Company and eventual British dominance across South Asia. The Bengal Presidency grew into the largest administrative unit in British India. The creation of Eastern Bengal and Assam in 1905 set a precedent for the emergence of Bangladesh.

In 1947, East Bengal became the most populous province in the Dominion of Pakistan. It was renamed as East Pakistan with Dhaka becoming the country's legislative capital. The Bengali Language Movement in 1952; the East Bengali legislative election, 1954; the 1958 Pakistani coup d'état; the Six point movement of 1966; and the 1970 Pakistani general election resulted in the rise of Bengali nationalism and pro-democracy movements in East Pakistan. The refusal of the Pakistani military junta to transfer power to the Awami League led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman led to the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, in which the Mukti Bahini aided by India waged a guerrilla war. The conflict saw the 1971 Bangladesh genocide and the massacre of pro-independence Bengali civilians, including intellectuals. The new state of Bangladesh became the first constitutionally secular state in South Asia in 1972.[16] Islam was declared the state religion in 1988.[17][18][19] In 2010, the Bangladesh Supreme Court reaffirmed secular principles in the constitution.[20]

Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic based on the Westminster system. Bengalis make up 98% of the total population of Bangladesh,[4] and the large Muslim population of Bangladesh makes it the third-largest Muslim-majority country. The country is divided into eight administrative divisions and 64 districts.[21] It maintains the third-largest military in South Asia after India and Pakistan; and has been a major contributor to UN peacekeeping operations. A middle power in the Indo-Pacific,[22] Bangladesh is an emerging economy ranked as the 33rd-largest in the world by nominal GDP, and the 29th-largest by PPP. It hosts one of the largest refugee populations in the world due to the Rohingya genocide.[23] Bangladesh faces many challenges, including the adverse effects of climate change,[24] poverty, illiteracy,[25] corruption, authoritarianism and human rights abuses. However, the poverty rate has halved since 2011 and the country is expected to become a middle income country in this decade.[26][27] Once a historic center of the muslin cloth trade, Bangladesh is now one of the world's largest modern garment exporters.

Etymology

The etymology of Bangladesh (Country of Bengal) can be traced to the early 20th century, when Bengali patriotic songs, such as Namo Namo Namo Bangladesh Momo by Kazi Nazrul Islam and Aaji Bangladesher Hridoy by Rabindranath Tagore, used the term.[28] The term Bangladesh was often written as two words, Bangla Desh, in the past. Starting in the 1950s, Bengali nationalists used the term in political rallies in East Pakistan. The term Bangla is a major name for both the Bengal region and the Bengali language. The origins of the term Bangla are unclear, with theories pointing to a Bronze Age proto-Dravidian tribe,[29] the Austric word "Bonga" (Sun god),[30] and the Iron Age Vanga Kingdom.[30] The earliest known usage of the term is the Nesari plate in 805 AD. The term Vangaladesa is found in 11th-century South Indian records.[31][32] The term gained official status during the Sultanate of Bengal in the 14th century.[33][34] Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah proclaimed himself as the first "Shah of Bangala" in 1342.[33] The word Bangla became the most common name for the region during the Islamic period. The Portuguese referred to the region as Bengala in the 16th century.[35] 16th-century historian Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak mentions in his Ain-i-Akbari that the addition of the suffix "al" came from the fact that the ancient rajahs of the land raised mounds of earth 10 feet high and 20 in breadth in lowlands at the foot of the hills which were called "al".[36] This is also mentioned in Ghulam Husain Salim's Riyaz-us-Salatin.[37] The Indo-Aryan suffix Desh is derived from the Sanskrit word deśha, which means "land" or "country". Hence, the name Bangladesh means "Land of Bengal" or "Country of Bengal".[32]

History

Ancient Bengal

File:Mahajanapadas (c. 500 BCE).png
Vanga Kingdom and erstwhile neighbours in ancient South Asia
File:1.পাহাড়পুর বৌদ্ধ বিহার.jpg
Aerial view of Somapura Mahavihara, once the largest monastery in South Asia and now a UNESCO World Heritage Site

Stone Age tools found in Bangladesh indicate human habitation for over 20,000 years,[38]Template:Page needed and remnants of Copper Age settlements date back 4,000 years.[38] Ancient Bengal was settled by Austroasiatics, Tibeto-Burmans, Dravidians and Indo-Aryans in consecutive waves of migration.[38][39] Archaeological evidence confirms that by the second millennium BCE, rice-cultivating communities inhabited the region. By the 11th century people lived in systemically aligned housing, buried their dead, and manufactured copper ornaments and black and red pottery.[40] The Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers were natural arteries for communication and transportation,[40] and estuaries on the Bay of Bengal permitted maritime trade. The early Iron Age saw the development of metal weaponry, coinage, agriculture and irrigation.[40] Major urban settlements formed during the late Iron Age, in the mid-first millennium BCE,[41] when the Northern Black Polished Ware culture developed.[42] In 1879, Alexander Cunningham identified Mahasthangarh as the capital of the Pundra Kingdom mentioned in the Rigveda.[43][44] The oldest inscription in Bangladesh was found in Mahasthangarh and dates from the 3rd century BCE. It is written in the Brahmi script.[45]

Greek and Roman records of the ancient Gangaridai Kingdom, which (according to legend) deterred the invasion of Alexander the Great, are linked to the fort city in Wari-Bateshwar.[46][47] The site is also identified with the prosperous trading centre of Souanagoura listed on Ptolemy's world map.[48] Roman geographers noted a large seaport in southeastern Bengal, corresponding to the present-day Chittagong region.[49]

File:Asia 800ad.jpg
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.

Ancient Buddhist and Hindu states which ruled Bangladesh included the Vanga, Samatata and Pundra kingdoms, the Mauryan and Gupta Empires, the Varman dynasty, Shashanka's kingdom, the Khadga and Candra dynasties, the Pala Empire, the Sena dynasty, the Harikela kingdom and the Deva dynasty. These states had well-developed currencies, banking, shipping, architecture, and art, and the ancient universities of Bikrampur and Mainamati hosted scholars and students from other parts of Asia. Xuanzang of China was a noted scholar who resided at the Somapura Mahavihara (the largest monastery in ancient India), and Atisa travelled from Bengal to Tibet to preach Buddhism. The earliest form of the Bengali language emerged during the eighth century.

Islamic Bengal

File:Bengal Sultanate.png
The Sultanate of Bengal was the sovereign power of Bengal for much of the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries.

The early history of Islam in Bengal is divided into two phases. The first phase is the period of maritime trade with Arabia and Persia between the 8th and 12th centuries. The second phase covers centuries of Muslim dynastic rule after the Islamic conquest of Bengal. The writings of Al-Idrisi, Ibn Hawqal, Al-Masudi, Ibn Khordadbeh and Sulaiman record the maritime links between Arabia, Persia and Bengal.[50] Muslim trade with Bengal flourished after the fall of the Sasanian Empire and the Arab takeover of Persian trade routes. Much of this trade occurred with southeastern Bengal in areas east of the Meghna River. There is speculation regarding the presence of a Muslim community in Bangladesh as early as 690 CE; this is based on the discovery of one of South Asia's oldest mosques in northern Bangladesh.[51][52][50] Bengal was possibly used as a transit route to China by the earliest Muslims. Abbasid coins have been discovered in the archaeological ruins of Paharpur and Mainamati.[53] A collection of Sasanian, Umayyad and Abbasid coins are preserved in the Bangladesh National Museum.[54]

File:Maritime links of the Sultanate of Bengal.png
Maritime links of the Bengal Sultanate

The Muslim conquest of Bengal began with the 1204 Ghurid expeditions led by Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, who overran the Sena capital in Gauda and led the first Muslim army into Tibet.[40] The conquest of Bengal was inscribed in gold coins of the Delhi Sultanate. Bengal was ruled by the Sultans of Delhi for a century under the Mamluk, Balban, and Tughluq dynasties. In the 14th century, three city-states emerged in Bengal, including Sonargaon led by Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah, Satgaon led by Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah and Lakhnauti led by Alauddin Ali Shah. These city-states were led by former governors who declared independence from Delhi. The Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta visited eastern Bengal during the reign of Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah. Ibn Battuta also visited the Sufi leader Shah Jalal in Sylhet. Sufis played an important role in spreading Islam in Bengal through both peaceful conversion and militarily overthrowing pre-Islamic rulers. In 1352, Shamsuddin Ilyas Shah united the three city-states into a single, unitary and independent Bengal Sultanate. The new Sultan of Bengal led the first Muslim army into Nepal and forced the Sultan of Delhi to retreat during an invasion. The army of Ilyas Shah reached as far as Varanasi in the northwest, Kathmandu in the north, Kamarupa in the east and Orissa in the south. Ilyas Shah raided many of these areas and returned to Bengal with treasures. During the reign of Sikandar Shah, Delhi recognized Bengal's independence. The Bengal Sultanate established a network of mint towns which acted as a provincial capitals where the Sultan's currency was minted.[55] Bengal became the eastern frontier of the Islamic world, which stretched from Muslim Spain in the west to Bengal in the east. The Bengali language crystallized as an official court language during the Bengal Sultanate, with prominent writers like Nur Qutb Alam, Usman Serajuddin, Alaul Haq, Alaol, Shah Muhammad Sagir, Abdul Hakim and Syed Sultan; and the emergence of Dobhashi to write Muslim epics in Bengali literature.

The Bengal Sultanate was a melting pot of Muslim political, mercantile and military elites. Muslims from other parts of the world migrated to Bengal for military, bureaucratic and household services.[56] Immigrants included Persians who were lawyers, teachers, clerics, and scholars;[57] Turks from upper India who were originally recruited in Central Asia; and Abyssinians who came via East Africa and arrived in the Bengali port of Chittagong.[56] A highly commercialized and monetized economy evolved.

File:Boat and ship heritage of Bengal.png
Shipbuilding was a major industry in Islamic Bengal, according to Chinese and European accounts.

The two most prominent dynasties of the Bengal Sultanate were the Ilyas Shahi and Hussain Shahi dynasties. The reign of Sultan Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah saw the opening of diplomatic relations with Ming China. Ghiyasuddin was also a friend of the Persian poet Hafez. The reign of the Sultan Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah saw the development of Bengali architecture. During the early 15th-century, the Restoration of Min Saw Mon in Arakan was aided by the army of the Bengal Sultanate. As a result, Arakan became a tributary state of Bengal. Even though Arakan later became independent, Bengali Muslim influence in Arakan persisted for 300 years due to the settlement of Bengali bureaucrats, poets, military personnel, farmers, artisans and sailors. The kings of Arakan fashioned themselves after Bengali Sultans and adopted Muslim titles.[58][59] During the reign of Sultan Alauddin Hussain Shah, the Bengal Sultanate dispatched a naval flotilla and an army of 24,000 soldiers led by Shah Ismail Ghazi to conquer Assam.[60] Bengali forces penetrated deep into the Brahmaputra Valley. Hussain Shah's forces also conquered Jajnagar in Orissa.[61][62] In Tripura, Bengal helped Ratna Manikya I to assume the throne.[63][64][65] The Jaunpur Sultanate, Pratapgarh Kingdom and the island of Chandradwip also came under Bengali control.[66][67][68][69][70] By 1500, Gaur became the fifth-most populous city in the world with a population of 200,000.[71][72] The river port of Sonargaon was used as a base by the Sultans of Bengal during campaigns against Assam, Tripura and Arakan. The Sultans launched many naval raids from Sonargaon.[73] João de Barros described the sea port of Chittagong as "the most famous and wealthy city of the Kingdom of Bengal".[74] Maritime trade linked Bengal with China, Malacca, Sumatra, Brunei, Portuguese India, East Africa, Arabia, Persia, Mesopotamia, Yemen and the Maldives. Bengali ships were among the biggest vessels plying the Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. A royal vessel from Bengal accommodated three embassies from Bengal, Brunei and Sumatra while en route to China and was the only vessel capable of transporting three embassies.[75] Many wealthy Bengali shipowners and merchants lived in Malacca. The Sultans permitted the opening of the Portuguese settlement in Chittagong. The disintegration of the Bengal Sultanate began with the intervention of the Suri Empire. Babur began invading Bengal after creating the Mughal Empire. The Bengal Sultanate collapsed with the overthrow of the Karrani dynasty during the reign of Akbar. However, the Bhati region of eastern Bengal continued to be ruled by aristocrats of the former Bengal Sultanate led by Isa Khan. They formed an independent federation called the Twelve Bhuiyans, with their capital in Sonargaon. They defeated the Mughals in several naval battles. The Bhuiyans ultimately succumbed to the Mughals after Musa Khan was defeated.

File:Bibi Mariam.jpg
The Bibi Mariam Cannon (Lady Mary Cannon) was used by the Mughals to defend their bases.

The Mughal Empire controlled Bengal by the 17th century. During the reign of Emperor Akbar, the Bengali agrarian calendar was reformed to facilitate tax collection. The Mughals established Dhaka as a fort city and commercial metropolis, and it was the capital of Bengal Subah for 75 years.[76] In 1666, the Mughals expelled the Arakanese from Chittagong. Mughal Bengal attracted foreign traders for its muslin and silk goods, and the Armenians were a notable merchant community. A Portuguese settlement in Chittagong flourished in the southeast, and a Dutch settlement in Rajshahi existed in the north. Bengal accounted for 40% of overall Dutch imports from Asia; including more than 50% of textiles and around 80% of silks.[77] The Bengal Subah, described as the Paradise of the Nations,[78] was the empire's wealthiest province, and a major global exporter,[77][79][80] a notable centre of worldwide industries such as muslin, cotton textiles, silk,[40] and shipbuilding.[81] Its citizens also enjoyed one of the world's most superior living standards.[82][83]

During the 18th century, the Nawabs of Bengal became the region's de facto rulers. The ruler's title is popularly known as the Nawab of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa, given that the Bengali Nawab's realm encompassed much of the eastern subcontinent. The Nawabs forged alliances with European colonial companies, making the region relatively prosperous early in the century. Bengal accounted for 50% of the gross domestic product of the empire. The Bengali economy relied on textile manufacturing, shipbuilding, saltpetre production, craftsmanship, and agricultural produce. Bengal was a major hub for international trade – silk and cotton textiles from Bengal were worn in Europe, Japan, Indonesia, and Central Asia.[84][40] Annual Bengali shipbuilding output was 223,250 tons, compared to an output of 23,061 tons in the nineteen colonies of North America. Bengali shipbuilding proved to be more advanced than European shipbuilding before the Industrial Revolution. The flush deck of Bengali rice ships was later replicated in European shipbuilding to replace the stepped deck design for ship hulls.[83][85][86][87][88][89]

File:Lalbagh fort.jpg
Lalbagh Fort was the residence of the Mughal viceroy Shaista Khan.

Eastern Bengal was a thriving melting pot with strong trade and cultural networks. It was a relatively prosperous part of the subcontinent and the center of the Muslim population in the eastern subcontinent.[85][90] The Muslims of eastern Bengal included people of diverse origins from different parts of the world.[citation needed]

The Bengali Muslim population was a product of conversion and religious evolution,[40] and their pre-Islamic beliefs included elements of Buddhism and Hinduism. The construction of mosques, Islamic academies (madrasas) and Sufi monasteries (khanqahs) facilitated conversion, and Islamic cosmology played a significant role in developing Bengali Muslim society. Scholars have theorised that Bengalis were attracted to Islam by its egalitarian social order, which contrasted with the Hindu caste system.[91] By the 15th century, Muslim poets were widely writing in the Bengali language. Syncretic cults, such as the Baul movement, emerged on the fringes of Bengali Muslim society. The Persianate culture was significant in Bengal, where cities like Sonargaon became the easternmost centres of Persian influence.[92][93]

The Mughals had aided France during the Seven Years' War to avoid losing the Bengal region to the British. However, in the Battle of Plassey the British East India Company registered a decisive victory over the Nawab of Bengal and his French[94] allies on 22 June 1757, under the leadership of Robert Clive. The battle followed the order of Siraj-ud-Daulah, the last independent Nawab of Bengal, to the English to stop the extension of their fortification. Robert Clive bribed Mir Jafar, the commander-in-chief of the Nawab's army, and also promised him to make him Nawab of Bengal, which helped him to defeat Siraj-ud-Daulah and capture Calcutta.[95] The battle consolidated the company's presence in Bengal, which later expanded to cover much of India over the next hundred years. Although they had lost control of Bengal Subah, Shah Alam II was involved in the Bengal War which ended once more in their defeat at the Battle of Buxar.[96]Template:Page needed

Colonial period

File:Jesuits at Akbar's court.jpg
Portuguese envoys (top left) at the imperial court of emperor Akbar. The Portuguese settlement in Chittagong flourished until the Mughals expelled the Portuguese in 1666.

Two decades after Vasco Da Gama's landing in Calicut, the Bengal Sultanate permitted the Portuguese settlement in Chittagong to be established in 1528. It became the first European colonial enclave in Bengal. The Bengal Sultanate lost control of Chittagong in 1531 after Arakan declared independence and the established Kingdom of Mrauk U.

Portuguese ships from Goa and Malacca began frequenting the port city in the 16th century. The cartaz system was introduced and required all ships in the area to purchase naval trading licenses from the Portuguese settlement. Slave trade and piracy flourished. The nearby island of Sandwip was conquered in 1602. In 1615, the Portuguese Navy defeated a joint Dutch East India Company and Arakanese fleet near the coast of Chittagong.

The Bengal Sultan after 1534 allowed the Portuguese to create several settlements at Chitagoong, Satgaon,[97] Hughli, Bandel, and Dhaka. In 1535, the Portuguese allied with the Bengal sultan and held the Teliagarhi pass 280 kilometres (170 mi) from Patna helping to avoid the invasion by the Mughals. By then several of the products came from Patna and the Portuguese send in traders, establishing a factory there since 1580.[98]

By the time the Portuguese assured military help against Sher Shah, the Mughals already had started to conquer the Sultanate of Ghiyasuddin Mahmud.[99]

Bengal was the wealthiest region in the Indian subcontinent, and its proto-industrial economy showed signs of driving an Industrial revolution.[100]

The region has been described as the "Paradise of Nations",[101] and its inhabitants's living standards and real wages were among the highest in the world.[102] It alone accounted for 40% of Dutch imports outside the European continent.[77][85] The eastern part of Bengal was globally prominent in industries such as textile manufacturing and shipbuilding,[103] and it was a major exporter of silk and cotton textiles, steel, saltpeter, and agricultural and industrial produce in the world.[85] In 1666, the Mughal government of Bengal led by viceroy Shaista Khan moved to retake Chittagong from Portuguese and Arakanese control. The Anglo-Mughal War was witnessed in 1686.[104][105]

File:Clive.jpg
Lord Clive meeting with Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, which led to the overthrow of the last independent Nawab of Bengal

After the 1757 Battle of Plassey, Bengal was the first region of the Indian subcontinent conquered by the British East India Company. The company formed the Presidency of Fort William, which administered the region until 1858. A notable aspect of Company rule was the Permanent Settlement, which established the feudal zamindari system; in addition, Company policies led to the deindustrialisation of Bengal's textile industry.[106] The capital amassed by the East India Company in Bengal was invested in the emerging Industrial Revolution in Great Britain, in industries such as textile manufacturing.[107][108] The economic mismanagement directly led to the Great Bengal famine of 1770, which is estimated to have caused the deaths of about 10 million people,[109] as a third of the population in the affected region starved to death.[110] Several rebellions broke out during the early 19th century (including one led by Titumir), as Company rule had displaced the Muslim ruling class from power. A conservative Islamic cleric, Haji Shariatullah, sought to overthrow the British by propagating Islamic revivalism.[111] Several towns in Bangladesh participated in the Indian Rebellion of 1857[112] and pledged allegiance to the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar, who was later exiled to neighbouring Burma.

The challenge posed to company rule by the failed Indian Mutiny led to the creation of the British Indian Empire as a crown colony. The British established several schools, colleges, and a university in Bangladesh. Syed Ahmed Khan and Ram Mohan Roy promoted modern and liberal education in the subcontinent, inspiring the Aligarh movement[113] and the Bengal Renaissance.[114] During the late 19th century, novelists, social reformers and feminists emerged from Muslim Bengali society. Electricity and municipal water systems were introduced in the 1890s; cinemas opened in many towns during the early 20th century. East Bengal's plantation economy was important to the British Empire, particularly its jute and tea. The British established tax-free river ports, such as the Port of Narayanganj, and large seaports like the Port of Chittagong.

Bengal had the highest gross domestic product in British India.[115] Bengal was one of the first regions in Asia to have a railway. The first railway in what is now Bangladesh began operating in 1862.[116] In comparison, Japan saw its first railway in 1872. The main railway companies in the region were the Eastern Bengal Railway and Assam Bengal Railway. Railways competed with waterborne transport to become one of the main mediums of transport.[117]

Supported by the Muslim aristocracy, the British government created the province of Eastern Bengal and Assam in 1905; the new province received increased investment in education, transport, and industry.[118] However, the first partition of Bengal created an uproar in Calcutta and the Indian National Congress. In response to growing Hindu nationalism, the All India Muslim League was formed in Dhaka during the 1906 All India Muhammadan Educational Conference. The British government reorganised the provinces in 1912, reuniting East and West Bengal and making Assam a second province.

The Raj was slow to allow self-rule in the colonial subcontinent. It established the Bengal Legislative Council in 1862, and the council's native Bengali representation increased during the early 20th century. The Bengal Provincial Muslim League was formed in 1913 to advocate civil rights for Bengali Muslims within a constitutional framework. During the 1920s, the league was divided into factions supporting the Khilafat movement and favouring co-operation with the British to achieve self-rule. Segments of the Bengali elite supported Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's secularist forces.[119] In 1929, the All Bengal Tenants Association was formed in the Bengal Legislative Council to counter the influence of the Hindu landed gentry, and the Indian Independence and Pakistan Movements strengthened during the early 20th century. After the Morley-Minto Reforms and the diarchy era in the legislatures of British India, the British government promised limited provincial autonomy in 1935. The Bengal Legislative Assembly, British India's largest legislature, was established in 1937.

Although it won most seats in 1937, the Bengal Congress boycotted the legislature. A. K. Fazlul Huq of the Krishak Praja Party was elected as the first Prime Minister of Bengal. In 1940 Huq supported the Lahore Resolution, which envisaged independent states in the subcontinent's northwestern and eastern Muslim-majority regions. The first Huq ministry, a coalition with the Bengal Provincial Muslim League, lasted until 1941; it was followed by a Huq coalition with the Hindu Mahasabha which lasted until 1943. Huq was succeeded by Khawaja Nazimuddin, who grappled with the effects of the Burma Campaign, the Bengal famine of 1943, which killed up to 3 million people,[120] and the Quit India movement. In 1946, the Bengal Provincial Muslim League won the provincial election, taking 113 of the 250-seat assembly (the largest Muslim League mandate in British India). H. S. Suhrawardy, who made a final futile effort for a United Bengal in 1946, was the last premier of Bengal.

Partition of Bengal (1947)

File:Suhrawardy interview on Partition of India.oga
British Bengal's last premier H. S. Suhrawardy speaking about partition

On 3 June 1947, the Mountbatten Plan outlined the partition of British India. On 20 June, the Bengal Legislative Assembly met to decide on the partition of Bengal. At the preliminary joint meeting, it was decided (120 votes to 90) that if the province remained united, it should join the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. At a separate meeting of legislators from West Bengal, it was decided (58 votes to 21) that the province should be partitioned and West Bengal should join the Constituent Assembly of India. At another meeting of legislators from East Bengal, it was decided (106 votes to 35) that the province should not be partitioned and (107 votes to 34) that East Bengal should join the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan if Bengal was partitioned.[121] On 6 July, the Sylhet region of Assam voted in a referendum to join East Bengal. Cyril Radcliffe was tasked with drawing the borders of Pakistan and India, and the Radcliffe Line established the borders of present-day Bangladesh. The Radcliffe Line awarded two-thirds of Bengal as the eastern wing of Pakistan, although the medieval and early modern Bengali capitals of Gaur, Pandua and Murshidabad fell on the Indian side close to the border with Pakistan.

Union with Pakistan

The Dominion of Pakistan was created on 14 August 1947. East Bengal, with Dhaka as its capital, was the most populous province of the 1947 Pakistani federation (led by Governor General Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who promised freedom of religion and secular democracy in the new state).[122][123] East Bengal was also Pakistan's most cosmopolitan province, home to peoples of different faiths, cultures and ethnic groups. Partition gave increased economic opportunity to East Bengalis, producing an urban population during the 1950s.[124][125]

Khawaja Nazimuddin was East Bengal's first chief minister with Frederick Chalmers Bourne its governor. The All Pakistan Awami Muslim League was formed in 1949. In 1950, the East Bengal Legislative Assembly enacted land reform, abolishing the Permanent Settlement and the zamindari system.[126] The 1952 Bengali Language Movement was the first sign of friction between the country's geographically separated wings. The Awami Muslim League was renamed the more-secular Awami League in 1953.[127] The first constituent assembly was dissolved in 1954; this was challenged by its East Bengali speaker, Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan. The United Front coalition swept aside the Muslim League in a landslide victory in the 1954 East Bengali legislative election. The following year, East Bengal has renamed East Pakistan as part of the One Unit program, and the province became a vital part of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization.

File:21 Feb 1953 Dhaka University female students procession.png
Women students of Dhaka University marching in defiance of the Section 144 prohibition on assembly during the Bengali Language Movement in early 1953

Pakistan adopted its first constitution in 1956. Three Bengalis were its Prime Minister until 1957: Nazimuddin, Mohammad Ali of Bogra and Suhrawardy. None of the three completed their terms, and resigned from office. The Pakistan Army imposed military rule in 1958, and Ayub Khan was the country's strongman for 11 years. Political repression increased after the coup. Khan introduced a new constitution in 1962, replacing Pakistan's parliamentary system with a presidential and gubernatorial system (based on electoral college selection) known as Basic Democracy. In 1962 Dhaka became the seat of the National Assembly of Pakistan, a move seen as appeasing increased Bengali nationalism.[128] The Pakistani government built the controversial Kaptai Dam, displacing the Chakma people from their indigenous homeland in the Chittagong Hill Tracts.[129] During the 1965 presidential election, Fatima Jinnah lost to Ayub Khan despite support from the Combined Opposition alliance (which included the Awami League).[130] The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 blocked cross-border transport links with neighbouring India in what is described as a second partition.[131] In 1966, Awami League leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman announced a six-point movement for a federal parliamentary democracy.

According to senior World Bank officials, Pakistan practised extensive economic discrimination against East Pakistan: greater government spending on West Pakistan, financial transfers from East to West Pakistan, the use of East Pakistan's foreign-exchange surpluses to finance West Pakistani imports, and refusal by the central government to release funds allocated to East Pakistan because the previous spending had been under budget;[132] though East Pakistan generated 70 percent of Pakistan's export revenue with its jute and tea.[133] Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was arrested for treason in the Agartala Conspiracy Case and was released during the 1969 uprising in East Pakistan which resulted in Ayub Khan's resignation. General Yahya Khan assumed power, reintroducing martial law.

Ethnic and linguistic discrimination was common in Pakistan's civil and military services, in which Bengalis were under-represented. Fifteen percent of Pakistani central-government offices were occupied by East Pakistanis, who formed 10 percent of the military.[134] Cultural discrimination also prevailed, making East Pakistan forge a distinct political identity.[135] Pakistan banned Bengali literature and music in state media, including the works of Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore.[136] A cyclone devastated the coast of East Pakistan in 1970, killing an estimated 500,000 people,[137] and the central government was criticised for its poor response.[138] After the December 1970 elections, calls for the independence of East Bengal became louder; the Bengali-nationalist Awami League won 167 of 169 East Pakistani seats in the National Assembly. The League claimed the right to form a government and develop a new constitution but was strongly opposed by the Pakistani military and the Pakistan Peoples Party (led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto).

War of Independence

The Bengali population was angered when Prime Minister-elect Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was prevented from taking the office.[139] Civil disobedience erupted across East Pakistan, with calls for independence.[140] Mujib addressed a pro-independence rally of nearly 2 million people in Dacca (as Dhaka used to be spelled in English) on 7 March 1971, where he said, "This time the struggle is for our freedom. This time the struggle is for our independence." The flag of Bangladesh was raised for the first time on 23 March, Pakistan's Republic Day.[141] Later, on 25 March late evening, the Pakistani military junta led by Yahya Khan launched a sustained military assault on East Pakistan under the code name of Operation Searchlight.[142][143] The Pakistan Army arrested Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and flew him to Karachi.[144][145][146] However, before his arrest Mujib proclaimed the Independence of Bangladesh at midnight on 26 March which led the Bangladesh Liberation War to break out within hours.[citation needed] The Pakistan Army and its local supporters continued to massacre Bengalis, in particular students, intellectuals, political figures, and Hindus in the 1971 Bangladesh genocide. The Mukti Bahini, a guerrilla resistance force, also violated human rights during the conflict.[147] During the war, an estimated 0.3 to 3.0 million people were killed and several million people took shelter in neighbouring India.[148]

Global public opinion turned against Pakistan as news of the atrocities spread;[149] the Bangladesh movement was supported by prominent political and cultural figures in the West, including Ted Kennedy, George Harrison, Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Victoria Ocampo and André Malraux.[150][151][152] The Concert for Bangladesh was held at Madison Square Garden in New York City to raise funds for Bangladeshi refugees. The first major benefit concert in history, it was organised by Harrison and Indian Bengali sitarist Ravi Shankar.[153]

During the Bangladesh Liberation War, Bengali nationalists declared independence and formed the Mukti Bahini (the Bangladeshi National Liberation Army). The Provisional Government of Bangladesh was established on 17 April 1971, converting the 469 elected members of the Pakistani national assembly and East Pakistani provincial assembly into the Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh. The provisional government issued a proclamation that became the country's interim constitution and declared "equality, human dignity, and social justice" as its fundamental principles. Due to Mujib's detention, Syed Nazrul Islam took over the role of Acting President, while Tajuddin Ahmad was named Bangladesh's first Prime Minister. The Mukti Bahini and other Bengali guerrilla forces formed the Bangladesh Forces, which became the military wing of the provisional government. Led by General M. A. G. Osmani and eleven sector commanders, the forces held the countryside during the war. They conducted wide-ranging guerrilla operations against Pakistani forces. As a result, almost the entire country except for the capital Dacca was liberated by Bangladesh Forces by late November.[citation needed]

This led the Pakistan Army to attack neighbouring India's western front on 2 December 1971. India retaliated in both the western and eastern fronts. With a joint ground advance by Bangladeshi and Indian forces, coupled with air strikes by both India and the small Bangladeshi air contingent, the capital Dacca was liberated from Pakistani occupation in mid-December. During the last phase of the war, both the Soviet Union and the United States dispatched naval forces to the Bay of Bengal in a Cold War standoff. The nine month long war ended with the surrender of Pakistani armed forces to the Bangladesh-India Allied Forces on 16 December 1971.[154][not in citation given][155][not in citation given] Under international pressure, Pakistan released Rahman from imprisonment on 8 January 1972 and he was flown by the British Royal Air Force to a million-strong homecoming in Dacca.[156][157] Remaining Indian troops were withdrawn by 12 March 1972, three months after the war ended.[158]

The cause of Bangladeshi self-determination was recognised around the world. By August 1972, the new state was recognised by 86 countries.[149] Pakistan recognised Bangladesh in 1974 after pressure from most of the Muslim countries.[159]

People's Republic of Bangladesh

First parliamentary era

File:Sheikh Mujibur Rahman casting ballot 1970 election.jpg
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman casting his ballot during the 1970 general election, which led to the breakup of East and West Pakistan; and the independence of Bangladesh

The constituent assembly adopted the constitution of Bangladesh on 4 November 1972, establishing a secular, multiparty parliamentary democracy. The new constitution included references to socialism, and Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman nationalised major industries in 1972.[160] A major reconstruction and rehabilitation program was launched. The Awami League won the country's first general election in 1973, securing a large majority in the "Jatiyo Sangshad", the national parliament. Bangladesh joined the Commonwealth of Nations, the UN, the OIC and the Non-Aligned Movement, and Rahman strengthened ties with India. Amid growing agitation by the opposition National Awami Party and Jashod, he became increasingly authoritarian. Rahman amended the constitution, giving himself more emergency powers (including the suspension of fundamental rights). The Bangladesh famine of 1974 also worsened the political situation.[161]

Presidential era (1975–1991)

In January 1975, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman introduced one-party socialist rule under BAKSAL. Rahman banned all newspapers except four state-owned publications and amended the constitution to increase his power. He was assassinated during a coup on 15 August 1975. Martial law was declared, and the presidency passed to the usurper Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad for four months. Ahmad is widely regarded as a traitor by Bangladeshis.[162] Tajuddin Ahmad, the nation's first prime minister, and four other independence leaders were assassinated on 4 November 1975. Chief Justice Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem was installed as president by the military on 6 November 1975. Bangladesh was governed by a military junta led by the Chief Martial Law Administrator for three years. In 1977, the army chief Ziaur Rahman became president. Rahman reinstated multiparty politics, privatised industries and newspapers, established BEPZA and held the country's second general election in 1979. A semi-presidential system evolved, with the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) governing until 1982. Rahman was assassinated in 1981 and was succeeded by Vice-president Abdus Sattar. Sattar received 65.5 per cent of the vote in the 1981 presidential election.[163]

After a year in office, Sattar was overthrown in the 1982 Bangladesh coup d'état. Chief Justice A. F. M. Ahsanuddin Chowdhury was installed as president, but army chief Hussain Muhammad Ershad became the country's de facto leader and assumed the presidency in 1983. Ershad lifted martial law in 1986. He governed with four successive prime ministers (Ataur Rahman Khan, Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury, Moudud Ahmed and Kazi Zafar Ahmed) and a parliament dominated by his Jatiyo Party. General elections were held in 1986 and 1988, although the opposition BNP and Awami League boycotted the latter. Ershad pursued administrative decentralisation, dividing the country into 64 districts, and pushed Parliament to make Islam the state religion in 1988.[164] A 1990 mass uprising forced him to resign, and Chief Justice Shahabuddin Ahmed led the country's first caretaker government as part of the transition to parliamentary rule.[163]

Parliamentary era (1991–present)

File:Muhammad yunus at weforum.jpg
Nobel laureate Yunus at the 2009 meeting of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland

After the 1991 general election, the twelfth amendment to the constitution restored the parliamentary republic and Begum Khaleda Zia became Bangladesh's first female prime minister. Zia, a former first lady, led a BNP government from 1990 to 1996. In 1991, her finance minister, Saifur Rahman, began a major program to liberalise the Bangladeshi economy.[161]

In February 1996, a general election was held, which was boycotted by all opposition parties giving a 300 (of 300) seat victory for BNP. This election was deemed illegitimate, so a system of a caretaker government was introduced to oversee the transfer of power and a new election was held in June 1996, overseen by Justice Muhammad Habibur Rahman, the first Chief Adviser of Bangladesh. The Awami League won the seventh general election, marking its leader Sheikh Hasina's first term as Prime Minister. Hasina's first term was highlighted by the Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord and a Ganges water-sharing treaty with India. The second caretaker government, led by Chief Adviser Justice Latifur Rahman, oversaw the 2001 Bangladeshi general election which returned Begum Zia and the BNP to power.

The second Zia administration saw improved economic growth, but political turmoil gripped the country between 2004 and 2006. A radical Islamist militant group, the JMB, carried out a series of terror attacks. The evidence of staging these attacks by these extremist groups have been found in the investigation. Hundreds of suspected members were detained in numerous security operations in 2006, including the two chiefs of the JMB, Shaykh Abdur Rahman and Bangla Bhai, who was executed with other top leaders in March 2007, bringing the militant group to an end.[165]

In 2006, at the end of the term of the BNP administration, there was widespread political unrest related to the handover of power to a caretaker government. As such, the Bangladeshi military urged President Iajuddin Ahmed to impose a state of emergency and a caretaker government, led by technocrat Fakhruddin Ahmed, was installed.[161] Emergency rule lasted for two years, during which time investigations into members of both Awami League and BNP were conducted, including their leaders Sheikh Hasina and Khaleda Zia.[166][167] In 2008, the ninth general election saw a return to power for Sheikh Hasina and the Awami League led Grand Alliance in a landslide victory. In 2010, the Supreme Court ruled martial law illegal and affirmed secular principles in the constitution. The following year, the Awami League abolished the caretaker government system.

Citing the lack of caretaker government, the 2014 general election was boycotted by the BNP and other opposition parties, giving the Awami League a decisive victory. The election was controversial with reports of violence and an alleged crackdown on the opposition in the run-up to the election, and 153 seats (of 300) went uncontested in the election. Despite the controversy, Hasina went on to form a government that saw her return for a third term as Prime Minister. Due to strong domestic demand, Bangladesh emerged as one of the fastest-growing economies in the world.[168] However, human rights abuses increased under the Hasina administration, particularly enforced disappearances. Between 2016 and 2017, an estimated 1 million Rohingya refugees took shelter in southeastern Bangladesh amid a military crackdown in neighbouring Rakhine State, Myanmar.

In 2018, the country saw major movements for government quota reforms and road-safety. The 2018 Bangladeshi general election was marred by allegations of widespread vote rigging.[169] The Awami League won 259 out of 300 seats and the main opposition alliance Jatiya Oikya Front secured only 8 seats, with Sheikh Hasina becoming the longest-serving prime minister in Bangladeshi history.[170] Pro-democracy leader Dr. Kamal Hossain called for an annulment of the election result and for a new election to be held in a free and fair manner.[171] The election was also observed by European Union observers.[172]

Geography

File:Map of Bangladesh-en.svg
Physical map of Bangladesh

Bangladesh is a small, lush country in South Asia, located on the Bay of Bengal. It is surrounded almost entirely by neighbouring India—and shares a small border with Myanmar to its southeast, though it lies very close to Nepal, Bhutan, and China. The country is divided into three regions. Most of the country is dominated by the fertile Ganges Delta, the largest river delta in the world.[173] The northwest and central parts of the country are formed by the Madhupur and the Barind plateaus. The northeast and southeast are home to evergreen hill ranges.

The Ganges delta is formed by the confluence of the Ganges (local name Padma or Pôdda), Brahmaputra (Jamuna or Jomuna), and Meghna rivers and their respective tributaries. The Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna, finally flowing into the Bay of Bengal. Bangladesh is called the "Land of Rivers";[174] as it is home to over 57 trans-boundary rivers. However, this resolves water issues politically complicated, in most cases, as the country is a lower riparian state to India.[175]

Bangladesh is predominantly rich fertile flat land. Most of it is less than 12 m (Template:Convert/Loff) above sea level, and it is estimated that about 10% of its land would be flooded if the sea level were to rise by 1 m (Template:Convert/Loff).[176] 17% of the country is covered by forests and 12% is covered by hill systems. The country's haor wetlands are of significance to global environmental science.

With an elevation of 1,064 m (Template:Convert/Loff), Saka Haphong (also known as Mowdok Mual) near the border with Myanmar, is claimed to be the highest peak of Bangladesh.[177] However, it is not yet widely recognised as the highest point of the country, and most sources give the honor to Keokradong.[178]

Administrative geography

Template:Bangladesh Divisions Image Map Bangladesh is divided into eight administrative divisions,[179][178][180] each named after their respective divisional headquarters: Barisal (officially Barishal[181]), Chittagong (officially Chattogram[181]), Dhaka, Khulna, Mymensingh, Rajshahi, Rangpur, and Sylhet.

Divisions are subdivided into districts (zila). There are 64 districts in Bangladesh, each further subdivided into upazila (subdistricts) or thana. The area within each police station, except for those in metropolitan areas, is divided into several unions, with each union consisting of multiple villages. In the metropolitan areas, police stations are divided into wards, further divided into mahallas.

There are no elected officials at the divisional or district levels, and the administration is composed only of government officials. Direct elections are held in each union (or ward) for a chairperson and a number of members. In 1997, a parliamentary act was passed to reserve three seats (out of 12) in every union for female candidates.[182]

Administrative Divisions of Bangladesh
Division Capital Established Area (km2)
[183][full citation needed]
2021 Population
(projected)[184]
Density
2021[183]
Barisal Division Barisal 1 January 1993 13,297 9,713,000 730
Chittagong Division Chittagong 1 January 1829 33,771 34,747,000 1,028
Dhaka Division Dhaka 1 January 1829 20,551 42,607,000 2,073
Khulna Division Khulna 1 October 1960 22,272 18,217,000 818
Mymensingh Division Mymensingh 14 September 2015 10,569 13,457,000 1,273
Rajshahi Division Rajshahi 1 January 1829 18,197 21,607,000 1,187
Rangpur Division Rangpur 25 January 2010 16,317 18,868,000 1,156
Sylhet Division Sylhet 1 August 1995 12,596 12,463,000 989

Climate

File:Flooding after 1991 cyclone.jpg
Flooding after the 1991 Bangladesh cyclone, which killed around 140,000 people

Straddling the Tropic of Cancer, Bangladesh's climate is tropical, with a mild winter from October to March and a hot, humid summer from March to June. The country has never recorded an air temperature below Template:Convert/°C, with a record low of Template:Convert/°C in the northwest city of Dinajpur on 3 February 1905.[186] A warm and humid monsoon season lasts from June to October and supplies most of the country's rainfall.

Natural calamities, such as floods, tropical cyclones, tornadoes, and tidal bores occur almost every year,[187] combined with the effects of deforestation, soil degradation and erosion. The cyclones of 1970 and 1991 were particularly devastating, the latter killing some 140,000 people.[188]

In September 1998, Bangladesh saw the most severe flooding in modern world history. As the Brahmaputra, the Ganges and Meghna spilt over and swallowed 300,000 houses, 9,700 km (Template:Convert/Loff) of road and 2,700 km (Template:Convert/Loff) of embankment, 1,000 people were killed and 30 million more were made homeless; 135,000 cattle were killed; 50 km2 (Template:Convert/mi2) of land were destroyed; and 11,000 km (Template:Convert/Loff) of roads were damaged or destroyed. Effectively, two-thirds of the country was underwater. The severity of the flooding was attributed to unusually high monsoon rains, the shedding of equally unusually large amounts of melt water from the Himalayas, and the widespread cutting down of trees (that would have intercepted rain water) for firewood or animal husbandry.[189] As a result of various international and national level initiatives in disaster risk reduction, human toll and economic damage from floods and cyclones have come down over the years.[190] A similar country wide flood in 2007, which left five million people displaced, had a death toll around 500.[191]

Bangladesh is recognised to be one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change.[192][193] Over the course of a century, 508 cyclones have affected the Bay of Bengal region, 17 percent of which are believed to have caused landfall in Bangladesh.[194] Natural hazards that come from increased rainfall, rising sea levels, and tropical cyclones are expected to increase as the climate changes, each seriously affecting agriculture, water and food security, human health, and shelter.[195] It is estimated that by 2050, a 3 feet rise in sea levels will inundate some 20 percent of the land and displace more than 30 million people.[196] To address the sea level rise threat in Bangladesh, the Bangladesh Delta Plan 2100 has been launched.[197][198]

Biodiversity

Bangladesh ratified the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 3 May 1994.[199] As of 2014, the country was set to revise its National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan.[199]

Bangladesh is located in the Indomalayan realm, and lies within four terrestrial ecoregions: Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests, Mizoram–Manipur–Kachin rain forests, Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests, and Sundarbans mangroves.[200] Its ecology includes a long sea coastline, numerous rivers and tributaries, lakes, wetlands, evergreen forests, semi evergreen forests, hill forests, moist deciduous forests, freshwater swamp forests and flat land with tall grass. The Bangladesh Plain is famous for its fertile alluvial soil which supports extensive cultivation. The country is dominated by lush vegetation, with villages often buried in groves of mango, jackfruit, bamboo, betel nut, coconut and date palm.[201] The country has up to 6000 species of plant life, including 5000 flowering plants.[202] Water bodies and wetland systems provide a habitat for many aquatic plants. Water lilies and lotuses grow vividly during the monsoon season. The country has 50 wildlife sanctuaries.

Bangladesh is home to much of the Sundarbans, the world's largest mangrove forest, covering an area of 6,000 km2 in the southwest littoral region. It is divided into three protected sanctuaries–the South, East and West zones. The forest is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The northeastern Sylhet region is home to haor wetlands, a unique ecosystem. It also includes tropical and subtropical coniferous forests, a freshwater swamp forest, and mixed deciduous forests. The southeastern Chittagong region covers evergreen and semi-evergreen hilly jungles. Central Bangladesh includes the plainland Sal forest running along with the districts of Gazipur, Tangail and Mymensingh. St. Martin's Island is the only coral reef in the country.

Bangladesh has an abundance of wildlife in its forests, marshes, woodlands and hills.[201] The vast majority of animals dwell within a habitat of 150,000 km2 .[203] The Bengal tiger, clouded leopard, saltwater crocodile, black panther and fishing cat are among the chief predators in the Sundarbans.[204] Northern and eastern Bangladesh is home to the Asian elephant, hoolock gibbon, Asian black bear and oriental pied hornbill.[205]

The Chital deer are widely seen in southwestern woodlands. Other animals include the black giant squirrel, capped langur, Bengal fox, sambar deer, jungle cat, king cobra, wild boar, mongooses, pangolins, pythons and water monitors. Bangladesh has one of the largest populations of Irrawaddy dolphins and Ganges dolphins. A 2009 census found 6,000 Irrawaddy dolphins inhabiting the littoral rivers of Bangladesh.[206] The country has numerous species of amphibians (53), reptiles (139), marine reptiles (19) and marine mammals (5). It also has 628 species of birds.[207]

Several animals became extinct in Bangladesh during the last century, including the one-horned and two-horned rhinoceros and common peafowl. The human population is concentrated in urban areas, limiting deforestation to a certain extent. Rapid urban growth has threatened natural habitats. Although many areas are protected under law, some Bangladeshi wildlife is threatened by this growth. Furthermore, access to biocapacity in Bangladesh is low. In 2016, Bangladesh had 0.4 global hectares[208] of biocapacity per person within its territory, or about one fourth of the world average. In contrast, in 2016, they used 0.84 global hectares of biocapacity – their ecological footprint of consumption. As a result, Bangladesh is running a biocapacity deficit.[208]

The Bangladesh Environment Conservation Act was enacted in 1995. The government has designated several regions as Ecologically Critical Areas, including wetlands, forests, and rivers. The Sundarbans tiger project and the Bangladesh Bear Project are among the key initiatives to strengthen conservation.[205]

Politics and government

File:Bangabhaban.jpg
Bangabhaban, the official residence of the President of Bangladesh, was built in 1905 during the British Raj for use by the Viceroy of India and the Governor of Bengal.

Bangladesh is a de jure representative democracy under its constitution, with a Westminster-style unitary parliamentary republic that has universal suffrage. The head of government is the Prime Minister, who is invited to form a government every five years. The President invites the leader of the largest party in parliament to become Prime Minister of the world's fifth-largest democracy.[209] Bangladesh experienced a two party system between 1990 and 2014, when the Awami League and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) alternated in power. During this period, elections were managed by a neutral caretaker government. But the caretaker government was abolished by the Awami League government in 2011. The BNP boycotted the next election in 2014, arguing that it would not be fair without a caretaker government. The BNP-led Jatiya Oikya Front participated in the 2018 election. The election saw many allegations of irregularities.

One of the key aspects of Bangladeshi politics is the "spirit of the liberation war", which refers to the ideals of the liberation movement during the Bangladesh Liberation War.[210] The Proclamation of Independence enunciated the values of "equality, human dignity and social justice". In 1972, the constitution included a bill of rights and declared "nationalism, socialism, democracy and secularity" as the principles of government policy. Socialism was later de-emphasised and neglected by successive governments. Bangladesh has a market-based economy. To many Bangladeshis, especially in the younger generation, the spirit of the liberation war is a vision for a society based on civil liberties, human rights, the rule of law and good governance.[211]

Executive branch

The Government of Bangladesh is overseen by a cabinet headed by the Prime Minister of Bangladesh. The tenure of a parliamentary government is five years. The Bangladesh Civil Service assists the cabinet in running the government. Recruitment for the civil service is based on a public examination. In theory, the civil service should be a meritocracy. But a disputed quota system coupled with politicisation and preference for seniority have allegedly affected the civil service's meritocracy.[212] The President of Bangladesh is the ceremonial head of state[213] whose powers include signing bills passed by parliament into law. The President is elected by the parliament and has a five-year term. Under the constitution, the president acts on the prime minister's advice. The President is the Supreme Commander of the Bangladesh Armed Forces and the chancellor of all universities.

Legislative branch

The Jatiya Sangshad (National Parliament) is the unicameral parliament. It has 350 Members of Parliament (MPs), including 300 MPs elected on the first past the post system and 50 MPs appointed to reserved seats for women's empowerment. Article 70 of the Constitution of Bangladesh forbids MPs from voting against their party. However, several laws proposed independently by MPs have been transformed into legislation, including the anti-torture law.[214] The parliament is presided over by the Speaker of the Jatiya Sangsad, who is second in line to the president as per the constitution. There is also a Deputy Speaker. When a president is incapable of performing duties (i.e. due to illness), the Speaker steps in as Acting President and the Deputy Speaker becomes Acting Speaker. A recurring proposal suggests that the Deputy Speaker should be an opposition member.[215]

Legal system

The Supreme Court of Bangladesh is the highest court of the land, followed by the High Court and Appellate Divisions. The head of the judiciary is the Chief Justice of Bangladesh, who sits on the Supreme Court. The courts have wide latitude in judicial review, and judicial precedent is supported by Article 111 of the constitution. The judiciary includes district and metropolitan courts divided into civil and criminal courts. Due to a shortage of judges, the judiciary has a large backlog. The Bangladesh Judicial Service Commission is responsible for judicial appointments, salaries, and discipline.

Bangladesh's legal system is based on common law and its principal source of laws are acts of Parliament.[216] The Bangladesh Code includes a list of all laws in force in the country. The code began in 1836, and most of its listed laws were crafted under the British Raj by the Bengal Legislative Council, the Bengal Legislative Assembly, the Eastern Bengal and Assam Legislative Council, the Imperial Legislative Council and the Parliament of the United Kingdom. One example is the 1860 Penal Code. From 1947 to 1971, laws were enacted by Pakistan's national assembly and the East Pakistani legislature. The Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh was the country's provisional parliament until 1973 when the first elected Jatiyo Sangshad (National Parliament) was sworn in. Although most of Bangladesh's laws were compiled in English, after a 1987 government directive, laws are now primarily written in Bengali. While most Bangladeshi law is secular; marriage, divorce, and inheritance are governed by Islamic, Hindu and Christian family law. Legal developments often influence the judiciary in the Commonwealth of Nations, such as the doctrine of legitimate expectation. The constitution includes a list of fundamental rights inspired by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and was drafted by leading lawyer Kamal Hossain.[217] In the 1970s, judges invalidated detentions under the Special Powers Act, 1974 through cases such as Aruna Sen v. Government of Bangladesh and Abdul Latif Mirza v. Government of Bangladesh. In 2008, the Supreme Court paved the way for citizenship for the Stranded Pakistanis, who were an estimated 300,000 stateless people.[218] Despite being a non-signatory of the UN Refugee Convention, Bangladesh has taken in Rohingya refugees since 1978 and the country is now home to a million refugees. Bangladesh is an active member of the International Labour Organization (ILO) since 1972. It has ratified 33 ILO conventions, including the seven fundamental ILO conventions.[219] Bangladesh has ratified the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.[220][221] Judicial activism has often upheld human rights.

Military

The Bangladesh Armed Forces have inherited the institutional framework of the British military and the British Indian Army.[222] It was formed in 1971 from the military regiments of East Pakistan. In 2018, the active personnel strength of the Bangladesh Army was around 157,500,[223] excluding the Air Force and the Navy (24,000).[224] In addition to traditional defence roles, the military has supported civil authorities in disaster relief and provided internal security during periods of political unrest. For many years, Bangladesh has been the world's largest contributor to UN peacekeeping forces. In February 2015, the country made major deployments to Côte d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Darfur, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Golan Heights, Haiti, Lebanon, Liberia and South Sudan.[225]

The Bangladesh Navy is one of the largest navies among the countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal, including a fleet of guided-missile frigates, submarines, cutters and aircraft. The Bangladesh Air Force is equipped with several Russian multi-role fighter jets. Bangladesh cooperates defensively with the United States Armed Forces, participating in the Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) exercises. Ties between the Bangladeshi and the Indian military exist with high-level visits by the military chiefs of both countries.[226][227] Most of Bangladesh's military equipment comes from China.[228] In 2019, Bangladesh ratified the UN Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.[229]

Foreign relations

File:1st Saarc summit.jpg
First South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) meeting in 1985 in Dhaka (l-r, top row: the presidents of Pakistan and the Maldives, the king of Bhutan, the president of Bangladesh, the prime minister of India, the king of Nepal and the president of Sri Lanka)

The first major intergovernmental organisation joined by Bangladesh was the Commonwealth of Nations in 1972. The country joined the United Nations in 1974 and has been elected twice to the UN Security Council. Ambassador Humayun Rashid Choudhury was elected president of the UN General Assembly in 1986. Bangladesh relies on multilateral diplomacy in the World Trade Organization. It is a major contributor to UN peacekeeping, providing 113,000 personnel to 54 UN missions in the Middle East, the Balkans, Africa and the Caribbean in 2014.[230]

In addition to membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations, Bangladesh pioneered regional co-operation in South Asia. Bangladesh is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), an organisation designed to strengthen relations and promote economic and cultural growth among its members. It has hosted several summits, and two Bangladeshi diplomats were the organisation's secretary-general.

Bangladesh joined the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) in 1973. It has hosted the summit of OIC foreign ministers, which addresses issues, conflicts and disputes affecting Muslim-majority countries. Bangladesh is a founding member of the Developing 8 Countries, a bloc of eight Muslim-majority republics.

The neighbouring country of Myanmar (Burma) was one of the first countries to recognise Bangladesh.[231] Despite common regional interests, Bangladesh-Myanmar relations have been strained by the Rohingya refugee crisis and the isolationist policies of the Myanmar military. In 2012, both countries came to terms at the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea over maritime boundaries in the Bay of Bengal.[232] In 2016 and 2017, relations with Myanmar have strained once again as over 700,000 Rohingya refugees illegally entered Bangladesh fleeing persecution, ethnic cleansing, genocide, and other atrocities in Myanmar. The parliament, government, and civil society of Bangladesh have been at the forefront of international criticism against Myanmar for military operations against the Rohingya, which the United Nations has described as ethnic cleansing.[233][234]

Bangladesh's most politically important bilateral relationship is with neighbouring India. In 2015, major Indian newspapers called Bangladesh a "trusted friend".[235] Bangladesh and India are South Asia's largest trading partners. The countries are collaborating in regional economic and infrastructure projects, such as a regional motor-vehicle agreement in eastern South Asia and a coastal shipping agreement in the Bay of Bengal. Indo-Bangladesh relations often emphasise a shared cultural heritage, democratic values and a history of support for Bangladeshi independence. Despite political goodwill, border killings of Bangladeshi civilians and the lack of a comprehensive water-sharing agreement for 54 transboundary rivers are major issues. In 2017, India joined Russia and China in refusing to condemn Myanmar's atrocities against the Rohingya, which contradicted with Bangladesh's demand for recognising Rohingya human rights.[236] However, the Indian air force delivered aid shipments for Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh.[237] The crackdown against cattle smuggling in India has also affected Bangladesh. The Bangladeshi beef and leather industries have seen increased prices due to the Indian BJP government's campaign against the export of beef and cattle skin.[238]

Pakistan and Bangladesh have a US$550 million trade relationship,[239] particularly in Pakistani cotton imports for the Bangladeshi textile industry. Although Bangladeshi and Pakistani businesses have invested in each other, diplomatic relations are strained because of Pakistani denial of the 1971 Bangladesh genocide. The execution of a Jamaat-e-Islami leader in 2013 on committing of war crimes during the liberation war was opposed in Pakistan and led to further strained ties.[240]

Sino-Bangladesh relations date to the 1950s and are relatively warm, despite the Chinese leadership siding with Pakistan during Bangladesh's war of independence. China and Bangladesh established bilateral relations in 1976, which have significantly strengthened, and the country is considered a cost-effective source of arms for the Bangladeshi military.[241] Since the 1980s 80 percent of Bangladesh's military equipment has been supplied by China (often with generous credit terms), and China is Bangladesh's largest trading partner. Both countries are part of the BCIM Forum.

Japan is Bangladesh's largest economic-aid provider in the form of loans and the countries have common political goals.[242][243] The United Kingdom has longstanding economic, cultural and military links with Bangladesh. The United States is a major economic and security partner, its largest export market and foreign investor. Seventy-six percent of Bangladeshis viewed the United States favourably in 2014, one of the highest ratings among Asian countries.[244][245] The United States views Bangladesh as a key partner in the Indo-Pacific.[246] The European Union is Bangladesh's largest regional market, conducting public diplomacy and providing development assistance.

Relations with other countries are generally positive. Shared democratic values ease relations with Western countries and similar economic concerns forge ties to other developing countries. Despite poor working conditions and war affecting overseas Bangladeshi workers, relations with Middle Eastern countries are friendly and bounded by religion and culture. More than a million Bangladeshis are employed in the region. In 2016, the king of Saudi Arabia called Bangladesh "one of the most important Muslim countries".[247] However, Bangladesh has not established diplomatic relationship with Israel[248] in support of a sovereign Palestinian state and "an end to Israel's illegal occupation of Palestine".[249]

Bangladeshi aid agencies work in many developing countries. An example is BRAC in Afghanistan, which benefits 12 million people in that country.[250] Bangladesh has a record of nuclear nonproliferation as a party to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT),[251] and is also a member of Non-Aligned Movement since 1973. It is a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Bangladeshi foreign policy is influenced by the principle of "friendship to all and malice to none", first articulated by Bengali statesman H. S. Suhrawardy in 1957.[242][252] Suhrawardy led East and West Pakistan to join the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, CENTO and the Regional Cooperation for Development.

Civil society

Since the colonial period, Bangladesh has had a prominent civil society. There are various special interest groups, including non-governmental organisations, human rights organisations, professional associations, chambers of commerce, employers' associations and trade unions.[253] The National Human Rights Commission of Bangladesh was set up in 2007. Notable human rights organisations and initiatives include the Centre for Law and Mediation, Odhikar, the Alliance for Bangladesh Worker Safety, the Bangladesh Environmental Lawyers Association, the Bangladesh Hindu Buddhist Christian Unity Council and the War Crimes Fact Finding Committee. The world's largest international NGO BRAC is based in Bangladesh. There have been concerns regarding the shrinking space for independence civil society in recent years,[254][255] with commentators labelling the civil society movement dead under the authoritarianism of the Awami League.[256]

Human rights

File:R.A.B.jpg
The Rapid Action Battalion has been sanctioned by the United States for human rights abuses

Torture is banned by Article 35 (5) of the Constitution of Bangladesh.[257] Despite this constitutional ban, torture is rampantly used by Bangladesh's security forces. Bangladesh joined the Convention against Torture in 1998; but it enacted its first anti-torture law, the Torture and Custodial Death (Prevention) Act, in 2013. The first conviction under this law was announced in 2020.[258] Amnesty International Prisoners of Conscience from Bangladesh have included Saber Hossain Chowdhury and Shahidul Alam.[259][260]

The Digital Security Act of 2018 has greatly reduced freedom of expression in Bangladesh, particularly on the internet. The Digital Security Act has been used to target critics of the government and bureaucracy. Newspaper editorials have been demanding the repeal of the Digital Security Act.[261][262][263][264]

On International Human Rights Day in December 2021, the United States Department of Treasury announced sanctions on commanders of the Rapid Action Battalion for extrajudicial killings, torture and other human rights abuses.[265] According to Freedom House, "Bangladesh's ruling Awami League (AL) has consolidated political power through sustained harassment of the opposition and those perceived to be allied with it, as well as of critical media and voices in civil society. Corruption is a serious problem, and anticorruption efforts have been weakened by politicized enforcement. Due process guarantees are poorly upheld and security forces carry out a range of human right abuses with near impunity. The threat posed by Islamist extremists has receded since 2016, when the government enacted a harsh crackdown that saw the arrest of some 15,000 people".[266] Bangladesh is ranked "partly free" in Freedom House's Freedom in the World report,[267] but its press freedom has deteriorated from "free" to "not free" in recent years due to increasing pressure from the government on the country's diverse, privately owned and once fiercely outspoken media.[268] According to the British Economist Intelligence Unit, the country has a hybrid regime: the third of four rankings in its Democracy Index.[269] Bangladesh was the third-most-peaceful South Asian country in the 2015 Global Peace Index.[270] According to National Human Rights Commission, 70% of alleged human-rights violations are committed by law-enforcement agencies.[271] Homosexuality is outlawed by section 377 of the criminal code (a legacy of the colonial period), and is punishable by a maximum of life imprisonment.[272][273] However, Bangladesh recognises the third gender and accords limited rights for transgender people.[274]

According to the 2016 Global Slavery Index, an estimated 1,531,300 people are enslaved in modern-day Bangladesh, or 0.95% of the population.[275] A number of slaves in Bangladesh are forced to work in the fish and shrimp industries.[276][277][278]

Corruption

Like for many developing countries, institutional corruption is a serious concern for Bangladesh. Bangladesh was ranked 146th among 180 countries on Transparency International's 2018 Corruption Perceptions Index.[279] According to survey conducted by the Bangladesh chapter of TI, in 2015, bribes made up 3.7 percent of the national budget.[280] Land administration was the sector with the most bribery in 2015,[280] followed by education,[281] police[282] and water supply.[283] The Anti Corruption Commission was formed in 2004, and it was active during the 2006–08 Bangladeshi political crisis, indicting many leading politicians, bureaucrats and businessmen for graft.[284][285][286]

Economy

File:Padma Bridge 06.jpg
Construction of Padma Bridge, the longest bridge on the Ganges, by China Major Bridge Engineering Co. Ltd. The bridge was designed by AECOM.
File:Gulshan, Dhaka (26079394923).jpg
Hotels and office blocks in an upmarket neighborhood of Dhaka

Bangladesh has the world's 33rd largest economy in terms of market exchange rates and 29th largest in terms of purchasing power parity, which ranks second in South Asia after India.[287] Bangladesh is also one of the world's fastest-growing economies and one of the fastest growing middle-income countries.[288] The country has a market-based mixed economy. A developing nation, Bangladesh is one of the Next Eleven emerging markets. According to the IMF, its per-capita income was Template:US$ in 2019, with a GDP of $317 billion.[289] Bangladesh has the second-highest foreign-exchange reserves in South Asia (after India). The Bangladeshi diaspora contributed $15.31 billion in remittances in 2015.[290] Bangladesh's largest trading partners are the European Union, the United States, Japan, India, Australia, China and ASEAN. Expat workers in the Middle East and Southeast Asia send back a large chunk of remittances. The economy is driven by strong domestic demand.[288]

During its first five years of independence, Bangladesh adopted socialist policies. The subsequent military regime and BNP and Jatiya Party governments restored free markets and promoted the country's private sector. In 1991, finance minister Saifur Rahman introduced a programme of economic liberalisation. The Bangladeshi private sector has rapidly expanded, with a number of conglomerates driving the economy. Major industries include textiles, pharmaceuticals, shipbuilding, steel, electronics, energy, construction materials, chemicals, ceramics, food processing, and leather goods. Export-oriented industrialisation has increased with fiscal year 2018–19 exports increasing by 10.1% over the previous year to $40 billion.[291] Most export earnings are from the garment-manufacturing industry.

However, an insufficient power supply is a significant obstacle to Bangladesh's economic development. According to the World Bank, poor governance, corruption and weak public institutions are also major challenges.[292] In April 2010, Standard & Poor's gave Bangladesh a BB- long-term credit rating, below India's but above those of Pakistan and Sri Lanka.[293]

Bangladesh is the seventh-largest natural gas producer in Asia, ahead of neighbouring Myanmar, and 56 percent of the country's electricity is generated by natural gas. Major gas fields are located in the northeastern (particularly Sylhet) and southern (including Barisal and Chittagong) regions. Petrobangla is the national energy company. The American multinational corporation Chevron produces 50 percent of Bangladesh's natural gas.[294] According to geologists, the Bay of Bengal contains large, untapped gas reserves in Bangladesh's exclusive economic zone.[295] Bangladesh has substantial coal reserves, with several coal mines operating in the northwest. Jute exports remain significant, although the global jute trade has shrunk considerably since its World War II peak. Bangladesh has one of the world's oldest tea industries and is a major exporter of fish and seafood.

Bangladesh's textile and ready-made garment industries are the country's largest manufacturing sector, with 2017 exports of $34.1 billion.[291] Leather-goods manufacturing, particularly footwear, is the second-largest export sector. The pharmaceutical industry meets 97 percent of domestic demand, and exports to many countries.[296][297] Shipbuilding has grown rapidly, with exports to Europe.[298]

Steel is concentrated in the port city of Chittagong, and the ceramics industry is prominent in international trade. In 2005 Bangladesh was the world's 20th-largest cement producer, an industry dependent on limestone imports from northeast India. Food processing is a major sector, with local brands such as PRAN increasing their international presence. The electronics industry is growing rapidly with contributions from companies like the Walton Group.[299] Bangladesh's defense industry includes the Bangladesh Ordnance Factories and the Khulna Shipyard.

The service sector accounts for 51 percent of the country's GDP. Bangladesh ranks with Pakistan as South Asia's second-largest banking sector.[300] The Dhaka and Chittagong Stock Exchanges are the country's twin financial markets. Bangladesh's telecommunications industry is one of the world's fastest-growing, with 171.854 million cellphone subscribers in January 2021,[301] and Grameenphone, Robi, Banglalink and TeleTalk respectively are major companies. Tourism is developing, with the beach resort of Cox's Bazar at the centre of the industry. The Sylhet region, home to Bangladesh's tea gardens, also hosts a large number of visitors. The country has three UNESCO World Heritage Sites (the Mosque City, the Buddhist Vihara and the Sundarbans) and five tentative-list sites.[302]

Following the pioneering work of Akhter Hameed Khan on rural development at Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development, several NGOs in Bangladesh including BRAC (the world's largest NGO),[303] and Grameen Bank, focused on rural development and poverty alleviation in the country. Muhammad Yunus successfully pioneered microfinance as a sustainable tool for poverty alleviation and others followed suit. As of 2015, the country had over 35 million microcredit borrowers.[304] In recognition of their tangible contribution to poverty alleviation, Muhammad Yunus and Grameen Bank were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2006.[305]

File:Picture of growing rice.jpg
Paddy fields dominate the country's farmland. Bangladesh is a top global producer of rice (3rd), potatoes (7th), tropical fruits (6th), jute (2nd), and farmed fish (5th).

Agriculture

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Transport

Transport is a major sector of the economy. Aviation has grown rapidly and is dominated by the flag carrier Biman Bangladesh Airlines and other privately owned airlines. Bangladesh has a number of airports including three international and several domestic STOL (short takeoff and landing) airports. The busiest, Shahjalal International Airport connects Dhaka with major destinations.

Bangladesh has a Template:Convert/LoffAnoneDbSon long rail network operated by the state-owned Bangladesh Railway. The total length of the country's road and highway network is nearly 21,000 kilometers (13,000 miles).

With Template:Convert/LoffAnoneDbSoff of navigable waters, Bangladesh has one of the largest inland waterway networks in the world.[306] The southeastern port of Chittagong is its busiest seaport, handling over $60 billion in annual trade (more than 80 percent of the country's export-import commerce).[307] The second-busiest seaport is Mongla. Bangladesh has three seaports and 22 river ports.[308]

Energy and infrastructure

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Bangladesh had an installed electrical capacity of 20,000 megawatts in 2018, reaching 23,548 MW in 2020.[309][310] About 56 percent of the country's commercial energy is generated by natural gas, followed by oil, hydropower and coal. Bangladesh has planned to import hydropower from Bhutan and Nepal.[311] A nuclear power plant is under construction with Russian support in the Ruppur Nuclear Power Plant project which will add 2160 MW when fully operational.[312] The country ranks fifth worldwide in the number of renewable energy green jobs, and solar panels are increasingly used to power urban and off-grid rural areas.[313]

An estimated 98 percent of the country's population had access to improved water sources by 2004[314] (a high percentage for a low-income country), achieved largely through the construction of hand pumps with support from external donors. However, in 1993 it was discovered that much of Bangladesh's groundwater (the source of drinking water for 97 percent of the rural population and a significant share of the urban population) is naturally contaminated with arsenic.

Another challenge is low cost recovery due to low tariffs and poor economic efficiency, especially in urban areas (where water revenue does not cover operating costs). An estimated 56 percent of the population had access to adequate sanitation facilities in 2010.[178] Community-led total sanitation, addressing the problem of open defecation in rural areas, is credited with improving public health since its introduction in 2000.[315]

Science and technology

The Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, founded in 1973, traces its roots to the East Pakistan Regional Laboratories established in Dhaka (1955), Rajshahi (1965) and Chittagong (1967). Bangladesh's space agency, SPARRSO, was founded in 1983 with assistance from the United States.[316] The country's first communications satellite, Bangabandhu-1, was launched from the United States in 2018.[317] The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission operates a TRIGA research reactor at its atomic-energy facility in Savar.[318] In 2015, Bangladesh was ranked the 26th global IT outsourcing destination.[319]

Tourism

Bangladesh's tourist attractions include historical sites and monuments, resorts, beaches, picnic spots, forests and wildlife of various species. Activities for tourists include angling, water skiing, river cruising, hiking, rowing, yachting, and sea bathing.[320][321]

The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) reported in 2019 that the travel and tourism industry in Bangladesh directly generated 1,180,500 jobs in 2018 or 1.9 percent of the country's total employment.[322] According to the same report, Bangladesh experiences around 125,000 international tourist arrivals per year.[322] Domestic spending generated 97.7 percent of direct travel and tourism gross domestic product (GDP) in 2012.[323] Bangladesh's world ranking in 2012 for travel and tourism's direct contribution to GDP, as a percentage of GDP, was 120 out of 140.[323]

Demographics

Template:Historical populations Estimates of the Bangladeshi population vary, but UN data suggests Template:UN Population (162.9 million) in 2017.Template:UN Population The 2011 census estimated 142.3 million,[324] much less than 2007–2010 estimates of Bangladesh's population (150–170 million). Bangladesh is the world's eighth-most-populous nation and the most densely-populated large country in the world, ranking 7th in population density even when small countries and city-states are included.[325]

The country's population-growth rate was among the highest in the world in the 1960s and 1970s, when its population grew from 65 to 110 million. With the promotion of birth control in the 1980s, Bangladesh's growth rate began to slow. Its total fertility rate is now 2.05,[326] lower than India's (2.58) and Pakistan's (3.07). The population is relatively young, with 34 percent aged 15 or younger and five percent 65 or older. Life expectancy at birth was estimated at 72.49 years in 2016.[178] According to the World Bank, as of 2016 14.8% of the country lives below the international poverty line on less than $1.90 per day.[327][328]

Bengalis are 98 percent of the population.[329] Of Bengalis, Muslims are the majority, followed by Hindus, Christians and Buddhists.

The Adivasi population includes the Chakma, Marma, Tanchangya, Tripuri, Kuki, Khiang, Khumi, Murang, Mru, Chak, Lushei, Bawm, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Khasi, Jaintia, Garo, Santal, Munda and Oraon tribes. The Chittagong Hill Tracts region experienced unrest and an insurgency from 1975 to 1997 in an autonomy movement by its indigenous people. Although a peace accord was signed in 1997, the region remains militarised.[330]

Bangladesh is home to a significant Ismaili community.[331] It hosts many Urdu-speaking immigrants, who migrated there after the partition of India. Stranded Pakistanis were given citizenship by the Supreme Court in 2008.[332]

Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh number at around 1 million, making Bangladesh one of the countries with the largest refugee populations in the world.

Urban centres

Dhaka is Bangladesh's capital and largest city and is overseen by two city corporations who manage between them the northern and southern part of the city. There are 12 city corporations which hold mayoral elections: Dhaka South, Dhaka North, Chittagong, Comilla, Khulna, Mymensingh, Sylhet, Rajshahi, Barisal, Rangpur, Gazipur and Narayanganj. Mayors are elected for five-year terms. Altogether there are 506 urban centres in Bangladesh among which 43 cities have a population of more than 100,000.[333] Template:Largest cities of Bangladesh

Language

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The Charyapada scrolls are the oldest surviving text of the Bengali language. The photograph was taken at the Rajshahi College Library
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Chakma alphabets are indigenous to the Chittagong Hill Tracts
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Hakim Habibur Rahman was a poet of Dhakaiya Urdu, a dialect of Urdu spoken by a tiny minority in Bangladesh

The predominant language of Bangladesh is Bengali (also known as Bangla). Bengali is one of the easternmost branches of the Indo-European language family. It is a part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, which developed between the 10th and 13th centuries. Bengali is written using the Bengali script. In ancient Bengal, Sanskrit was the language of written communication, especially by priests. During the Islamic period, Bengali replaced Sanskrit as the vernacular language. The Sultans of Bengal promoted the production of Bengali literature instead of Sanskrit. Bengali also received Persian and Arabic loanwords during the Sultanate of Bengal. Under British rule, Bengali was significantly modernised by Europeans. Modern Standard Bengali emerged as the lingua franca of the region. Hindu scholars employed a heavily Sanskritised version of Bengali during the Bengali Renaissance. Muslim writers such as Kazi Nazrul Islam gave attention to the Persian and Arabic vocabulary of the language.

Today, the Bengali language standard is prescribed by the Bangla Academy in Bangladesh. More than 98 percent of people in Bangladesh speak Bengali as their native language.[334][335] Bengali is described as a dialect continuum where there are various dialects spoken throughout the country. Currently there is a diglossia in which much of the population are able to understand or speak Standard Colloquial Bengali and in their regional dialect, such as Chittagonian or Sylheti, which some linguists consider as separate languages.[336] The Bengali Language Implementation Act, 1987 made it mandatory to use Bengali in all government affairs in Bangladesh.[337] Although laws were historically written in English, they were not translated into Bengali until the act. All subsequent acts, ordinances and laws have been promulgated in Bengali since 1987.[338] English is often used in the verdicts delivered by the Supreme Court of Bangladesh, and is also used in higher education.

The Chakma language is another native Eastern Indo-Aryan language of Bangladesh. It is written using the Chakma script. The unique aspect of the language is that it is used by the Chakma people, who are a population with similarities to the people of East Asia, rather than the Indian subcontinent. The Chakma language is endangered due to its decreasing use in schools and institutions.

Other tribal languages include Garo, Meitei, Kokborok and Rakhine. Among the Austroasiatic languages, the Santali language is spoken by the Santali tribe. Many of these languages are written in the Bengali script, while some usage of the Latin script is also used.

Urdu has a significant heritage in Bangladesh, in particular Old Dhaka. The language was introduced to Bengal in the 17th-century. Traders and migrants from North India often spoke the language in Bengal, as did sections of the Bengali upper class. Urdu poets lived in many parts of Bangladesh. The use of Urdu became controversial during the Bengali Language Movement when the people of East Bengal resisted attempts to impose Urdu as the main official language. In modern Bangladesh, the Urdu-speaking community is restricted to the country's Bihari community (formerly Stranded Pakistanis); and some sections of the Old Dhakaiya population.[339]

Religion

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File:Bangladeshi children with Pohela Boishakh placard at Pohela Boishakh celebration (04).jpg
Bangladeshis celebrating Pahela Baishakh as a mark of the beginning of Bengali new year

The constitution grants freedom of religion and officially makes Bangladesh a secular state, while establishing Islam as the "state religion of the Republic".[340][341][342] Islam is followed by 90 percent of the population.[343] Most Bangladeshis are Bengali Muslims, who form the largest Muslim ethnoreligious group in South Asia and the second largest in the world after the Arabs. There is also a minority of non-Bengali Muslims. The vast majority of Bangladeshi Muslims are Sunni, followed by minorities of Shia and Ahmadiya. About four percent are non-denominational Muslims.[344] Bangladesh has the fourth-largest Muslim population in the world, and is the third-largest Muslim-majority country (after Indonesia and Pakistan).[345] Sufism has an extensive heritage in the region.[346] Liberal Bengali Islam sometimes clashes with orthodox movements. The largest gathering of Muslims in Bangladesh is the apolitical Bishwa Ijtema, held annually by the orthodox Tablighi Jamaat. The Ijtema is the second-largest Muslim congregation in the world, after the Hajj. The Islamic Foundation is an autonomous government agency responsible for some religious matters under state guidance, including monitoring of sighting of the moon in accordance with the lunar Islamic calendar in order to set festival dates; as well as the charitable tradition of zakat. Public holidays include the Islamic observances of Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-al-Adha, the Prophet's Birthday, Ashura and Shab-e-Barat.

Hinduism is followed by 8.5 per cent of the population;[343] most are Bengali Hindus, and some are members of ethnic minority groups. Bangladeshi Hindus are the country's second-largest religious group and the third-largest Hindu community globally, after those in India and Nepal. Hindus in Bangladesh are evenly distributed, with concentrations in Gopalganj, Dinajpur, Sylhet, Sunamganj, Mymensingh, Khulna, Jessore, Chittagong and parts of the Chittagong Hill Tracts. The festivals of Durga's Return and Krishna's Birthday are public holidays.

Buddhism is the third-largest religion, at 0.6 per cent. Bangladeshi Buddhists are concentrated among ethnic groups in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (particularly the Chakma, Marma and Tanchangya peoples). At the same time, coastal Chittagong is home to many Bengali Buddhists. Although Mahayana Buddhism was historically prevalent in the region, Bangladeshi Buddhists today adhere to the Theravada school. Buddha's Birthday is a public holiday. The chief Buddhist priests are based at a monastery in Chittagong.

Christianity is the fourth-largest religion, at 0.4 per cent.[347] Roman Catholicism is the largest denomination among Bangladeshi Christians. Bengali Christians are spread across the country. At the same time, there are many Christians among minority ethnic groups in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (southeastern Bangladesh) and within the Garo tribe of Mymensingh (north-central Bangladesh). The country also has Protestant, Baptist, and Oriental Orthodox churches. Christmas is a public holiday.

The Constitution of Bangladesh declares Islam the state religion but bans religion-based politics. It proclaims equal recognition of Hindus, Buddhists, Christians and people of all faiths.[348] In 1972, Bangladesh was South Asia's first constitutionally-secular country.[349] Article 12 of the constitution continues to call for secularism, the elimination of interfaith tensions and prohibits the abuse of religion for political purposes and any discrimination against, or persecution of, persons practising a particular religion.[350] Article 41 of the constitution subjects religious freedom to public order, law and morality; it gives every citizen the right to profess, practise or propagate any religion; every religious community or denomination the right to establish, maintain and manage its religious institutions; and states that no person attending any educational institution shall be required to receive religious instruction, or to take part in or to attend any religious ceremony or worship if that instruction, ceremony or worship relates to a religion other than his own.[351]

Education

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Literacy rates in Bangladesh districts

Bangladesh has a heavily flawed education system;[352][353] with a low literacy rate of 74.7% percent as of 2019: 77.4% for males and 71.9% for females.[354][355] The country's educational system is three-tiered and heavily subsidised, with the government operating many schools at the primary, secondary and higher secondary levels and subsidising many private schools. In the tertiary education sector, the Bangladeshi government funds over 45 state universities[356] through the University Grants Commission. Despite, the government does not grant free education, and education is not declared a fundamental right in the constitution.[357]

The education system is divided into five levels: primary (first to fifth grade), junior secondary (sixth to eighth grade), secondary (ninth and tenth grade), higher secondary (11th and 12th grade), and tertiary.[358] Five years of secondary education (including junior secondary) ends with a Secondary School Certificate (SSC) examination. Since 2009, the Primary Education Closing (PEC) examination has also been introduced. Students who pass the PEC examination proceed to secondary or matriculation training, culminating in the SSC examination.[358]

Students who pass the PEC examination proceed to three years of junior secondary education, culminating in the Junior School Certificate (JSC) examination. Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of secondary education, culminating in the SSC examination. Students who pass this examination proceed to two years of higher secondary education, culminating in the Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSC) examination.[358]

Universities in Bangladesh are of three general types: public (government-owned and subsidised), private (privately owned universities) and international (operated and funded by international organisations). They are accredited by and affiliated with the University Grants Commission (UGC), created by Presidential Order 10 in 1973.[359] The country has 47 public,[356] 105 private[360] and two international universities; Bangladesh National University has the largest enrollment, and the University of Dhaka (established in 1921) is the oldest. University of Chittagong (established in 1966) is the largest University (Campus: Rural, 2,100 acres (8.5 km2)).[citation needed]

Medical education is provided by 29 government and private medical colleges. All medical colleges are affiliated with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.

Health

Healthcare facilities in Bangladesh are considered less than adequate, although they have improved as poverty levels have decreased significantly. Findings from a recent study in Chakaria (a rural upazila under Cox's Bazar District) revealed that the "village doctors", practicing allopathic medicine without formal training, were reported to have provided 65% of the healthcare sought for illness episodes occurring within 14 days prior to the survey. Formally-trained providers made up only four percent of the total health workforce. The Future Health Systems survey indicated significant deficiencies in the treatment practices of village doctors, with widespread harmful and inappropriate drug prescribing.[361] Receiving health care from informal providers is encouraged.[362]

A 2007 study of 1,000 households in rural Bangladesh found that direct payments to formal and informal healthcare providers and indirect costs (loss of earnings because of illness) associated with illness were deterrents to accessing healthcare from qualified providers.[361] A community survey of 6,183 individuals in rural Bangladesh found a gender difference in treatment-seeking behaviour, with women less likely to seek treatment than to men.[363] The use of skilled birth attendant (SBA) services, however, rose from 2005 to 2007 among women from all socioeconomic quintiles except the highest.[364] A health watch, a pilot community-empowerment tool, was successfully developed and implemented in south-eastern Bangladesh to improve the uptake and monitoring of public-health services.[365]

Bangladesh's poor health conditions are attributed to the lack of healthcare provision by the government. According to a 2010 World Bank report, 2009 healthcare spending was 3.35 percent of the country's GDP.[366] Government spending on healthcare that year was 7.9 percent of the total budget; out-of-pocket expenditures totalled 96.5 percent.[366] According to the government sources, the number of hospital beds is 8 per 10,000 population (as of 2015).[367]

Malnutrition has been a persistent problem in Bangladesh, with the World Bank ranking the country first in the number of malnourished children worldwide.[368][369] More than 54% of preschool-age children are stunted, 56% are underweight and more than 17% are wasted.[370] More than 45 percent of rural families and 76 percent of urban families were below the acceptable caloric-intake level.[371]

Culture

Visual arts

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A preserved cloth of historic Bengali fine muslin, which is now extinct

The recorded history of art in Bangladesh can be traced to the 3rd century BCE, when terracotta sculptures were made in the region. In classical antiquity, a notable sculptural Hindu, Jain and Buddhist art developed in the Pala Empire and the Sena dynasty. Islamic art has evolved since the 14th century. The architecture of the Bengal Sultanate saw a distinct style of domed mosques with complex niche pillars that had no minarets. Mughal Bengal's most celebrated artistic tradition was the weaving of Jamdani motifs on fine muslin, which is now classified by UNESCO as an intangible cultural heritage. Jamdani motifs were similar to Iranian textile art (buta motifs) and Western textile art (paisley). The Jamdani weavers in Dhaka received imperial patronage.[85][372] Ivory and brass were also widely used in Mughal art. Pottery is widely used in Bengali culture.

The modern art movement in Bangladesh took shape during the 1950s, particularly with the pioneering works of Zainul Abedin. East Bengal developed its own modernist painting and sculpture traditions, which were distinct from the art movements in West Bengal. The Art Institute Dhaka has been an important centre for visual art in the region. Its annual Bengali New Year parade was enlisted as an intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in 2016.

Modern Bangladesh has produced many of South Asia's leading painters, including SM Sultan, Mohammad Kibria, Shahabuddin Ahmed, Kanak Chanpa Chakma, Kafil Ahmed, Saifuddin Ahmed, Qayyum Chowdhury, Rashid Choudhury, Quamrul Hassan, Rafiqun Nabi and Syed Jahangir, among others. Novera Ahmed and Nitun Kundu were the country's pioneers of modernist sculpture.

In recent times, photography as a medium of art has become popular. Biennial Chobi Mela is considered the largest photography festival in Asia.[373]

Literature

The oldest evidence of writing in Bangladesh is the Mahasthan Brahmi Inscription, which dates back to the 3rd century BCE.[374] In the Gupta Empire, Sanskrit literature thrived in the region. Bengali developed from Sanskrit and Magadhi Prakrit in the 8th to 10th century. Bengali literature is a millennium-old tradition; the Charyapadas are the earliest examples of Bengali poetry. Sufi spiritualism inspired many Bengali Muslim writers. During the Bengal Sultanate, medieval Bengali writers were influenced by Arabic and Persian works. The Chandidas are the notable lyric poets from the early Medieval Age. Syed Alaol was the bard of middle Bengali literature. The Bengal Renaissance shaped modern Bengali literature, including novels, short stories and science fiction. Rabindranath Tagore was the first non-European laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature and is described as the Bengali Shakespeare.[375] Kazi Nazrul Islam was a revolutionary poet who espoused political rebellion against colonialism and fascism. Begum Rokeya is regarded as the pioneer feminist writer of Bangladesh.[376] Other renaissance icons included Michael Madhusudan Dutt and Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay. The writer Syed Mujtaba Ali is noted for his cosmopolitan Bengali worldview.[377] Jasimuddin was a renowned pastoral poet. Shamsur Rahman and Al Mahmud are considered two of the greatest Bengali poets to have emerged in the 20th century. Farrukh Ahmad, Sufia Kamal, Syed Ali Ahsan, Ahsan Habib, Abul Hussain, Shahid Qadri, Fazal Shahabuddin, Abu Zafar Obaidullah, Omar Ali, Al Mujahidi, Syed Shamsul Huq, Nirmalendu Goon, Abid Azad, Hasan Hafizur Rahman and Abdul Hye Sikder are important figures of modern Bangladeshi poetry. Ahmed Sofa is regarded as the most important Bangladeshi intellectual in the post-independence era. Humayun Ahmed was a popular writer of modern Bangladeshi magical realism and science fiction. Notable writers of Bangladeshi fictions include Mir Mosharraf Hossain, Akhteruzzaman Elias, Alauddin Al Azad, Shahidul Zahir, Rashid Karim, Mahmudul Haque, Syed Waliullah, Shahidullah Kaiser, Shawkat Osman, Selina Hossain, Shahed Ali, Razia Khan, Anisul Hoque, and Abdul Mannan Syed.

The annual Ekushey Book Fair and Dhaka Literature Festival, organised by the Bangla Academy, are among the largest literary festivals in South Asia.

Women in Bangladesh

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Muslim feminist Begum Rokeya and her husband in 1898

Although as of 2015, several women occupied major political office in Bangladesh. Its women continue to live under a patriarchal social regime where violence is common.[378] Whereas in India and Pakistan women participate less in the workforce as their education increases, the reverse is the case in Bangladesh.[378]

Bengal has a long history of feminist activism dating back to the 19th century. Begum Rokeya and Faizunnessa Chowdhurani played an important role in emancipating Bengali Muslim women from purdah, before the country's division, as well as promoting girls' education. Several women were elected to the Bengal Legislative Assembly in the British Raj. The first women's magazine, Begum, was published in 1948.

In 2008, Bangladeshi female workforce participation stood at 26%.[379] Women dominate blue collar jobs in the Bangladeshi garment industry. Agriculture, social services, healthcare and education are also major occupations for Bangladeshi women, while their employment in white collar positions has steadily increased.

Architecture

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A modernist 21st century Bangladeshi mosque in the shape of a skyscraper

The architectural traditions of Bangladesh have a 2,500-year-old heritage.[380] Terracotta architecture is a distinct feature of Bengal. Pre-Islamic Bengali architecture reached its pinnacle in the Pala Empire, when the Pala School of Sculptural Art established grand structures such as the Somapura Mahavihara. Islamic architecture began developing under the Bengal Sultanate, when local terracotta styles influenced medieval mosque construction.

The Sixty Dome Mosque was the largest medieval mosque built in Bangladesh and is a fine example of Turkic-Bengali architecture. The Mughal style replaced indigenous architecture when Bengal became a province of the Mughal Empire and influenced urban housing development. The Kantajew Temple and Dhakeshwari Temple are excellent examples of late medieval Hindu temple architecture. Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture, based on Indo-Islamic styles, flourished during the British period. The zamindar gentry in Bangladesh built numerous Indo-Saracenic palaces and country mansions, such as the Ahsan Manzil, Tajhat Palace, Dighapatia Palace, Puthia Rajbari and Natore Rajbari.

Bengali vernacular architecture is noted for pioneering the bungalow. Bangladeshi villages consist of thatched roofed houses made of natural materials like mud, straw, wood and bamboo. In modern times, village bungalows are increasingly made of tin.

Muzharul Islam was the pioneer of Bangladeshi modern architecture. His varied works set the course of modern architectural practice in the country. Islam brought leading global architects, including Louis Kahn, Richard Neutra, Stanley Tigerman, Paul Rudolph, Robert Boughey and Konstantinos Doxiadis, to work in erstwhile East Pakistan. Louis Kahn was chosen to design the National Parliament Complex in Sher-e-Bangla Nagar. Kahn's monumental designs, combining regional red brick aesthetics, his own concrete and marble brutalism and the use of lakes to represent Bengali geography, are regarded as one of the masterpieces of the 20th century. In more recent times, award-winning architects like Rafiq Azam have set the course of contemporary architecture by adopting influences from the works of Islam and Kahn.

Performing arts

Theatre in Bangladesh includes various forms with a history dating back to the 4th century CE.[381] It includes narrative forms, song and dance forms, supra-personae forms, performances with scroll paintings, puppet theatre and processional forms.[381] The Jatra is the most popular form of Bengali folk theatre. The dance traditions of Bangladesh include indigenous tribal and Bengali dance forms, as well as classical Indian dances, including the Kathak, Odissi and Manipuri dances.

The music of Bangladesh features the Baul mystical tradition, listed by UNESCO as a Masterpiece of Intangible Cultural Heritage.[382] Fakir Lalon Shah popularised Baul music in the country in the 18th century and it has since been one of the most popular music genera in the country since then. Most modern Bauls are devoted to Lalon Shah.[383] Numerous lyric-based musical traditions, varying from one region to the next, exist, including Gombhira, Bhatiali and Bhawaiya. Folk music is accompanied by a one-stringed instrument known as the ektara. Other instruments include the dotara, dhol, flute, and tabla. Bengali classical music includes Tagore songs and Nazrul Sangeet. Bangladesh has a rich tradition of Indian classical music, which uses instruments like the sitar, tabla, sarod and santoor.[384] Sabina Yasmin and Runa Laila are considered the leading playback singers in the modern time, while musician Ayub Bachchu is credited with popularising Bengali rock music in Bangladesh.[385]

Textiles

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Embroidery on Nakshi kantha (embroidered quilt), centuries-old Bengali art tradition

The Nakshi Kantha is a centuries-old embroidery tradition for quilts, said to be indigenous to eastern Bengal (i.e. Bangladesh). The sari is the national dress for Bangladeshi women. Mughal Dhaka was renowned for producing the finest Muslin saris, as well as the famed Dhakai and Jamdani, the weaving of which is listed by UNESCO as one of the masterpieces of humanity's intangible cultural heritage.[386] Bangladesh also produces the Rajshahi silk. The shalwar kameez is also widely worn by Bangladeshi women. In urban areas, some women can be seen in western clothing. The kurta and sherwani are the national dress of Bangladeshi men; the lungi and dhoti are worn by them in informal settings. Aside from ethnic wear, domestically tailored suits and neckties are customarily worn by the country's men in offices, in schools and at social events.

The handloom industry supplies 60–65% of the country's clothing demand.[387] The Bengali ethnic fashion industry has flourished in the changing environment of the fashion world. The retailer Aarong is one of South Asia's most successful ethnic wear brands. The development of the Bangladesh textile industry, which supplies leading international brands, has promoted the local production and retail of modern Western attire. The country now has a number of expanding local brands like Westecs and Yellow. Bangladesh is the world's second-largest garments exporter. Among Bangladesh's fashion designers, Bibi Russell has received international acclaim for her "Fashion for Development" shows.[388]

Cuisine

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Traditional Bangladeshi Meal: Mustard seed Ilish Curry, Dhakai Biryani and Pitha

White rice is the staple of Bangladeshi cuisine, along with many vegetables and lentils. Rice preparations also include Bengali biryanis, pulaos, and khichuris. Mustard sauce, ghee, sunflower oil and fruit chutneys are widely used in Bangladeshi cooking. Fish is the main source of protein in Bengali cuisine. The Hilsa is the national fish and immensely popular across Bangladesh. Other kinds of fish eaten include rohu, butterfish, catfish, tilapia and barramundi. Fish eggs are a gourmet delicacy. Seafood holds an important place in Bengali cuisine, especially lobsters, shrimps and dried fish. Meat consumption includes chicken, beef, mutton, venison, duck and squab. In Chittagong, Mezban feasts are a popular tradition featuring the serving of hot beef curry. In Sylhet, the shatkora lemons are used to marinate dishes. In the tribal Hill Tracts, bamboo shoot cooking is prevalent. Bangladesh has a vast spread of desserts, including distinctive sweets like Rôshogolla, Rôshomalai, Chomchom, Mishti Doi and Kalojaam. Pithas are traditional boiled desserts made with rice or fruits. Halwa is served during religious festivities. Naan, paratha, luchi and bakarkhani are the main local breads. Milk tea is offered to guests as a gesture of welcome and is the most common hot beverage in the country. Kebabs are widely popular across Bangladesh, particularly seekh kebabs, chicken tikka and shashliks.

Bangladesh shares its culinary heritage with the neighbouring Indian state of West Bengal. The two regions have several differences, however. In Muslim-majority Bangladesh, meat consumption is greater, whereas vegetarianism is more prevalent in Hindu-majority West Bengal. The Bangladeshi diaspora dominates the South Asian restaurant industry in many Western countries, particularly in the United Kingdom.

Festivals

Pahela Baishakh, the Bengali new year, is the major festival of Bengali culture and sees widespread festivities. Of the major holidays celebrated in Bangladesh, only Pahela Baishakh comes without any pre-existing expectations (specific religious identity, culture of gift-giving, etc.) and has become an occasion for celebrating the simpler, rural roots of the Bengal. Other cultural festivals include Nabonno and Poush Parbon, Bengali harvest festivals.

The Muslim festivals of Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, Milad un Nabi, Muharram, Chand Raat, Shab-e-Barat; the Hindu festivals of Durga Puja, Janmashtami and Rath Yatra; the Buddhist festival of Buddha Purnima, which marks the birth of Gautama Buddha, and the Christian festival of Christmas are national holidays in Bangladesh and see the most widespread celebrations in the country. The two Eids are celebrated with a long streak of public holidays and give the city-dwellers opportunity to celebrate the festivals with their families outside the city.

Alongside are national days like the remembrance of 21 February 1952 Language Movement Day (declared as International Mother Language Day by UNESCO in 1999),[389] Independence Day and Victory Day. On Language Movement Day, people congregate at the Shaheed Minar in Dhaka to remember the national heroes of the Bengali Language Movement. Similar gatherings are observed at the National Martyrs’ Memorial on Independence Day and Victory Day to remember the national heroes of the Bangladesh Liberation War. These occasions are celebrated with public ceremonies, parades, rallies by citizens, political speeches, fairs, concerts, and various other public and private events, celebrating the history and traditions of Bangladesh. TV and radio stations broadcast special programs and patriotic songs. Many schools and colleges organise fairs, festivals, and concerts that draw the participation of citizens from all levels of Bangladeshi society.[390]

Sports

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Bangladesh team on practice session at Sher-e-Bangla National Cricket Stadium

In rural Bangladesh, several traditional indigenous sports such as Kabaddi, Boli Khela, Lathi Khela and Nouka Baich remain fairly popular. While Kabaddi is the national sport[391] cricket is the most popular sport in the country followed by football. The national cricket team participated in their first Cricket World Cup in 1999 and the following year was granted Test cricket status. Bangladesh reached the quarter-final of the 2015 Cricket World Cup, the semi-final of the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy and they reached the final of the Asia Cup 3 times – in 2012, 2016 and 2018. In February 2020, the Bangladesh youth national cricket team won the men's Under-19 Cricket World Cup, held in South Africa. This was Bangladesh's first World Cup victory.[392][393]

Women's sports saw significant progress in the 2010s decade in Bangladesh. In 2018, the Bangladesh women's national cricket team won the 2018 Women's Twenty20 Asia Cup defeating India women's national cricket team in the final.[394] Bangladesh women's national football team has also registered some success at regional level, especially the Under-15 and Under-18 teams.

Football is a popular sport in Bangladesh, alongside cricket,[395] and is governed by the Bangladesh Football Federation (BFF). Football tournaments are regularly organised in and outside Dhaka and football fever grips the nation during every FIFA World Cup. On 4 November 2018, Bangladesh national under-15 football team won the 2018 SAFF U-15 Championship, defeating Pakistan national under-15 football team in the final.[396] Bangladesh archers Ety Khatun and Roman Sana won several gold medals winning all the 10 archery events (both individual, and team events) in the 2019 South Asian Games.[397]

The National Sports Council regulates 42 sporting federations.[398] Athletics, swimming, archery, boxing, volleyball, weight-lifting and wrestling and different forms of martial arts remain popular. Chess is very popular in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has five grandmasters in chess. Among them, Niaz Murshed was the first grandmaster in South Asia.[399] In 2010, mountain climber Musa Ibrahim became the first Bangladeshi climber to conquer Mount Everest.[400] He climbed the top of the summit of Mount Everest.[401] Wasfia Nazreen is the first Bangladeshi climber to climb the Seven Summits, which are the highest mountains of each of the seven continents of the world.[402]

Bangladesh hosts a number of international tournaments. Bangabandhu Cup is an international football tournament hosted in the country. Bangladesh hosted the South Asian Games several times. In 2011, Bangladesh co-hosted the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011 with India and Sri Lanka. Bangladesh solely hosted the 2014 ICC World Twenty20 championship. Bangladesh hosted the Asia Cup Cricket Tournament in 2000, 2012, 2014 and 2016.

Media and cinema

The Bangladeshi press is diverse, outspoken and privately owned. Over 200 newspapers are published in the country. Bangladesh Betar is the state-run radio service.[403] The British Broadcasting Corporation operates the popular BBC Bangla news and current affairs service. Bengali broadcasts from Voice of America are also very popular. Bangladesh Television (BTV) is a state-owned television network. More than 20 privately owned television networks, including several news channels. Freedom of the media remains a major concern due to government attempts at censorship and the harassment of journalists.

The cinema of Bangladesh dates back to 1898 when films began screening at the Crown Theatre in Dhaka. The first bioscope on the subcontinent was established in Dhaka that year. The Dhaka Nawab Family patronised the production of several silent films in the 1920s and 30s. In 1931, the East Bengal Cinematograph Society released the first full-length feature film in Bangladesh, titled the Last Kiss. The first feature film in East Pakistan, Mukh O Mukhosh, was released in 1956. During the 1960s, 25–30 films were produced annually in Dhaka. By the 2000s, Bangladesh produced 80–100 films a year. While the Bangladeshi film industry has achieved limited commercial success, the country has produced notable independent filmmakers. Zahir Raihan was a prominent documentary-maker assassinated in 1971. The late Tareque Masud is regarded as one of Bangladesh's outstanding directors for his critically acclaimed films on social issues.[404][405] Masud was honoured by FIPRESCI at the 2002 Cannes Film Festival for his film The Clay Bird. Tanvir Mokammel, Mostofa Sarwar Farooki, Humayun Ahmed, Alamgir Kabir, and Chashi Nazrul Islam are some of the prominent directors of Bangladeshi cinema. Bangladesh has a very active film society culture. It started in 1963 in Dhaka. Now around 40 Film Societies are active all over Bangladesh. Federation of Film Societies of Bangladesh is the parent organisation of the film society movement of Bangladesh. Active film societies include the Rainbow Film Society, Children's Film Society, Moviyana Film Society and Dhaka University Film Society.

Museums and libraries

The Varendra Research Museum is the oldest museum in Bangladesh. It houses important collections from both the pre-Islamic and Islamic periods, including the sculptures of the Pala-Sena School of Art and the Indus Valley Civilisation and Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian manuscripts and inscriptions. The Ahsan Manzil, the former residence of the Nawab of Dhaka, is a national museum housing collections from the British Raj. It was the site of the founding conference of the All India Muslim League and hosted many British Viceroys in Dhaka.

The Tajhat Palace Museum preserves artefacts of the rich cultural heritage of North Bengal, including Hindu-Buddhist sculptures and Islamic manuscripts. The Mymensingh Museum houses the personal antique collections of Bengali aristocrats in central Bengal. The Ethnological Museum of Chittagong showcases the lifestyle of various tribes in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh National Museum is located in Ramna, Dhaka and has a rich collection of antiquities. The Liberation War Museum documents the Bangladeshi struggle for independence and the 1971 genocide.

In ancient times, manuscripts were written on palm leaves, tree barks, parchment vellum and terracotta plates and preserved at monasteries known as viharas. The Hussain Shahi dynasty established royal libraries during the Bengal Sultanate. Libraries were established in each district of Bengal by the zamindar gentry during the Bengal Renaissance in the 19th century. The trend of establishing libraries continued until the beginning of World War II. In 1854, four major public libraries were opened, including the Bogra Woodburn Library, the Rangpur Public Library, the Jessore Institute Public Library and the Barisal Public Library.

The Northbrook Hall Public Library was established in Dhaka in 1882 in honour of Lord Northbrook, the Governor-General. Other libraries established in the British period included the Victoria Public Library, Natore (1901), the Sirajganj Public Library (1882), the Rajshahi Public Library (1884), the Comilla Birchandra Library (1885), the Shah Makhdum Institute Public Library, Rajshahi (1891), the Noakhali Town Hall Public Library (1896), the Prize Memorial Library, Sylhet (1897), the Chittagong Municipality Public Library (1904) and the Varendra Research Library (1910). The Great Bengal Library Association was formed in 1925.[406] The Central Public Library of Dhaka was established in 1959. The National Library of Bangladesh was established in 1972. The World Literature Centre, founded by Ramon Magsaysay Award winner Abdullah Abu Sayeed, is noted for operating numerous mobile libraries across Bangladesh and was awarded the UNESCO Jon, Amos Comenius Medal.

See also

References

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